Background and Objective: Ruta graveolens and Rosmarinus officinalis are commonly used plants in traditional medicine to treat different ailments in Jordan. The therapeutic effects of these plants are due to the phytochemicals therein. This study was conducted to investigate the phytochemical contents of these two plants as well as their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Aerial parts of Ruta graveolens and Rosmarinus officinalis plants were collected from the Irbid Region in Northern Jordan. Phytochemical contents of ethanolic and methanolic crude extracts were analyzed using standard methods. Antibacterial activity against ten bacterial species was determined using well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The antioxidant activity of methanolic plant extracts was assessed using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Results: Phytochemical screening showed that Ruta graveolens and Rosmarinus officinalis extracts had flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, saponins and sterols. Alkaloids were only detected in Ruta graveolens extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens and Rosmarinus officinalis displayed high inhibitory activity against all Gram-positive bacteria. Rosmarinus officinalis extracts had inhibitory activity against most Gram-negative bacteria while Ruta graveolens extracts had an inhibitory effect against some Gram-negative bacteria only at 500 mg mL1. The Rosmarinus officinalis and Ruta graveolens methanolic extracts had a DPPH radical scavenging activity at all concentrations. Conclusion: Ruta graveolens and Rosmarinus officinalis can be used as potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents making them a promising source of new drugs.
Taghleb Al-Deeb, Mohammad Jahmani, Sabah Khaleel, Rana Almuhur, Mohammad Jawarneh and Sajeda Al-Barri, 2023. Comparative Evaluation of Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Ruta graveolens L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 22: 558-566.