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International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders
eISSN: 2077-2157
pISSN: 1994-5442

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Research Article
Published on March 29, 2018
A Population-based Study on Bone Mineral Density Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) in Postmenopausal Women in Jakarta, Indonesia
N.A. Prastowo, S. Ali and Ignatio Rika Haryono
Background and Objective: Osteoporosis is established using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Patients were usually referred for DEXA from practice room. However, in most developing countries people have limited access to DEXA leading to underreport of osteoporosis prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women using DEXA in a population-based study and to establish a correlation between BMD with some risk factors. Materials and Methods: Participants were postmenopausal women and referred from Posyandu. Anthropometric measurements were performed. DEXA was performed at the hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter and femoral shaft), distal radius and lumbar region (L1-L4). Participants were categorized according to body mass index (BMI) (normal if BMI <25 kg m–2, overweight and obese if BMI >25kg m–2) and to BMD (normal BMD if T-score>-1SD, low BMD if T-score<-1 SD). Pearson’s or Spearman tests were applied to analyze correlation between variables. Results: A total of 60 postmenopausal women were participated. The results showed 17 (28.3%) had osteopenia and 33 (55%) had osteoporosis. Age, age at menopause and duration of menopause had the strongest negative correlation with the BMD of the distal radius (r = -0.582, -0.414, -0.497, respectively, p<0.01), whereas weight and BMI were positively correlated with the BMD of the trochanter (r = 0.437and 0.424, p<0.01). Conclusion: Population-based recruitment confirmed that osteoporosis was more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Further, the correlation and the strength of the correlation between BMD and associated risk factors is bone site specific.
Research Article
Application of FRAX to Determine the Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures in the Ukrainian Population
Vladyslav V. Povoroznyuk, Nataliia V. Grygorieva, Eugene V. McCloskey, Helena Johansson and John A. Kanis
Background and Objective: FRAX is the most widely used tool for the assessment of the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The first country-specific FRAX model for Ukraine, calibrated to the total Ukrainian population, was developed in October, 2016. This study aimed to describe the output of the Ukrainian FRAX model and to illustrate its features compared to models for neighbouring countries. Materials and Methods: The development of the Ukrainian model of FRAX was based on two regional epidemiological studies in Ukraine [Vinnitsa city (1997-2002), STOP-study (Uzhgorod city and Vinnitsa area, 2011-2012)], which were performed to derive the incidence of hip fractures in men and women. The construct of the FRAX model for Ukraine required the beta coefficients for risk factors in the original FRAX model and the age and sex-specific incidence rates of hip fracture and mortality for Ukraine. Results: As expected, 10 year probability of hip or major osteoporotic fractures was increased in patients with a clinical risk factor (CRF), female gender, higher age, lower BMI and decreased BMD T-score. Of the CRFs, a prior fracture had greatest effect in the age group 50-70 years and parental hip fracture accounted for the greatest increase in 10-year fracture probability in the age group 80-90 years. Conclusion: The Ukrainian FRAX tool is the first country-specific fracture prediction model available in Ukraine which is based on the original FRAX® methodology, that has been externally validated in several independent cohorts. Despite some limitations, the strengths make the Ukrainian FRAX tool a good candidate for implementation into clinical practice.

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