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Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
eISSN: 2077-2181
pISSN: 1994-7887

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Research Article
Preparation and Characterization of Volcanic Ash-chitosan Composite Ceramic Membrane for Clean Water Production
Eny Apriyanti, Hadiyanto and Wishnu Wijayanto
Background and Aim: Volcanic ash is a material released by volcanic eruptions. It contains high composition of silica and alumina which can be used as ceramic membrane material for clean water production. Clean water is one of the most important natural resources for human life and health. The clean water production using volcanic ash based ceramic membrane is constrained by its low mechanical strength. To overcome the problem, in this research, ceramic membrane material from volcanic ash-chitosan composite is studied for obtaining stronger ceramic membrane. Materials and Methods: Volcanic ash consists of silica dioxide (SiO2) 48.23%, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 18.40%, ferro oxide (Fe2O3) 18.45%, calcium oxide (CaO) 4.51% and the other remaining compounds. The ceramic membranes were casted via molding and calcination process. The ceramic supports were then coated with various concentration of chitosan (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%). The composite ceramic membranes were characterized by particle size distribution analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results: Membrane characteristics were influenced by material composition and mixing homogeneity, the greater ash composition in the ceramic membrane matrix significantly increased the permeate flux and the membrane porosity was directly proportional to the thrust force which is given in the calcination process at 1100°C, Conclusion: This study produced composite ceramic membranes with chitosan which have excellent stability in water. This is indicated by the resulting membrane mechanical performance that is not damaged during application and the membranes have porosity, structure and mechanical integrity that can be applied for water treatment to produce clean water.
Research Article
Effect of Fungal Glycolipids Produced by a Mixture of Sunflower Oil Cake and Pineapple Waste as Green Corrosion Inhibitors
Amr Al-Kashef, Samy Shaban, Mohamed Nooman and Mona Rashad
Background and Objective: Agro-industrial wastes are one of the major environmental pollutants, in addition to steel corrosions, which is also an economic depleting problem for the steel industries. This work aimed mainly to produce fungal glycolipids (GLs) derived from the microbial conversion of sunflower oil cake and pineapple waste mixture as economic substrates and to evaluate their effectiveness as green corrosion inhibitors. Materials and Methods: Production was carried out by Rhizopus oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum under Solid State Fermentation (SSF) technique while, extraction of GLs achieved using methanol followed by re-extraction with a mixture of chloroform, methanol and water resulted in four glycolipid (GL) extracts. The produced GLs structure was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Glycolipid extracts were evaluated as green corrosion inhibitors against steel corrosion at three different temperatures using weight loss method. Results: The four extracts showed good inhibition efficiency specially with increasing temperature as an indication for the chemical adsorption. The re-extracted GL from R. oryzae gave the highest level of corrosion inhibition at all the examined temperatures. The inhibition efficiency was confirmed electrically using two additional techniques; polarization and impedance spectroscopy. The four GL extracts exhibited good antimicrobial efficiency against the tested bio-corrosion bacterial strains. Conclusion: The obtained extracts had the ability to prevent corrosion in acidic media and inhibit the growths of the investigated bacteria responsible for the biocorrosion, thus opening up new potential applications in food, petroleum and steel industries.
Research Article
Air Injection Effect on Energy Consumption and Production of Hydroxyl Radicals at Plasma Anode
Tulus Sukreni, Nelson Saksono and Setijo Bismo
Background and Objective: Plasma anode has been known as a very productive method of producing hydroxyl radicals that oxidize effectively in almost all organic and non-organic liquids. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of air injection and anode depth variation on required energy for plasma generation and production of hydroxyl radicals. Materials and Methods: A batch reactor (diameter 130 mm, height 190 mm) with tungsten electrodes (cathode diameter 6 mm and anode diameter 0.5 mm) was used by applying a continuous cooling system. The experimental parameters were composed of different rate of air injection (0, 2, 4 and 6 L min–1) and various depth of anode (5, 25, 45 and 65 mm). The current was observed at various voltage (20-700 V) in 30 sec for each voltage. Result: The energy consumption of plasma formation was getting smaller at a higher rate of air injection, while at deeper anode position, the energy consumption found higher. Although the OH production became lower at a higher rate of air injection, the process efficiency observed higher. Conclusion: This research clarified that air injection on plasma anode and the anode depth position affected the energy consumption and production of hydroxyl radicals where the addition of air injection and variation of the anode depth could reduce energy consumption and also improved process efficiency.
Research Article
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Levels and Risk Assessment in Water, Sediment and Fish Samples from Alau Dam, Borno State, Nigeria
Joseph Clement Akan, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Abdullahi Idi Mohammed, Victor Obioma Ogugbuaja and Fanna Inna Abdulrahman
Background and Objective: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) are of special interest because of their carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity. Their significant importance the awareness about their biochemical and toxicological roles in humans and animals. The objectives are to determine the distribution of PAHs in water, sediment and fish samples and to conduct risk assessment of PAHs levels. Methodology: Water, Sediments and fish samples were from Alau Dam for the determination of 17 PAHs. Extraction and cleanup of the samples were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The levels of the studied PAHs were determined using Agilent 7890A GC/MS. Results: Sources analysis indicated levels of PAHs as originated mainly from pyrogenic. Results from m-ERM-q in the sediments indicated 11% probability of toxicity which classified the sediments as low priority sites. The PAHs levels in the water samples were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of 0.005-3.0 mg L–1. The PAHs were observed to be higher in Heterotis niloticus dominated in terms of accumulation of PAHs as compared to other fish samples. The average daily dose (ADD) value in the fish studied were less than the tolerable daily dose limit from the daily per capital fish consumption of 0.07 kg for Nigeria. The cumulative probability distributions of calculated incremental life expectancy cancer risk (ILECR) revealed that 3 out of 10,000,000 population are likely to suffer cancer-related illness in their lifetime due to consumption of fish from the study Dam. Conclusion: Results from risk assessment of PAHs in the water and sediment, suggested that the detected concentrations were not high enough to cause adverse effects in the aquatic ecosystem.
Research Article
Optimization of Biogas Production from Rice Husk Waste by Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) Using Response Surface Methodology
Hashfi Hawali Abdul Matin and Hady Hadiyanto
Background and Objective: Rice husk is one of the agricultural waste which is abundantly available in Indonesia. Due to high content of cellulose, rice husk can be considered as source of biogas substrate after pretreatment of lignin removal. Lignin content can inhibit the production of biogas because microorganisms hard to degrade the rice husks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatment by using NaOH and to determine optimum process conditions of biogas production by solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) using response surface optimization method. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a laboratory scale. Enzyme variables were set at 3-9% concentration, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio at 20-50 and total solid (TS) concentration at 15-40%. To determine the daily productivity, biogas production was measured by water displacement method every 2 days for 90 days. A central composite design was employed to set the number of experimental run. Three independent experimental variables, namely, enzyme (X1), C/N ratio (X2) and total solid (X3) were selected as controlled factors. This research also studied the biogas production kinetics constants of biogas production rate (U), maximum biogas production (A) and minimum time of biogas (λ) which were determined by using non-linear regression technique from Gompertz model. Results: Based on experiment, biogas produced from rice husk treated with NaOH 3% was higher than the biogas without treatment with the yield of 63.9 mL g–1 TS. The optimization showed that the optimal biogas production was achieved at addition of 4.5-7% enzyme and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 35-45. The total solid (TS) was not determinant factor in biogas production. Conclusion: Pre-treatment using NaOH could increase biogas production significantly. The best biogas production was achieved at 6% enzyme addition, C/N ratio = 35% and total solid of 27.5% with yield of 63.93 mL g–1 TS.
Review Article
Comprehensive Study on Biodiesel Produced from Waste Animal Fats-A Review
Gokul Raghavendra Srinivasan and Ranjitha Jambulingam
Biodiesel is a long chain fatty acid alkyl ester molecule with robust characteristics suitable for both environment and as alternate energy resources. This paper aimed in summarizing the detailed literature study on biodiesel produced from waste animal fats discarded from leather tanneries and animal slaughter houses. This study concentrated on the extraction techniques, refining process, biodiesel production process along with its advantages and effect on engine. The fats had been proven to a viable feedstock when compared to vegetable oil and waste cooking oil in terms of productivity and economy. Various technical challenges involved in biodiesel production are food vs. fuel conflict over feedstock, auxiliary energy requirement for fat extraction and biodiesel production, Free Fatty Acid content, optimizing the reaction. Effects of biodiesel on engine application had also been discussed and will be providing wider scope of research for overcoming these short comes. This literature study affirmed that biodiesel produced from waste animal fat has a very good impact in reducing environmental pollution and moving a step ahead towards an effective sustainable development.

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