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Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
eISSN: 2077-2181
pISSN: 1994-7887

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Review Article
Composition, Characteristics and Socioeconomic Benefits of Palm Kernel Shell Exploitation-An Overview
Omolayo M. Ikumapayi and Esther T. Akinlabi
Intensive research has increased the creation of new biomaterials with specific engineered properties. It is on record that a large amount of these biomaterials waste are generated by the processing of palm oil that invariably causes an environmental problem. This review study sheds light on various applications that palm kernel shell (PKS) has been used for in the recent years and applications that could also be considered in the near future. It has been reported that tropical belt of Africa, Asia and Brazil are the highest producers and exporters of palm oil across the globe and by implication the most producers of the PKS. The PKS as a biomaterial waste product got after the processing of palm oil has been extensively utilized in the various form of applications for both technical and environmental benefits varying from additive, energy production, reinforcement, aggregation, water purification and as well as a composite matrix. It was observed that great use of this waste product is prominent in the structural components, automotive parts as well as water detoxifier. The PKS-powder has been characterized in this review through the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The milling was done with the aid of digital Vibratory disc milling machine for 0, 10, 15 and 20 min. Zero min was taken to be when it was sieved with a 300 μm ASTM standard sieve. It was established in the study that the duration of the milling affects volume, surface area, particle size, pore size distributions, micro structure and some other mechanical properties as well as the morphology of the powder. The particles size got reduced from 300 μm to average diameter of 200 nm. The variations in elemental compositions of palm kernel shell powder from as they were affected by milling. The micrographs revealed that there was a tremendous reduction in grain size from 300 μm to about 200 nm.
Mini Review
Conversion of Kola Nut Waste into Beneficial Products for Environmental Protection
Fabunmi Temitope Bukola
This paper reviewed beneficial products accrued from kolanut wastes (a typical agricultural waste) generated from kolanut farming in West Africa particularly Nigeria, as a remediation strategy to several environmental pollutions associated with agricultural wastes. Some of these products discussed include; soaps, poultry feeds, biogas, substrates for microbial enzyme production and medicines. Conversion of kolanut husk into beneficial products will reduce dependence on importation of some goods thereby improving the economy through industrialization and job creation. The paper recommends conversion of kolanut wastes and other wastes due to its numerous benefits as a means to attaining the sustainable developmental goal and securing mother earth from damage caused and still been caused by man’s activities.
Research Article
Influence of Silver Nitrate on Enhancing in vitro Rooting of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis
Amal Abd El-Latif El-Ashry, Ahmed Mohamed Magdy Gabr, Nancy Danial Girgis and Mohamed Kamal El-Bahr
Background and Objectives: Silver ion (Ag+), which added in vitro in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO3) or as silver thiosulfate (STS) complex can act as an effective inhibitor of ethylene action. In addition to inhibiting ethylene action, Ag+promotes indole acetic acid (IAA). The current study was conducted to evaluate the impact of AgNo3 on improvement root formation during micropropagation of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Materials and Methods: For multiplication, stem segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0, 3, 5 or 7 mg L1 benzyl adenine (BA). Elongated shootlets were transferred to different rooting treatments; MS supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or indole butyric acid (IBA) in combination with different concentrations of AgNo3 1, 2 and 3 mg L1. The antioxidant activity of extracts from each rooting treatment was determined through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results: Using high concentration of BA (7 mg L1) led to obtain the highest multiplication rate. Results observed that addition of AgNo3 to medium contained NAA alone doubled the rooting formation percentage. Meanwhile, addition of AgNo3 to MS medium contained IBA alone or both NAA and IBA increased the root formation percentage from 83.33-100%. DPPH radical scavenging activity of different rooting treatments revealed that 2 NAA+2 IBA+2 AgNo3 recorded the highest DPPH percentage (79. 2%). Conclusion: It could be concluded that, the medium supplemented with2 NAA+2 IBA gave the highest number of roots/plantlet. While, the addition of 3 mg L1 AgNo3 to MS medium supplemented with 2 NAA+2 IBA gave the highest mean length of root/plantlet. Also, it could be concluded that using AgNo3 with 2 mg L1 NAA+2 mg L1 IBAA improved the antioxidant capacity of gardenia extracts.
