Background and Objective: Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Research and development of drugs derived from herbs have always been focused on today. This study aimed to screen and evaluate the effects of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila L. leaves on live cancer cells HepG2. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of the extract on the proliferation of HepG2 cells was evaluated using an MTT assay. Three dimensions culture model was used to reveal the effect of the extract on the tumorsphere formation ability of HepG2 cells. The apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Realtime PCR was used for mRNA expression analysis. All data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The Ficus pumila L. extract (FPE) has a strong inhibitory activity against liver cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 66.42 μg mL1. The FPE declined the number and size of tumorspheres compared (p<0.05) and the apoptosis rate increased by 13.2±2.7 and 35.8±5.0% compared to 4.6±1.6% in control (p<0.05). The cell cycle of the FPE-treated cells was arrested at the G2/M phase. The FPE upregulated the expression of several genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including p53, p21 and GADD45A and downregulated the expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 genes compared to the control (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that Ficus pumila L. has potential against liver cancer cells.
Thi Huong Le, Mai Nguyen, Van Nguyen, Van Hoang and Phu Nguyen, 2023. Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. Inhibits Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis and Arrests the Cell Cycle in HepG2 Live Cancer Cells. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 22: 423-433.