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Asian Journal of Crop Science
eISSN: 2077-2041
pISSN: 1994-7879

Editor-in-Chief:  Arvind Singh Tomar
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Review Article
Soilless Media Culture-A Propitious Auxiliary for Crop Production
Amjad Farhan Ashraf Farhan, Abd. Jamil Zakaria, Prof Nashriyah Mat and Khamsah Suryati Mohd
Soil-based cultivation is presently confronting dire challenges to the lack of land availability, massive escalation rate of industrialization and intense urbanization. Land-related agriculture is at stake due to irrepressible climate vicissitudes, relentless soil degradation, unbefitting management practices and other adversative effects. The settings are further exacerbated by the increment in population with respect to diminutive land availability to cultivate. Hence, soilless media culture would make ways as an auspicious auxiliary in current pressing scenario. Proper management practices and technological advancements can utterly exploit the soilless substrates effectively and efficiently. Optimization of yield pertaining to incorporation of soilless media can also result in superior quality and growth performance in relevance to less agricultural inputs being consumed.
Research Article
Quality Assessment of Some Spring Bread Wheat Cultivars
Ahmed Mohamed Saied Hussein, Hatem Salama Ali and Abdel Rahman Al-Khalifa
Background and Objective: Wheat products are long known as a pioneer main food, where it considered a calories source along with a considerable nutrients amount. The objective was to explain how the variation of extraction rate affected wheat variety along with its impact on the quality of wheat products. Materials and Methods: Several wheat types (Yecora Rojo, Sakha 93, Pavon76, KSU 102 and Sama) were evaluated chemically, rheological and microstructure using farinograph and extensograph. The statistical analysis were done using SPSS 16.0 (at p = 0.05). Results: Yecora Rojo was higher in protein, fat and phosphorus, it reached 13.16, 2.66% and 215 mg/100 g, respectively. Sakha 93 was also higher in fiber, calcium and zinc (2.35%, 85 and 4.17 mg/100 g), while Pavon76 was higher in ash (2.0%). Wet gluten content was significantly higher (at p = 0.05) in whole meal wheat flour than in wheat flour 72%. Rheological, whole meal of each wheat type characterized with higher water absorption than its 72% flour but dough stability was declined. Wheat flour 72% of Sama differentiated with its great in rank of arrival time (2.0 min). Resistance to extension of whole meal dough ranged between 600-550 BU, while wheat flour 72% decreased to 510-400 BU. Conclusion: The quality of wheat varieties varied according to its type, in comparison between three varieties of wheat, wheat grain cracks and partial disruption of native starch granule which constitute one of the most difficult defects to detect, affect on the quality and value of wheat products. Yecora Rojo, KSU 102, Sama and (Sakha 93) wheat flour could be recommended to use as a durum, hard and soft wheat, respectively.
Research Article
Effects of Cocoa Pod Husk Biochar on Growth of Cocoa Seedlings in Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia
Andi Bahrun, Muhammad Yunus Fahimuddin, La Ode Safuan, Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid and Rishikesh Singh
Background and Objective: High quality cocoa seedlings can be produced by improving soil fertility of the plant growing media through application of biochar during the nursery growing period. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cocoa pod husk (CPH) biochar on soil temperature, soil moisture and growth attributes of cocoa seedlings. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in the glasshouse of Agricultural Faculty, Halu Oleo University, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The experimental design was a randomized block design with seven levels of cocoa pod husk (CPH) biochar (i.e., without biochar (control), 3 g of CPH biochar kg–1 soil, 6 g of CPH biochar kg–1 soil, 9 g of CPH biochar kg–1 soil, 12 g of CPH biochar kg–1 soil, 15 g of CPH biochar kg–1 soil and 18 g of CPH biochar kg–1 soil in 3 replications. Data were analyzed by using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test with an error rate of 5% (p<0.05). Results: The CPH biochar significantly increased soil temperature, soil moisture, soil fertility and cocoa seedling growth. The application of CPH biochar kg–1 increased soil pH, soil-C, P and CEC (cation exchange capacity). Cocoa seedling growth was significantly improved by CPH biochar and a rate of 9 g CPH biochar kg–1 soil showed the best results in cocoa seedlings in terms of increased seedling height, number of leaves, leaf area and shoot dry weight by 20.99, 26.62, 75.63 and 78.36%, respectively, as compared to control. Conclusion: Therefore, CPH biochar has the potential to improve soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil organic-C, P, CEC and cocoa seedling growth, however, the amount of CPH biochar material applied should be considered.
