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Research Journal of Immunology
eISSN: 2077-2211
pISSN: 1994-7909

Editor-in-Chief:  Dr. Gaurisankar Sa
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Research Article
Published on March 30, 2018
Forkhead Box P3 Messenger-RNA Expression after Curcuma longa Extract Intervention in Early Pregnant Mice with Toxoplasmosis
Tigor Peniel Simanjuntak, Mochammad Hatta, Syahrul Rauf, Irawan Yusuf and Mardiah Tahir
Background and Objective: Curcuma longa (C. Longa) has strong anti-inflammatory effect. This study aims to examine the effect of Curcuma longa extract on Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) mRNA expression in early pregnant mice with acute toxoplasmosis. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated 20 early pregnant mice that were divided into 5 groups, four mice in each. Group 1-4 received injections of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. Three days later, G1 and G2 were given orally 125 and 500 mg kg–1/day of Curcuma longa extract, respectively. The G3 was given 60 mg kg–1/day of spiramycin (positive control) and G4 was given 0.2 mL of distilled water (negative control). The G5 underwent no intervention at all. Blood samples were obtained serially (before and 3 days after injection of tachyzoites, 3 and 7 days after intervention) to assess FOXP3 mRNA expression. Results: The FOXP3 mRNA expression increased significantly in G1-G3 3 days after intervention (p<0.05), whereas, FOXP3 mRNA expression decreased significantly (p<0.05) 7 days after intervention and there was no significant difference between these three groups. The FOXP3 mRNA expression in G4 increased significantly 3, 6 and 10 days after tachyzoites injections, while FOXP3 mRNA expression on G5 fluctuated but considered as insignificant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The administration of Curcuma longa extract at a dose of 125 mg kg–1/day for 3 days effectively increased FOXP3 mRNA expression and 7 days administration resulted in decreased FOXP3 mRNA expression in early pregnant mice with acute toxoplasmosis.
Research Article
Breast Cancer in Nigerian Women: Evaluating the Utility of Circulating Immune Complexes and Cancer Antigens (CA 15-3 and CA 27.29) in Disease Surveillance
Chukwurah Ejike Felix, Emele Felix Emele and Iyare Festus Ehigiator
Background and Objective: Background breast cancer remains an important medical challenge, despite sustained global efforts at its prevention and control. Various factors are expressed in the serum during breast tumorigenesis and can be of value in the surveillance of the disease. Breast cancer can be affected by racial/ethnic, environmental and other variables. In our locality, there is scanty information on the value of these serum factors in screening and surveillance of breast cancer-hence the need for this study. Methodology: A total of 89 treatment naïve females (age 29-65 years), with clinically and pathologically confirmed breast tumour were recruited, along with apparently healthy control (N = 21) subjects. Patients with malignant tumour were further grouped into early stage and advanced stage. Serum from patients and controls were investigated for cancer antigens (CA 15-3, CA 27.29) and circulating immune complexes (CIC). The patients were subsequently subjected to standard treatment modalities. Follow-up investigations for the markers were carried out at intervals after treatment. Assays for serum the immunological factors were by immunoenzymatic methods. Results: Tumour of all forms recorded significantly higher pre-treatment mean values for CA 15-3 and CA 27.29, compared with the control group (p<0.05). Therapeutic interventions significantly reduced the values for CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 (p<0.05) but had no consistent effect on the level of CIC. The correlative significance between CIC and cancer antigens is weak. Conclusion: Tumour markers CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 showed promising diagnostic and prognostic potentials, while CIC appears to be of limited utility in the management of breast cancer in our environment.
Research Article
Immunomodulatory Effect of Orally Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus) Extract on the Expression of CC Chemokine Receptor 5 mRNA in HIV Patients with Antiretroviral Therapy
Titus Tambaip, Marni Br Karo, Mochammad Hatta, Ressy Dwiyanti, Rosdiana Natzir, Muh Nasrum Massi, Andi Asadul Islam and Khairuddin Djawad
Background and Objective: The C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a coreceptor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is related to immune cells. Therefore, it was investigated immunostimulant effect of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus) oil extract on the level of CCR5 mRNA in HIV infected patients with taking antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods: Seventy of HIV infected patients (age of 17-45 years) were into the antiretroviral (ARV) control (n = 35) and the antiretroviral+red fruit capsule (ARV+RFC)-treated (n = 35) groups. In ARV+RFC group, they were given oral RFC (1 g daily for two months). Monitoring evaluations of the laboratory were performed at baseline (0 months) and two months during the study. The quantification of CCR5 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in human blood immune cells was determined using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Results: In this study, it was found that ARV+RFC exhibited a significantly increased level of CCR5 mRNA of HIV-infected patients compared with ARV alone (p<0.001). Conclusion: From this, it was concluded that the red fruit oil extract may have an excellent immunostimulant effect and has potential as an adjuvant in the management of HIV-infected patients.

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