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Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Asian Journal of Scientific Research
eISSN: 2077-2076
pISSN: 1992-1454

Editor-in-Chief:  Kaiser Jamil
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Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Equivalence of Picard-type Hybrid Iterative Algorithms for Contractive Mappings
Kanayo Stella Eke and Hudson Akewe
Background and Objective: Fixed point iterative algorithms are designed to be applied in solving equations arising in physical formulation but there is no systematic study of numerical aspects of these iterative algorithms. The Picard, Mann, Ishikawa, Noor and multi step iterative algorithms are the commonly used iterative algorithms in proving fixed point convergence and stability results of different classes of mappings. The objectives of this study therefore were: (1) To develop a Picard-type hybrid iterative algorithm called Picard-Mann, Picard-Ishikawa, Picard-Noor and Picard-multistep iterative algorithms, (2) Prove equivalence of convergence theorems using these algorithms for a general class of mappings in a normed linear space and (3) Provide numerical examples to justify the applicability of the algorithms. Materials and Methods: Analytical method was used to prove the main theorem, while numerical method was to demonstrate the application of the equivalence results. Results: Strong convergence, equivalence and numerical results constitute the main results of this study. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study showed that the Picard-type hybrid iterative algorithms have good potentials for further applications, especially in terms of rate of convergence.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Successful Treatment of Canine Parvovirus Infection in Naturally Infected Puppies
Romane Adieb Awad, Brit Martens and Safwat Ali Hassan
Background and Objective: Canine Parvovirus infection (CPV) causes high moralities among infected puppies, low survival and recovery rate in most of treated cases. So, the aim of this study was to develop a successful method for treatment of CPV infection in dogs with high recovery rate and to evaluate different types of treatment used to treat CPV infection. Materials and Methods: In this study, 360 puppies showing signs suggestive for CPV infection were subjected to clinical examination; Rapid Immunochromatography assay (IC) on fecal samples to detect viral antigen. Treatment of disease was applied using supportive classical treatment for all of the infected puppies while 2 groups (each of 120 puppies) received also Feliserin Plus and Zylexis as trail for treatment using antibodies specific against Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) as a source for interferon to control viral infection. Results: Clinical examination of diseased puppies revealed the presence of depression, pyrexia, anorexia, thirst, vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration. The IC on fecal samples was positive for CPV in all the 360 examined puppies. Recovery rate in the form of clinical improvement and survival of diseased animals were significantly higher in the group treated by Feliserin Plus (81.7%), followed by the group treated by Zylexis (16.6%). Conclusion: The results of this study exhibited that the use of Feline specific neutralizing antibodies against FPV showed promising results against CPV infection in comparison to the old classical treatment and could be applied for CPV infection in diseased dogs.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Clinical and Molecular Study of Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) Emerged in Oreochromis niloticus from Indonesia
Budi Rianto Wahidi, Uun Yanuhar, Mohamad Fadjar and Sri Andayani
Background and Objective: Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) can infect some species of freshwater fish, other than Cyprinidae. As well this possibility, in which tilapia may be infected with KHV, this study aimed to detect KHV from tilapia in Gresik, East Java, Indonesia using clinical and molecular study. Methodology: The study was carried out by examining clinical symptoms of tilapia and PCR examination followed by a sequence analysis and then aligned with BioEdit and the construction of phylogenetic trees was determined using the Neighbors-Joining. Results: The clinical symptoms observed from tilapia were discoloration on the skin and white patches on the gills. A sequence analysis using TK gene and PCR duplex analysis (marker I and marker II) indicated that the KHV genotype of the tilapia was identical to the A1 variants and displayed allele I++ II+ allele of the Asian genotype. Conclusion: The genetic variations of KHV observed from tilapia clearly indicated that the KHV genotype infecting tilapia is an Asian genotype. However, although tilapia was infected with KHV, no specific apparent of clinical symptoms and no mortality was seen in tilapia.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Alteration of Serum and Hepatic Trace Element Level in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-induced by High-fat Sucrose Diet
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar and Kamal Adel Amin
Background and Objective: Disturbances of trace elements are intricate factors in the progress of obesity and its associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, the status of these elements has infrequently been studied in NAFLD. The current study aimed to evaluate the iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium statuses of serum and liver in control and high-fat sucrose diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as their relationships with metabolic risk bio-markers of NAFLD. Material sand Methods: Forty male 1.5-month-old rats were allocated into 2 groups of 20 each. One group was given a standard diet and the second nurtured a high-fat sucrose diet (HFSD) for 16 weeks. Blood was assessed for lipid profile (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL) and liver function markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity). Hepatic histopathology was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining. Serum and hepatic trace element levels were evaluated by means of inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The HFSD group showed significant changes in lipid profile, increased ALT activity, hepatic small and large fat globule, hepatocyte ballooning and damage indicating induction of NAFLD. Serum iron, zinc, copper and selenium concentrations were significantly decreased and minor serum manganese and selenium levels were observed in the HFSD group compared to the control group. Both hepatic iron and copper levels of the HFSD group surpassed those of the control group. Conclusion: The HFSD-induced NAFLD plays a role in iron homeostasis, thus reducing its bio-availability and increasing its hepatic peak drained from the blood. Furthermore, HFSD-induced NAFLD disturbs serum and hepatic trace elements.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Assessing the Influence of Consumer Education, Personality and Social Media in Halal Purchase Behavior
Muhammad Arif Muhammad, Elistina Abu Bakar, Afida Mastura Muhammad Arif, Sa`odah Ahmad and Zuroni MdJusoh
Background and Objective: Recognizing the importance of halal to Muslim consumers had caused the traders to use the concept of halal as a form of marketing. However, Muslim consumers often face problems to ensure that the products they buy, including cosmetics are truly halal as they can only rely on the certification of the authorities. Rather than looking from a marketing perspective, this study was an exploration from consumer empowerment aspects. The objective of the study was to predict the determining factors that influence consumer behavior when buying halal food products. The study focused on four factors which were the intensity of consumer education, the personality of assertiveness and aggressiveness and the role of social media. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Malaysia and the data collection was done between December 2017 to March 2018. A total of 400 Muslim respondents participated in this study and were chosen through stratified random sampling. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify the factors that contributed to consumer behavior. Results: Results showed that only the intensity of consumer education and the personality trait of assertiveness were able to explain a 7.1% variance in the behavior of the respondents while buying halal food products. The results also found that the personality of aggressiveness and social media were not the predictive factors of consumer behavior. The most influential variable was the intensity of consumer education. Conclusion: This research holds significant implications for the government and consumer associations, to give emphasis to effective consumer education programs to inculcate good purchase behavior among consumers.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Optimum Buffer Node Selection for Queue Management in MANET Using Honey Bee Algorithm
Robin Rohit and Ramaraj Eswarathevar
Background and Objective: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), existing buffer management techniques did not consider the coverage and connectivity parameters to select optimum nodes as buffer nodes. The assigned buffer space should reflect the packet drop probability of the nodes. Hence the main objective of this work was to design an optimum buffer node selection and queue management mechanism for nodes in MANET. Materials and Methods: In this study, a Buffer Node Selection for Queue Management using Honey Bee (BFN-HB) algorithm for MANET has been proposed. In this technique, Queue Management Nodes (QMN) were selected based on the coverage and connectivity. These nodes maintain separate queues depending on the priority of traffic. During data transmission, when the packet dropping probability becomes higher than a threshold value, the buffer space of that node was adjusted. On the other hand, if the neighbor density changes than a small bound, then the buffer space of all the neighbor nodes were dynamically updated. Results: The proposed BFN-HB algorithm is simulated in network simulator and the performance is evaluated in terms of the metrics end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, packet loss and throughput and simulation results have shown that BFN-HB algorithm has reduced delay and packet loss with increased throughput and packet delivery ratio. Conclusion: It can be concluded that BFN-HB has been considered as the best approach for queue management in MANET.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Bayesian Quantile Regression Methods in Handling Non-normal and Heterogeneous Error Term
Ferra Yanuar, Hazmira Yozza and Aidinil Zetra
Background and Objective: Quantile regression is a developing statistical tool which is used to explain the relationship between response and predictor variables. Quantile approach has ability to model the data which non-normal distributed and non-constant variance assumption. This study presented the ability of the quantile and Bayesian quantile method in overcoming the problem of violation of normality and homogenous assumption for error terms and compare the results. Materials and Methods: This research implemented the simulation study to explore the performance of the asymmetric Laplace distribution for working likelihood in posterior estimation process. Markov Chain Monte Carlo method using Gibbs sampling algorithm was then applied to estimate the parameter in quantile regression model. This study designed distributions for error term; normal, non-normal and heterogeneous variability, then compare the bias and Monte Carlo standard error as the results of classical quantile and Bayesian quantile method. Convergency of parameter estimated were also checked. Results: Bayesian quantile estimation method resulted lower biases and lower Monte Carlo standard error than the classical quantile method for all selected conditions of error term. Conclusion: This study proved that Bayesian quantile regression method produced better proposed model then classical quantile method in the case of non-normal and heterogenous error term.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Quality Function Deployment Method under Interval Neutrosophic Environment for Sustainable Supplier Selection
Do Anh Duc, Phan Huy Duong, Ha Dieu Linh, Trinh Dinh Uyen, Le Trang Nhung and Nguyen The Kien
Background and Objective: With increased worldwide awareness of environmental protection, green purchasing has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. This study proposes a new Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method based on score, accuracy and certainty functions under interval neutrosophic environment for sustainable supplier selection. Several economic, environmental and social criteria are considered in the decision process. Materials and Method: In the proposed approach, the interval neutrosophic set (INS) is applied to assess the importance of the ‘‘WHATs’’, ‘‘HOWs’’, ‘‘HOWs’’-‘‘WHATs’’ correlation scores and the impact of each potential supplier. This study applies the score, the accuracy and the certainty functions to rank the alternatives. Results: Two numerical examples are used to compare the proposed approach with two others QFD approaches demonstrating its advantages and applicability. The result indicates that the proposed method is efficient and more general compared with those of relevant studies. Conclusion: This study has developed the QFD approach using the INS to evaluate sustainable suppliers. The proposed method has great application potential in solving multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems in the INS.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Successive Approximation of Implicit Multistep Type Iterative Algorithms in Locally Convex Spaces
Kanayo Stella Eke and Hudson Akewe
Background and Objectives: The application of implicit fixed point iterative algorithms have been greatly employed in many physical systems as the implicit algorithms provide better approximation than their corresponding explicit algorithms and are very efficient in reducing the computational cost of the fixed point problems. The objectives of this study, therefore; were in three folds: (1) To develop implicit hybrid Jungck-Kirk multistep iterative algorithms in a metrizable locally convex space, (2) Prove its convergence to the unique common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible generalized contractive-type operators (S, T) and (3) Demonstrate the application of the convergence results with some examples. Materials and Methods: Analytical method was used to prove the main theorem, while numerical method was to demonstrate the application of the convergence result. Results: Strong convergence analytical and numerical results constitute the main results of this work. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study showed that the implicit hybrid Jungck-Kirk multistep iterative algorithms have good potentials for further applications, especially in relation to rate of convergence.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Defending against Medium Access Control and Network Layer Misbehavior Attacks by Monitoring Nodes in MANET
Abhishek Ranjan, Venu Madhav Kuthadi, Tshilidzi Marwala and Rajalakshmi Selvaraj
Background and Objective: In Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) existing misbehavior detection systems rarely consider both MAC and network layer misbehaviors. Hence the main objective of this work was to develop misbehavior detection and defense techniques for both MAC layer and network layer attacks. Materials and Methods: This paper proposed a cross-layer based misbehavior detection and defense technique (CLMDD) for MANET. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique was applied to select reliable monitoring nodes which detected the misbehaving nodes. Then in receiver detection module, back off cheating was analyzed. In audit module, greedy nodes were detected which performs the Media Access Control (MAC) layer misbehaviors. Results: The proposed CLMDD technique was simulated in NS2 and compared with the Audit-based Misbehaviour Detection (AMD) technique. By simulation results, it had been shown that CLMDD attained reduced packet drop, energy consumption and normalized overhead when compared to AMD technique. Conclusion: It can be concluded that CLMDD had been considered as the best approach for detecting and defending the misbehavior attacks in MANET.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Automatic Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels of Diabetic Retinopathy Patients using Dempster-shafer Edge Based Detector
