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Asian Journal of Epidemiology
eISSN: 2077-205X
pISSN: 1992-1462

Editor-in-Chief:  Raafat Mohamed Shaapan Sayed
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Research Article
Factors Associated with Chronic Bronchitis Among Municipal Sanitary Workers in Varanasi, India
Manish Singh and Laishram Ladusingh
Background and Objectives: Sanitary workers are exposed to a number of morbidities, including musculoskeletal disorder, gastrointestinal problems, skin problems, eye problems and lung disease, etc. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic bronchitis among sanitary workers and to identify the risk factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study designed to investigate the factors related to the development of chronic bronchitis among sanitary workers in the city of Varanasi. A total of 11 census wards were selected, two being from the ghat areas, two from the non-ghat areas and seven from the core city by using the probability proportional to size sampling technique. All sanitary workers working in the selected census wards were respondents for this study. The total sample size was 316. CSPro 6.1 was used for data entry and SPSS 22 was used for data analysis. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to determine the association of the risk factors with chronic bronchitis. Results: The result from the analysis indicates that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 20%, whereas it was 9, 19 and 32% in the age groups of less than or equal to 30, 31-44 and 45 years and above respectively. Sewage workers had a greater risk of chronic bronchitis as compared to waste collectors and drivers. Smokers and workers with poor health showed a higher risk as compared to non-smokers and healthy workers. Conclusion: The study concludes that chronic bronchitis is highly associated with age and type of workers and also slightly associated with gender, tobacco use and health condition.
Research Article
Factors Associated with Helminthiasis among Vegetable Farmers in Barito Kuala District
Hadi Prayitno, Aprizal Satria Hanafi and Qomariyatus Sholihah
Background and Objective: Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminth (STH) are one of the global health problems. Farmers were one group that has a high risk infected by helminth. This study aimed to determine the association of the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and other factors with helminthiasis among vegetable farmers in Barito Kuala District, South Kalimantan Province. Materials and Methods: Population and sample in this study were vegetable farmers and these samples were taken randomly. This study was an analytical study with a case-control design. Chi-square, binary logistic regression and SPSS was used for statistical analysis. Results: This study showed male farmers, elementary educated farmers and these farmers do not have hands washing habit. Farmers who have to consume of raw foods habit more than once per week have a greater risk of getting infected by helminth. This study showed more helminth infections occur in farmers who do not use personal protective equipment. Conclusion: Current study found that helminthiasis was significantly associated with the use of complete personal protective equipment, gender, education level, hand washing habit and habit of consuming raw foods. It was advisable for vegetable farmers to always use personal protective equipment when farmed and to keep good personal hygiene.
Research Article
Lipid Profiles and Postprandial Glucose Status of Hypertensive Individuals with Stroke in Indonesia
Mahalul Azam, Fatkhiatun Nida, Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani and Arulita Ika Fibriana
Background and Objective: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke caused 23.48% of all deaths in Indonesia, a country with the highest prevalence of stroke in the world. The main risk factor for stroke is hypertension. In Indonesia, hypertension is the most prevalent non-communicable disease (25.8%). The objective of this study was to determine lipid profile and postprandial (PPG) status among hypertensive people with stroke in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: In this study cross-sectional study design was used and obtained data from secondary data of Riskesd as 2013. The number of respondents was 8,511. Data was analyzed using Cohran’s and Mantel-Haenzel test. Results: Prevalence of stroke cases in people with hypertension was 9%. Most of stroke respondents have high T-cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride and PPG. Factors related to stroke are: age, LDL-C level(PR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.026-1.431) and PPG levels ((PR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.102-1.1492). After adjusting for gender and age, PPG was associated with stroke prevalence in hypertensive people in Indonesia. Conclusion: Prevalence of high LDL-C and PPG levels in hypertensive people with stroke is high. Those related to stroke incident among hypertensive people. It needs an educational effort to the stroke group to control LDL-C levels for prevention of recurrent stroke and other impacts.
Research Article
Molecular Characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Domestic Rodents In Kolar Region, Karnataka
Gangannagari Vijay Kumar and Parvangada Madappa Beena
Background and Objective: Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi) is the causative agent of scrub typhus, which is an acute febrile illness seen in human beings. Rodents were implicated as the natural reservoirs for Orientia tsutsugamushi and they served as hosts for chigger mite. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular prevalence and characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi in domestic rodents in Kolar region. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 177 rodents (138 Bandicota bengalensis, 16 Rattus rattus, 9 Bandicota indica, Rattus norvegicus and 2 Mus musculus). Conventional PCR, targeting the 56 kDa type specific gene was performed and DNA sequenced. Results: O. tsutsugamushi DNA was detected by conventional PCR in 10 (5.6 %) rodents. Two PCR purified samples were sequenced, phylogenetic analyses showed that one strain was closely related to Orientia chuto Dubai strain and another was closely related to Boryang strain. Conclusion: This suggests a high incidence of scrub typhus in this region. Further research on the characterization of O. tsutsugamushi from rodents as well as vectors throughout this district is needed to study the prevalence of O. tsutsugamushi in reservoir hosts.
