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Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Asian Journal of Scientific Research
eISSN: 2077-2076
pISSN: 1992-1454

Editor-in-Chief:  Kaiser Jamil
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Review Article
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Applications in Plantation Canopy Areas: A Review
Siti Khairunnniza-Bejo, NurHidayah Ramli and Farrah Melissa Muharam
Recently, the developments in sensor technologies, such as wireless communication, micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded systems have contributed significantly to wireless sensor network (WSN). The agriculture industry is applying WSN in their systems for surveillance and monitoring the environment. For plantation applications, a WSN is used for control and protection and for providing a real-time system. These applications include, for instance, to detect the presence of disease, temperature and moisture of the soil. The quality and coverage of a wireless link in a plantation area needs to be understood due to the effect of vegetation such as propagation loss resulting from the ground and canopy reflection. In this paper, the development of wireless sensor networks in canopy areas is reviewed. The problem of propagation link in canopy areas is identified. The structure of WSN is discussed with suggestions to create a reliable communication link. From the studies reviewed, the information to design a wireless sensor network in canopy areas for application in plantations is provided.
Research Article
Fusion Enhancement of Multispectral Satellite Image by Using Higher Order Statistics
T. Venkata Krishnamoorthy and G. Umamaheswara Reddy
Background and Objective: The satellite multispectral images have several bands, which have low resolution and limited information. These bands are combined into a fused single image that contains the information of all bands, but these existing fusion methods are affected by color distortion. The aim of this study was to improve the spatial and spectral information of satellite images by using higher order statistics in combination with intensity hue saturation and wavelet method. It exhibited higher performance than the color normalization and Panchromatic sharpening techniques. Materials and Methods: The present study developed a new fusion enhancement method for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration multispectral satellite images to provide an improved conceptual framework with minimal color distortion. The following parameters are used to assess the performance of the proposed fusion enhancement method: Root mean square error, correlation coefficient, structural similarity index measure, error relative global adimensionnelle de synthese and relative average spectral error. Results: To reduce the dimensionality of multi band satellite images independent component analysIs is employed, which uses the higher-order statistics of the data respectively and the image is fused with High resolution panchromatic satellite image. Conclusion: The enhanced image of proposed algorithm are compared with previous techniques and got better improvement than previous images.
Research Article
Relationship Between Body Composition and Musculoskeletal Fitness in Nigerian Children
Abel Toriola, Olusesi Ajayi-Vincent, Patrick Oyeniyi, Isaac Akindutire, David Adeagbo, Patience Konwea, Olukemi Awosusi, Seyi Ogunsile, Violet Moselakgomo, Sunday Onagbiye and Makama Monyeki
Background and Objective: Substantial evidence indicates that high level of obesity assessed by body mass index (BMi) could affect the motor performance, musculoskeletal fitness and wellbeing of the youths. This study investigated the relationship between the BMi and musculoskeletal fitness in a cross-sectional sample of school children in Ado-Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Body weight, height and three components of musculoskeletal fitness (sit and reach, sit-ups and standing broad jump) were measured in 1229 school children (boys = 483, girls = 746, ages: 9-13 years). Body mass index was computed to classify participants into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese categories. Results: Significantly low inverse correlation was observed between BMi and standing broad jump (SBJ) (r = -0.196, p<0.01), while underweight individuals were likely to perform poorly in sit and reach (OR = 0.98, Ci = 0.97, 1.00), but had greater likelihood of performing well in sit-ups (OR = 1.01, Ci = 0.99, 1.03) and standing broad jump (OR = 1.03, Ci = 1.01, 1.06) test. Being overweight was associated with a poor sit and reach (OR = 0.99, Ci = 0.92, 1.06) and standing broad jump (OR = 0.96, Ci = 0.94, 0.98) performances, but greater propensity of sit-up (OR = 1.00, Ci = 0.93, 1.08) performance. Obese participants were significantly associated with poor sit and reach (OR = 0.83, Ci = 0.74, 0.91) and standing broad jump (OR = 0.94, Ci = 0.92, 0.96), but greater likelihood of significant sit-ups (OR = 1.22, Ci = 1.12, 1.33) compared to normal individuals’ performance. Conclusion: There was a significant negative relationship between the BMi and standing broad jump in Nigerian children and adolescents. Both underweight, overweight and obese participants performed poorly in either flexibility, sit-ups or SBJ test, obese individuals being mostly affected. Musculoskeletal fitness could serve as a pointer of possible health risks for both malnourished and excessively weighty youths.
