The International Journal of Applied Economics and Finance

The International Journal of Applied Economics and Finance is a peer-reviewed scientific journal dedicated to publish cutting edge research work on all aspects of applied economics and finance. Scope of the journal includes: Financial markets, exchange rates, balance of payments, financial institutions, risk analysis, international banking and portfolio management, financial market regulation, the financial aspects of transition economies, financial reporting, financial instruments and international financial policy co-ordination.

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Editor-in-Chief

Gazi Mahabubul Alam

Professor Gazi Mahabubul Alam, PhD, FRSA is an internationally recognized Public Policy Analyst with an especial focus to Higher Education and Skills Development. Countries of his work experience include Malaysia, Bangladesh, UK, Canada and the USA. He works for both institute of Higher Education and Partner for Development. He is currently imparting the role of President of Centre For Asian Climate and Environmental Policy Studies, (CACEPS), Waterloo University, University Avenue West, Windsor, Canada. Moreover, he is a Professor of Education Policy and Economics at the UPM, Selangor. Professor Alam also served as a Professor of Public Policy and Chief Consultant at the Academic Performance Enhancement Unit, University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Prior to join with the UM, he worked as a policy specialist (skills) at the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Professor Alam also served as the President and Vice-president of Asian Council of Science Editors (ACSE). Upon completion of the tenure, he currently holds the post of Chief Advisor to the Board of Governors of the ACSE. His adjunct role in Bangladesh includes a number of institutions of higher education such East West University, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh Open University and Dhaka University. He is one of the main contributors of National Skills development Policy- Bangladesh. Alam acquired a Master degree with a particular focus in International Education and Development from the University of Sussex, UK and a PhD from the University of Nottingham, UK. He received a distinguished fellowship (FRSA) from the Royal Society of Arts, UK. He has published a number of papers and they received a notable amount of citation. His recent contributions are included in some high ranked journals such as Comparative Education Review (CER)-University of Chicago, Technological Forecasting and Social Change-Elsevier, Higher Education-Springer, International Journal of Educational Reforms-Sage, Business Process Management Journal-Emerald.

Associate Editors

Ogunniyi Laudia Titilola

Professor, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria

Technical Editors

Afsin Sahin

Professor, Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University, Turkey

Anouar Ben Mabrouk

Assistant Professor, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

Ram Krishna Mandal

Principal, Jamini Mazumder Memorial College, Patiram-733 133

Godwin Imo Ibe

Lecturer 1, University of Nigeria, Nigeria

Ghazi A Alrgaibat

Professor, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan