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Trends in Agricultural Economics
eISSN: 2077-2246
pISSN: 1994-7933

Editor-in-Chief:  Rabiul Islam
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Research Article
Co-integration and Causality Analysis in Major Natural Rubber Markets of Nigeria
Agbonkpolor Nosa Betty, Alufohai Grace Oghenerobor, Mesike Chinye Samuel and Adindu Ashetu Grace
Background and Objective: In recent times, natural rubber prices have been on the increase but production is still on the decrease in Nigeria. Could it be that producers/marketers not taking the advantage of price transmissions between markets to improve their profit margin? This study aimed to determine the long-run and short-run rubber market price integrations and transmission between local markets in Edo, Delta and Akwa-Ibom states in South-South Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three major state markets were purposively selected from South-South Nigeria namely-Edo, Delta and Akwa-Ibom States. Data for the study were collected from Average monthly retail price data (N/kg) of natural rubber, covering the period January, 2005 to December, 2015 (11 years). Data collected was analyzed using Johansen co-integration test and Granger causality by VECM. Results: Results indicated that price series were not stationary in their level form. The Delta state price appeared to respond faster to changes than the Edo and Akwa-Ibom price. The study also showed the existence of co-integration among the studied markets. Granger causality showed unidirectional causality between Akwa-Ibom and Delta states, bidirectional for the other two market pairs. Conclusion: The granger causality shows the direction of price formation between two markets and related spatial arbitrage, there were bidirectional and unidirectional causalities between the market pairs, thus, changes in the price of rubber in one market would cause the price of rubber in another state to adjust immediately and the estimated speed of adjustment is about 32.55%. The significant coefficient of the error correction term showed immediate adjustment to changes in the long-run equilibrium.
Research Article
Survey and Analysis of Onion Marketing in Toke Kutaye District, West Shewa Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia
Bultossa Terefe
Background and Objective: The sub-Saharan Africa foulest on enhancing the income of small holder within the context of trade liberalization. Small holders production and marketing of vegetable is a key for growth and development of small holder farmers, apart from their economic important they are environment friendly to fight against drought. Oromia has diverse agro-ecology and many areas are suitable for growing subtropical or tropical onion substantial areas receive sufficient rainfall and many lacks. Rivers and streams could also be used to support onion production despite this potential the total land area under onion production is very small and minimum. The study was initiated with the objectives of survey of onion marketing and identifying of challenges and opportunities of onion marketing in Toke kuttaye district, West Shewa, Oromia, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Sample of respondents was selected purposively to its population size. Data come from a total of 95 samples. Data were analyzed by descriptive statics. Results: Weak extension support, lack of credit facilities, poorly constricted in fractures and limited seed supply system largely hinders production, productivity and marketing of onion in the study area. On the top of this, limited accessibility of chemicals and fertilizers within the district are the key constraints. Irrigable land, fertile land and committed farmers work and grow were found to have some of the opportunities. Conclusion: Total quality onion produced was positively affecting the level of onion sale. The possible recommendation of forwarded strengthening market information and extension system, intervention to increase production and productivity by using improved agricultural inputs, promoting family planning are the recommended policy implications.

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