Akande Noah Oluwatobi, Abikoye Oluwakemi Christiana and Kayode Aderonke Anthonia
Background and Objective: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a micro-vascular complication of diabetes which results in the alteration or total damage of retinal blood vessels. This is responsible for most partial loss of sight and blindness among diabetic patients across nations of the world. Early examination of retinal blood vessels could help in the detection and diagnosis of the symptoms of DR thereby curtailing its effects. Methodology: Dempster-shafer edge based detector was used to segment retinal blood vessels from retinal images sourced from Digital Retinal Image for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE). Prior to the segmentation, median filter, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) and mahalanobis distance algorithms were used to preprocess the raw retinal images so that accurate blood vessels detection and segmentation will be achieved. Results: A segmentation accuracy of 0.9765 was recorded when receiver operating characteristics of the technique was computed. This showed that an acceptable degree of blood vessel segmentation was achieved. Furthermore, the segmented blood vessels are publicly available for academic and research purposes. Conclusion: Dempster-shafer edge based detector has been further shown to be an effective algorithm for blood vessels segmentation in healthy as well as DR retinal images.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Understanding and Localization of Partial Discharge by Numerical Analysis of Acoustic Emission
Yomna Shaker
Background and Objective: The condition of electrical insulation in transformers is one of the most important factors that govern transformer life. Different factors influence the aging of the transformer insulation and one of the most important factors is the occurrence of partial discharge (PD). Frequent occurrence of PD can cause damage to the insulation which may eventually lead to its failure. Among the PD detection techniques, there is increased interest in the PD acoustic detection method because it overcomes several disadvantages inherent in electrical methods. The main objective of this work is to introduce mathematical model of partial discharge and study the effect of its travelling path on its arrival time to detect its location. Materials and Methods: A complete setup was examined to get the experimental results by creating PD in transformer oil and collecting the produced acoustic waves via different sensors through different paths. Results: The proposed model presents the propagation of acoustic wave with direct and indirect path which helps in calculating arrival time. This will identify the location precisely by detecting the peak value from the modelled signals. Conclusion: The output acoustic wave received by the PD AE sensor can be analyzed by the mathematical model. The attenuation of each component can be understood to calculate the real arrival time of peak value. The location will be determined by comparing with the experimental one.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
A Comparative Analysis of Economic Viability of Organic and Conventional Rice Farming in Malang Regency, Indonesia
Bunga Hidayati, Naoyuki Yamamoto and Hideyuki Kano
Background and Objective: Economic viability often becomes a critical parameter for agricultural management with the intention to accept or reject a proposed agricultural system. This study was carried out to conduct a comparative analysis of the economic viability of both organic and conventional rice farming. Materials and Methods: Eighty farmers from the area of Malang Regency were randomly selected for this study. The capital budgeting methods were used to analyze the economic viability of the farms. The multiple linear regression was analyzed by SPSS version 20 for determining capital budgeting factors. Results: The economic viability result showed that the organic rice farming was 5439.04 USD more profitable, 28% more reliable, 1.78 higher and 0.78 years earlier than the conventional system for net present value, Internal Rate of Return, Benefit-Cost Ratio and Payback Period, respectively. The regression result revealed that revenue and cost were significant in all capital budgeting methods on both farming systems. Conclusion: The organic rice farm had given better financial performance and economic viability than conventional rice farm. The return of investment can be enhanced fast by increasing the revenue parameter of rice farming.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Design, Development and Evaluation of a Tangential-flow Paddy Thresher: A Response Surface Analysis
Adeniyi Tajudeen Olayanju, Clinton Emeka Okonkwo, John Olusegun Ojediran, Samuel Adewumi Alake, Elijah Aina Alhassan and Abiodun Afolabi Okunola
Background and Objective: Traditional paddy threshing is still usually carried out by women and children in the rural village. The aim of this study was to design and develop a tangential thresher, optimize the conditions necessary for threshing paddy using a response surface modeling methodology. Materials and Methods: Paddy straw (Faro 44 variety) was used for this study. Moisture contents at three levels between 14.50 and 25.10% and threshing drum speed between 398 and 565 rpm. The response surface of desirability function was used for the numerical optimization. Results: Some of the performance efficiencies (cleaning efficiency, threshing recovery, threshing efficiency, percentage loss and percentage blown grain) which was evaluated were significantly (p<0.05) affected by moisture content and threshing drum speed. Conclusion: The effects of the moisture content, threshing drum speed and its optimization were regarded as very useful to ascertain the performance efficiency of the developed tangential flow threshing machine.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Characterisation of the Broadband Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance over Bangi, Malaysia
