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Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
eISSN: 2077-2181
pISSN: 1994-7887

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Research Article
Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater by Precipitation and Foam Separation Using Lime and Casein
Maralmaa Byambaa, Erdenechimeg Dolgor, Koichiro Shiomori and Yoshihiro Suzuki
Background and Objective: Even today, a strong need exists for the quick and easy removal and recovery of heavy metals from industrial wastewater at low cost. In this study, recovery of heavy metals from artificial wastewater containing Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb and Mo (each concentration, 10 mg L–1) by precipitation and foam separation using lime and milk casein was investigated. In addition, the performance of foam separation was tested using mining tailing water collected from a mining plant. Materials and Methods: Lime was used as an alkaline agent for heavy-metal precipitation. Milk casein functioned as both a collector and a frother for foam separation. After the precipitation process, casein was added to the precipitated wastewater and foam separation was carried out. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals were determined by inductively plasma spectrometry. Results: Under the optimum alkaline condition at pH 9, where the pH was adjusted by lime addition and a casein dosage of 15 mg L–1, 96% of Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb were removed from the wastewater and recovered in the foam, however, Mo remained in the water. When the pH of the treated water was re-adjusted at 5.3 and the water was reprocessed by foam separation, 76% of Mo was removed from the treated water. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed precipitation and foam separation method under actual conditions, it was applied to mining tailing water collected from an ore-mining facility in Mongolia. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals such as Mn, Fe and Cu included in the mining tailing water were greater than 85%. Furthermore, more than 90% of the suspended solids were also removed from the tailing water. Conclusion: The casein enabled the collection and recovery of the precipitation components of heavy metals within a total processing time of 10 min. Precipitation and foam separation using lime and casein is an effective and adaptable method for treating industrial effluents that contain heavy metals.
Research Article
Adsorption of Acenaphthene Using Date Seed Activated Carbon
Ali Mohammad Yahya Radwan, Saleh Faraj Magram and Zubair Ahmed
Background and Objective: Discharge of emerging pollutants in water bodies is increasing with industrial growth. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are organic compounds that are carcinogenic, bio-accumulative and do not break down easily in our environment, are frequently found in wastewaters. The objective of this study is to utilize locally available cheap/waste material specifically date seeds for the removal of PAHs from wastewater. Materials and Methods: In this study, waste date seeds were used for preparation of granular activated carbon (GAC) and applied for removal of PAH’s (specifically acenaphthene) from aqueous phase by setting up of batch experiments which has not been applied has been investigated. The removal efficiencies were compared against GAC available commercially made of coconut shell. In a preliminary study, equilibrium time and optimum GAC dosage were determined in batch experiments using commercial GAC. The efficiency of our produced GAC compared to commercial GAC at different initial PAH’s concentration (16-40 μg L–1) have been studied at 25°C temperature. Results: Results showed that GAC produced from date seeds out performed commercial GAC. Nonlinear regression analysis were performed for Langmuir and Freundlich models and it was found that Freundlich model has the closest fit for the data. Conclusion: The relative simplicity and low cost of producing our date seed GAC makes it an alternative to other available commercial GAC in the market for the removal of acenaphthene. However, it should be noted that our batch experiments were done at different initial pollutant concentration and didn’t take into consideration effects of variations in GAC mass, time and temperature on the adsorption process.
Research Article
Decolorization Study of Remazol Black B Textile Dye Using Local Fungi of Ganoderma sp. and Their Ligninolytic Enzymes
I. Ketut Sudiana, I. Dewa Ketut Sastrawidana and I. Nyoman Sukarta
Background and Objective: Azo dyes were most commonly used for dyeing in the textile industry. Wastewater with high azo dyes concentration could potentially risk to environment because it was difficult to decompose naturally in the environment. Decolorization of remazol black B was investigated using wood decaying fungus strain of Ganoderma sp. and their ligninolytic enzymes. Materials and Methods: The fungus was collected from a coffee plantation in Bali, Indonesia. In this research, operating parameters affecting the color removal efficiency examined include pH, dye concentration and incubation time. Results: The results showed that the color removal of remazol black B is more effective using ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma sp. than directly use fungus strain of Ganoderma sp. The optimum pH condition required Ganoderma sp. to decolorize remazol black B was 6, whereas crude ligninolytic enzymes at pH 4 with dye concentration of 70 mg L–1 within 7 days incubation time. Color removal efficiency of remazol black B using the Ganoderma sp. and their crude ligninolytic enzymes was 89.23 and 90.82%, respectively. Conclusion: Ligninolytic enzyme is playing important role in degradation of dye, in which the color removal efficiency is dependent on pH, dye concentration and incubation time. The fungus strain Ganoderma and their ligninolytic enzymes have a great potential to develop as alternative technology for textile wastewater treatment.
Research Article
Effect of Agricultural Waste on Vermicompost Production and Earthworm Biomass
Khucharoenphaisan Khwanchai and Sinma Kanokkorn
Background and Objectives: Vermicompost known as one of the natural organic fertilizers, which were commonly available to plant and environmental friendly. The objectives of this study was to produce vermicompost from agricultural waste by using Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae). The qualities of vermicompost and biomass of E. eugeniae were also investigated. Materials and Methods: About 100 g of E. eugeniae were cultivated in plastic containers (40×40 cm) with 2 kg of various types of agricultural waste. After 60 days of cultivation, biomass of E. eugeniae and nutrient contents in vermicompost were determined. Results: Vermicomposts produced by E. eugeniae had high major nutrient contents consisting of 1.108% nitrogen, 0.669% phosphorus and 1.318% potassium. Specially, all treatments showed major nutrient values of vermicomposts which were higher than those of standard organic fertilizers. Furthermore, E. eugeniae had the overall biomass after 60 days of cultivation, which rose to 28.33-104.67% compared to its initial weight. Conclusion: The data provided new evidence that agricultural waste, especially soybean meal could be used as feeds for the high quality of vermicompost production and earthworm biomass. Thus, vermicompost producing from agricultural waste was a new source of nutrients in addition to organic compost and chemical fertilizers.

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