Background and Objective: The majority of studies worldwide, including in Saudi Arabia, have investigated low bone mineral density (BMD) and its associated risk factors in postmenopausal women. The objectives of the current study were as follows: (1) To assess the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Saudi men aged 50 years and older and (2) To investigate the factors associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,022 Saudi men aged 50 years and older. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Anthropometric parameters and biomarkers were measured. Bone densitometry was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to measure BMD levels. Results: The prevalence of osteopenia was 40.7% and the prevalence of osteoporosis was 9.3%. Based on the multi variable multinomial regression model, the factors that were significantly associated with osteopenia included low educational level and low body mass index (BMI), while the factors that were significantly associated with osteoporosis included old age, low BMI, smoking and a family history of fragility fractures. Conclusion: Low bone mass is prevalent among Saudi men and is associated with age, education, BMI, smoking and a family history of fragility fractures. Increasing the awareness of osteopenia, osteoporosis and their associated risk factors through education and community programmes will be essential in preventing the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in the elderly population.
Jamila Mohammed Ali Farsi, Leena Adnan Merdad, Abdullah Mohammedabid Bokhary, Mohammad Salem Al-Zahrani and Maimoona Mushtaq Masoom, 2018. Osteoporosis, Osteopenia and Their Associated Risk Factors among Saudi Males. International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders, 11: 14-22.