Ohoud Aljawi, Nurul Shazana Abdul Hamid, Wan Mohd Aimran Wan Mohd Kamil and Nor Sakinah Mohamad
Background and Objective: Stratospheric ozone depletion, high skin cancer rates and increased public benefit have strong dem and for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements. This study aimed to characterize the broadband of solar UV spectral irradiance in Bangi, Malaysia. Apart from that, it also attempt to estimate the solar UV broadband radiation intensity with a utilization of establish mathematical model. Materials and Methods: Observation of broadband solar ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance 300-400 nm over fixed time interval between January, 2014 and July, 2015 have been measured and analyzed. The experimental measurements were obtained by using a portable Avantes Avaspec ULS 2048×64-USB2 spectrometer on horizontal surface at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, in Bangi (2°55' N, 101°46' E and 50 m above sea level). The direct radiation measurement technique was acquired by pointing the sensor directly to the sun. The statistical test parameters such as root mean square error RMSE and mean bias error MBE have been used to test the accuracy of measured data. Results: The study reported that, the maximum recorded hourly average value of ultraviolet radiation intensity was 47.37 and 46.36 Wm–2 in month of July during the period 2014-2015, respectively, while the minimum value recorded 36.82 Wm–2 in month of November, 2014. In addition, the mathematical model results are comparable with measurement data for broadband solar ultraviolet intensity. The results were compared with the regions of Penang in Malaysia and Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Conclusion: It was discovered that the variation of diurnal UV radiation is almost follows the same trend for all measured value at clear days. The statistical analysis of the present result also revealed that there is strong relationship between measured and estimated UV intensity, indicating the effectiveness of the measurement values.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Preservative Effect of Garlic-ginger, Sodium Benzoate and Ascorbic Acid in Unpasteurized Cashew Apple Juice
Abiola Folakemi Olaniran, Charles Okolie, Helen Ene Abu, Ruth Oluwabusola Afolabi and Akinyomade Owolabi
Background and Objective: Wastage of more than 90% cashew apples fruits can significantly be curbed, thus, this study evaluated the potentials of garlic-ginger filtrate as biopreservative compared with sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid in unpasteurized cashew apple juice. Materials and Methods: Unpasteurized cashew apple juices were pretreated with 1% garlic-ginger filtrate, 1% sodium benzoate (v/v) and 1% ascorbic acid (v/v). About 100% cashew apple juice served as positive control. All the samples were stored on the shelf at 26±2°C for 5 weeks. The pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, specific gravity and enumeration of microbial load were done weekly. Results: The pH of garlic-ginger preserved unpasteurized cashew apple juice was relatively steady for 3 weeks. Garlic-ginger filtrate was the most effective preservative, followed by ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively without microbial and physiochemical deterioration for 3 weeks. Conclusion: Incorporation of garlic-ginger filtrate as biopreservative extended the shelf life of unpasteurized cashew apple juice at ambient temperature thus reducing the economic losses resulting from annual wastage and spoilage of the fruit.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Protective Role of Monolluma quadrangula Extract Against Hyperammonemia, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Ammonium Chloride-induced Rats
Mousa Osman Germoush
Background and Objectives: Excess ammonia results from liver failure can cause serious neuropsychiatric complications. Monolluma quadrangula is a succulent plant with promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its protective effect against hyperammonemia hasn’t been reported. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of M. quadrangula extract on ammonia levels, oxidative stress, inflammation and Na+/K+-ATPase in ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)-administered rats. Materials and Methods: Rats received NH4Cl three times per week and 250 mg kg–1 b.wt., M. quadrangula extract for 8 weeks. The animals were sacrificed and blood, cerebrum, liver and kidney samples were collected for analyses. Results: The NH4Cl-administered rats showed a significant increase in blood ammonia and liver and kidney function markers. Lipid peroxidation was increased, superoxide dismutase and catalase were decreased in the brain, liver and kidney of rats. Treatment with M. quadrangular extract ameliorated blood ammonia, liver and kidney function markers, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and catalase in NH4Cl-induced rats. Monolluma quadrangular extract prevented inflammation and decreased nitric oxide and glutamine levels in the brain of rats. In addition, M. quadrangula extract decreased the expression and activity of Na+/K+-ATPase in the brain of rats received NH4Cl. Conclusion: These results showed the protective effect of M. quadrangula extract against NH4Cl-induced hyperammonemia. Monolluma quadrangula prevented oxidative stress and inflammation and modulated glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and Na+/K+-ATPase in the brain of rats.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Alternative Approach of Firefly Algorithm for Flood Control Rule Curves