Research Article
Comparative Decolouration of Crystal Violet Dye using Chicken Feather Fibre, Chemical Oxidation and Bacterial Cells
Oghenerobor B. Akpor, Jemirieyigbe E. Deborah and Olarewaju M. Oluba
Background and Objective: Due to the substantial contribution of feather waste to the total solid waste between efforts aimed at countering the attendant environmental impact of waste feathers are urgently required. This investigation was aimed at comparing selected chemical, physical and biological methods in the decolouration of crystal violet dye from wastewater. Materials and Methods: The study, which was carried out under batch experimental conditions, made use of Hydrogen Peroxide (HP), Fenton (FT), Raw Chicken Feather fibre (RCF), Carbonated Chicken Fibre (CCF) and two bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis). The parameters studied were the effect of feather quantity/chemical quantity/inoculum size, pH and initial crystal concentration. Results: Data obtained from this study showed that after 144 h of treatment, 92% decoloration of the crystal violet dye was achieved using the RCF as biosorbent compared to 63 and 10% decolouration using Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells, respectively and 93 and 100% decolouration using HP and FT, respectively. The lowest quantity (2 g) of the RCF was observed the most effective while B. subtilis was best at 2 mL inoculum size. The HP and FT were effective over the various concentration tested. Maximum decolouration was achieved at pH 4, 6 and 12 with the RCF, pH 6 with the bacterial cells and over pH ranges between 2 and 12 with HP and FT. Conclusion: Based on these results, the RCF was observed to compare favourably with HP and FT and better than the bacterial cells in crystal violet decolouration. Considering the environmental side effects of HP and FT as decolourants, the RCF could offer a better alternative as biological biosorbent. Application of the findings of this study could enhance further scale up studies for more efficient treatment of dye effluents.
Research Article
Effect of Mercury Contamination on the Diversity of Soil Arthropods in Poboya Gold Mining
Hasriyanty , Alam Anshary, Shahabuddin Saleh, Muhammad Basir-Cyio and Mohammad Yunus
Background and Objective: Gold mining activities which use mercury have negative impacts on the diversity of soil arthropods. The present study aimed to analyze the diversity of soil arthropods in Poboya gold mining. Methodology: This study was an explorative descriptive analytical study. The research location was divided into 6 sampling points from the center of the gold mining area. One kilogram of soil was collected from every sampling point to analyze mercury, C-organic and nitrogen fiber contents of vegetation types. The sampling of soil arthropods used pitfall trap and core sampler. The analysis of difference of diversity, evenness, dominance and richness of arthropod species in every location used one-way ANOVA with level of significance p<0.05. Results: There were two classes of soil arthropods found, i.e., insecta and arachnida classes. Class insecta was the most dominant with 21,835 individuals from the total of 23,111 individuals. There was a negative correlation between the diversity of soil arthropods and mercury content of the soil. The higher the mercury contents in the soil, the lower the diversity of soil arthropods. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that mercury content and vegetation types affected the diversity of arthropods in the mining areas (Km0, Km1, Km2) and nitrogen and C organic contents affected the diversity of arthropods in Km3, Km4 and Km5. Conclusion: Mercury contamination in the soil reduced the diversity of insect and arachnida classes arthropods in the gold mining area.
Research Article
Mechanical Properties of Tropical Bamboo Reinforced PVA for Fibreboard Production
Boniface Obi Ugwuishiwu, Victor Nzeribe Eke, Emmanuel Amegu Echiegu, Joel Nwaeze Nwakaire, Oji Achuka Nwoke, Benjamin Mama and Chidera Ezeagba
Background and Objective: Cost of fibreboard production in sub-Saharan African is increasing; the use of bamboo will provide alternative to synthetic raw material for re-enforced fibreboard production. Bamboo is sustainable and environmentally friendly. The objective of the study was to determine the mechanical properties of polyester based composites reinforced with Tropical Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) fibers. Materials and Methods: The bamboo fiber (BF) was extracted through a mechanical process known as scouting and after subjecting them to some chemical modifications, composites were formed using hand lay-up and compression technique with ployvinyl acetate emulsion as a chemical binder. Three levels of BF content by weight (20, 40 and 60%) were used in the study. The engineering properties of the developed fiber board were determined using the method described by the ASTM. Results: Results showed that, in terms of tensile strength, the 60% BF content composite board with a value of 32.895 N/mm2 was significantly superior (p<0.05) than the others. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the flexural, compressive, hardness and impact strength between the 20, 40 and 60% BF composites. Conclusion: Bamboo is a better alternative to synthetic raw materials as seen from the results of this study. The mechanical properties of the reinforced PVA based composites fibreboard from bamboo can be used in furniture and soundproofing industries.

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