Research Article
Effectiveness of Trichogramma japonicum Utilization for Biological Control Agents on Scirpophaga incertulas in Indonesia
Mohammad Yunus
Background and Objective: One of the Trichogramma species commonly used to control rice stem borer is Trichogramma japonicum (T. japonicum). The following research aimed to (1) Investigate the effect of the age of the parasitoid and the age of the host egg on T. japonicum’s parasitization ability and (2) Know the pattern of dispersal and the effect of the release of T. japonicum against the intensity of parasitization. Materials and Methods: The testing method used was a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design. The first factor consisted of five different life stages of parasitoids (UP), delineated from 0 up to 4 days (UP-0, UP-1, UP-2, UP-3 and UP-4). The second factor in this experiment consisted of the 5 life stages of the host egg (UI), which were the ages of the host eggs from 0-4 days (UI-0, UI-1, UI-2, UI-3 and UI-4). Twenty-five units were treated at a time and the treatment process itself was repeated 5 times so that the whole experiment used 125 units in total. The data were analyzed using one-way (ANOVA) and significant effect continued with Tukey HSD test (p<0.05). Results: One day old T. japonicum parasitoid was more effective biocontrol agent compared with older parasitoids. Levels of parasitization were highest upon available host eggs less than 24 h old. Trichogramma japonicum in the field can be scattered in all directions and can reach a distance of up to 6 m (36 m2) within 7 h. The existence of T. japonicum in the field proved to successfully control the population of Scirpophaga incertulas, if the population of S. incertulas eggs in field was low, the population of the parasitoid was similarly reduced. A dosage of 250,000 released parasitoids ha–1 was more effective than a 125,000 dosage of parasitoids ha–1. Conclusion: An increased dosage could increase the intensity of parasitization by 236% when compared to controls. This research also encountered Telenomus rowani and Tetrastichus schoenobii in the field and they also attacked S. incertulas eggs.
Research Article
Effect of Salinity Stress and Soil Types on Growth, Photosynthetic Pigments and Essential Oil of Artemisia annua L.
EL-Saady Mohamed Badawy, Khalid Ali Khalid, Amaal Abd-Elkhalek Mohamed Heikal and Mohammad Mahmoud Nagdy
Background and Objective: Artemisia annua L. (A. annua) has various biological activities such as anti-malarial, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-allergenic. Salt stress and soil types (ST) are the most important conditions, which have a very high impact on yield and active principals of medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline irrigation water (SIW), ST and their interactions on growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments (PP) and essential oil (EO) composition of A. annua. Materials and Methods: Artemisia annua L. plants were subjected to different levels (0.0, 1.6, 3.2, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.9 dS m–1) of SIW under two ST [clay (CLS) and sandy loam (SALS)]. Vegetative growth characters (VGC) [Plant height, PH (cm/plant), branch number, BN (per plant], fresh mass (FM) (g/plant) and dry mass (DM) (g/plant)], PP [Chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b and total carotenoids (TC)] and EO composition were evaluated. Randomized Complete block design (RCBD) was used and the averages of data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results: The highest values (112.75, 90.00; 32.42, 36.17; 83.15, 106.86; 45.43, 64.85) of VGC for various ST were recorded with control treatments. CLS recorded the greatest values of BN (31.13/plant), FM (79.95 g/plant) and DM (46.77 g/plant) while the highest value of PH (95.69 cm) was recorded under SALS. SALS produced higher values of Chla or Chlb (3.21 and 1.58) than CLS (3.09 and 1.47) while CLS recoded higher accumulation of TC (3.01) than SALS soil (3.00). The highest values (1.41 and 0.87%) of EO were produced under 1.6, 3.2 and 4.7 dS m–1 treatments at both ST. The 4.7 dS m–1 treatment reported the highest values (0.42 or 0.49 g/plant) of EO yield. 7.9 and 5.3 dS m–1 treatments recorded the highest values of major components [camphor (38.67 and 38.52%) and trans caryophyllene (26.67 and 36.26)] under the both soils, on the other hand, different changes were found in monoterpene hydrocarbons (MCH), oxygenated monoterpenes (MCHO), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (SCH) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (SCHO). Conclusion: Different variations were found in VGC, PP and EO composition of A. annua plant under SIW, ST and their interactions.
Short Communication
Effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer and Humic Acid Formulation on the Growth and Nutritional Quality of Abelmoschus esculentus
P. Prakash, Amitesh Mitra, Ritanjan Nag and Swetha Sunkar
Background and Objectives: The problem of agro based pollution due to the extensive use of chemical fertilizers is combated by searching for natural organic fertilizers that can be obtained from various sources. In this line, a study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) and humic acid (HA) as potential bio-fertilizer. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of seaweed liquid fertilizer, humic acid and seaweed liquid fertilizer:humic acids in various concentrations on the growth of Abelmoschus esculentus. Materials and Methods: The above plant growth promoters were applied as foliar spray at different intervals with the following concentrations namely SLF (1-10%), HA (0.1-1%) and SLF:HA (8.0:1.0% to 8.9:0.9%). Total carbohydrates measured by Anthrone method and total proteins contents measured by Lowry’s method. Results: The study revealed that the maximum growth was obtained at the concentrations of 0.4% HA, 8% SLF and 8.5:0.5% of SLF:HA combination that reflected in the increased carbohydrate and protein content. Conclusion: This study clearly established the fact that seaweed fertilizer and humic acid preparation can be used to enhance the growth of the plants and hence can be incorporated in the production of crops on a large scale.

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