Anongrit Kangrang, Nutthapong Srikamol, Rattana Hormwichian, Haris Prasanchum and Ounla Sriwanpheng
Background and Objective: Rule curves of reservoirs are necessary guides to operate reservoir system in the long run for both flood and draught control. The main objective of each rule curve depended on the characteristics of each reservoir. This paper proposed an alternative approach of a Firefly Algorithm (FA) to connect with the simulation model for searching optimal reservoir rule curves as the flood control area. Materials and Methods: Minimum average excess water and minimum frequency excess water were used as the objective functions for the searching procedure. The historic inflow, synthetic inflow data of 1,000 events and future inflow were used to evaluate efficiency of the flood control rule curves in showing situations of water shortage and excess water in term of frequency, magnitude and duration. The proposed model was applied to determine the optimal flood rule curves of the Nam Oon reservoir in the northeast region of Thailand. Results: The results showed that the patterns of the obtained rule curves were similar to the current rule curves. The optimal flood control rule curves were used to simulate the Nam Oon reservoir system for evaluating the situation of flood in long term operation. The results indicated that situations of water shortage and of excess water using optimal flood control rule curves from the proposed model were smaller than with current rule curves both for the present and future situations. Conclusion: The new obtained rule curves from the proposed FA model are better than the existing rule curves in decreasing flood situation.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
New Interval-valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Operators and their Properties
Admi Nazra, Yudiantri Asdi and Sisri Wahyuni
Background and Objective: The study on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has developed quite rapidly. Related results are already widely used in real life. In this paper, two new operators on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets are defined and some their properties are studied. Materials and Methods: The definitions of related previous operators inspired the definition of the new interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft operators. By combining the previous and the new operators, some related properties are constructed. Results: By giving sufficient conditions, it was obtained some interested results describing the relationship between the previous and the new interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft operators. Conclusion: These results have enriched the study on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft operators, specifically the relationship between operations in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets.
Research Article
Published on June 15, 2019
Growth Performance and Toxicological Assessments of Chicken Feather Protein Hydrolysate as Fish Meal Substitute in Rat Diet
Olarewaju M. Oluba, Chimelu Okongwu, Temitayo Lawa and Oghenerobor B. Akpor
Background and Objective: At present, Fish Meal (FM) and meat meal are the dominant animal protein sources for livestock feeds. However, these protein sources are not affordable for most livestock farmers, especially those in developing countries. Thus, it would be helpful to test other protein-based animal byproducts as alternative cheaper protein sources and as a solution to the overdependence of animal feeds on FM. The present study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with chicken feather protein hydrolysate (CFPH) in rat diet. Materials and Methods: The changes in growth performance (after 4 weeks) and some tissue biochemical indices (after 7 weeks) were determined following feeding with iso-proteic and iso-energetic diets, in which 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of FM were replaced by CFPH (CFPH 0-100), respectively. Results: Food intake and weight gain showed progressive reduction with increasing proportion of CFPH in the diet increased. The growth parameters monitored were observed to decrease progressively with the increasing CFPH level in the diet. Plasma lipid concentrations were not significantly altered in the rats fed with 20 and 40% CFPH but were significantly lower in the rats fed with 60-100% CFPH compared to the rats fed with 100% FM. Fecal nitrogen excretion and plasma total protein concentration were significantly increased in the rats fed with 40-100% CFPH compared to rats fed 20 and 40% CFPH as well as 100% FM. Liver and kidney function indices monitored were not significantly altered in the rats fed CFPH up to 40% compared to the rats fed 100% FM. Conclusion: Based on the data generated from this study, it could be concluded that the inclusion of CFPH in rat diet up to 20% of the total dietary protein content is safe and has no drastic effect on the growth performance. Thus, feeding CFPH to animals could be a cost-effective solution to the challenge of waste feather disposal and could reduce the overdependence of livestock feed on FM, thereby ensuring sustainable livestock farming.

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