Research Article
Household-based Antenatal Care Monitoring Model (An Intervention Study in the Coastal Area of Palu City)
Ketut Suarayasa, Muh. Syafar, Nurhaedar Jafar, Masni and Anwar Mallongi
Background and Objective: There are two indicators can be used for measuring the quality of health service pregnant women are going well, namely antenatal care coverage and delivery by health workers trained. In Palu City, the achievement was that both this question on the national level have been done. But it is not followed by successive down maternal mortality. In order to ensure the implementation of the standards of the antenatal care (ANC) are going well, this study build a model of mentoring students against pregnant women and families. In this model, students do the monitoring through guidebooks. The general objective of this research was to obtain monitoring model of household-based ANC (pregnant women and families) through mentoring by students. The study centered in the coastal areas of Palu City. Materials and Methods: The research design used was a quasi experiment with nonequivalent control group design. To know more about the meaning, also conducted qualitative study through in depth interview. The research was conducted on 12 urban villages located in Palu City of Midle Sulawesi, where 6 urban villages (43 pregnant women) as intervention villages and 6 subdistricts (with 43 samples of pregnant women) as control villages. Results: The result of this research showed that the influence of the students' assistance toward the implementation of the ANC standard and early detection of high-risk of pregnancy and the influence of age, education and antenatal frequency on the implementation of the ANC standard (p<0.005) and gravid (pregnancy 0) have an effect on early pregnancy risk high dose<0.005). This research also produced an implementation model of household-based the ANC (pregnant and family mothers) through a student mentoring approach. Conclusion: Monitoring model of household-based ANC (pregnant women and family) through mentoring students effective enough in improving the implementation of the standards of the ANC as well as early detection of high-risk pregnancy.
Research Article
Assessment of Psychological Well-being of Waste-pickers of Mumbai, India
Praveen Chokhandre and Gyan Chandra Kashyap
Background and Objective: Waste-pickers work informally and earn hand to mouth by collecting and selling recyclable items out of municipal solid waste. Along with the opportunity for survival, waste picking also poses health hazards. The primary objective of the study was to assess the psychological health of waste-pickers of Mumbai using general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Additionally, the study was carried out to determine the reliability and factor structure of the GHQ-12. Materials and Methods: Sample comprised 200 waste-pickers who were selected randomly from the communities near Deonar dumping site. Results: Results showed that around 70% of the respondents scored low on the GHQ-12 and a sizable proportion (32%) of them scored high, indicating an unhealthy psychological state. Reliability analyses suggest satisfactory results, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.70. Meanwhile, factor analysis revealed that GHQ-12 was a measure of psychological distress, with a three-factor structure (psychological distress, social-emotional dysfunction and cognitive disorder), which jointly accounted for 54% of the variance. Conclusion: The findings of the study, therefore, affirmed that the GHQ-12 is a suitable measure of assessing the overall psychological well-being of waste-pickers.
Research Article
Association Between Age, Gender and Body Weight in Educational Institutions in Ota, Southwest Nigeria
Shalom Nwodo Chinedu, Opeyemi Christianah Emiloju, Dominic Ezinwa Azuh, Olubanke Olujoke Ogunlana and Franklyn Nonso Iheagwam
Background and Objective: There is paucity of data on the association between body weight and age or gender in Nigeria. This study investigated the body weight distribution amongst sexes and different age groups in educational institutions in Ota, Southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The participants, 1394 (609♂; 785♀) healthy persons, were randomly selected from four schools in Canaanland, Ota and divided into six age groups: 2-5, 6-12, 13-19, 20-39, 40-59 and 60-75 years. Body weight was categorized into normal weight, underweight, overweight and obesity using CDC age and sex-specific BMI cut-offs for 2-19 years and WHO cut-offs for 20 years and above. Strength of association was assessed by correlation and regression analyses. Results: Underweight was prevalent at early childhood (22.7%) whereas obesity was predominant at middle adulthood (26.4%). Correlation was strong (p<0.001) between age and the anthropometric parameters: Weight (0.696); height (0.317); BMI (0.612) and body weight category (0.200). Gender had significant correlation with weight (-0.314, p<0.001) and height (-0.056, p<0.005). Body weight correlated more with age compared to gender. Conclusion: Age and gender had significant influence on the body weights of the studied population and could be factored into the national scheme for health and nutritional improvement.
Review Article
Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Perceptions at the Root of Adolescent Behaviors
Varalakshmi Chandrasekaran, Veena Ganesh Kamath, Lena Ashok, Asha Kamath, Asha Hegde and Virupaksha Devaramane
The role of parents in the social and emotional development of their children was considered a given until research began to delve into its varied facets. Baumrind D., has described three types of parenting namely, authoritarian, authoritative and permissive which was further elaborated by Maccoby and Martin, who described the concepts of ‘Demandingness’ and ‘Responsiveness’. Demandingness alludes to ‘parental behavioral control’ while ‘responsiveness’ corresponds to the dimension of ‘parental warmth and supportiveness’. How adolescents perceive these practices, the understanding of adolescents in terms of legitimacy of parents to enforce controlling behaviors and the influence of these practices on adolescent behaviors is the focus of this review. The review delves into the theoretical foundations as well as research evidence of how parenting dimensions and adolescent perceptions may influence adolescent behaviors.

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