Research Article
Deforestation in Dharmasraya District, West Sumatra, Indonesia A Causal Loop Diagrams (CLD) Model
Yurike , Yonariza , Rebecca Elmhirst, Syafruddin Karimi and Rudi Febriamansyah
Background and Objective: This study was motivated by changes in forest conversion to plantations and high rates of deforestation in the Dharmasraya district. By decree of the Ministry of Forestry in 2013, this area is designated as a production forest management unit area (PFMU) because of its potential for regional timber production. This study aims to understand the dynamics of the interaction between economic, social and ecological factors associated with deforestation in PFMU Dharmasraya. Methodology: This research uses analysis of system thinking by modeling the causal loop diagram. Focus was placed on dynamics modeling of land use change in several related aspects. Result: The dynamic system model can illustrate that deforestation was triggered by weak law enforcement to provide an opportunity for people to make encroachment. This leads to the buying and selling of land, which encourages population growth as large numbers of migrants invest in this area. The increase in income will increase demand for land, thus, if regulations were not applied to the market mechanism, demand for land and plantations will outweigh the need for sustainability. Conclusion: The modeling of forest land conversion systems into plantations in PFMU areas shows that the existing system is not sustainable because it has not been able to preserve the existing system for long-term use. Land management policies are needed that can encourage sustainable development.
Research Article
A Five-term Hybrid Conjugate Gradient Method with Global Convergence and Descent Properties for Unconstrained Optimization Problems
Olawale Joshua Adeleke and Idowu Ademola Osinuga
Background and Objective: The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is a recurrence technique for solving effectively large-scale unconstrained optimization problems. In this study, a new hybrid nonlinear conjugate gradient method that combines the features of 5 different conjugate gradient methods is proposed with the aim of combining the positive features of different non-hybrid methods. Methodology: The proposed method was able to generate descent directions independent of line search procedures. By making assumptions on the objective function, the global convergence of the method was established under the standard Wolfe line search conditions. Results: Preliminary results showed that the method is very competitive and promising when subjected to comparison with other non-hybrid methods based on numerical experiments with selected benchmark test functions. Conclusion: As a future study, the proposed method will be tested against recently proposed related methods.
Research Article
Green Material Selection Using an Integrated Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making Model
Le Kim Sa, Nguyen Cam Nhung, Le Van Chien, Nguyen Anh Tuan and Pham Van Tu
Background and Objective: Material selection is one of the most important activities in the design process and development of products and it also critical to the success and competitiveness of the producers. The objective of this paper was to propose an integrated fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) model to support the green material selection process. Materials and Methods: In the proposed integrated model, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine the criteria weights, whereas fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is used to find the performance ranking of the alternative materials. The ratings of material alternatives and importance weights of criteria for material alternatives selection are represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. Then, the membership functions of the final fuzzy evaluation value in the proposed approach are developed based on the linguistic expressions. Results: This study applies the proposed integrated fuzzy MCDM approach to the material alternatives selection and evaluation in a company demonstrating its advantages and applicability. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective in the material alternatives selection for the producers. Conclusion: Evaluating a material alternative is a very important decision for many producers. This study has developed an integrated fuzzy MCDM method to solve the material selection and evaluation problem. The proposed method could be improved by employing the extension of fuzzy sets such as intuitionistic fuzzy sets and neutrosophic sets.
Research Article
New Technique for Elimination of Ferroresonant Oscillations in Series Capacitor of Power System
Seyyed Hamid Fathi and Ataollah Abbasi
Background and Objective: The complex ferroresonant behavior in power transformers can create overvoltages and overcurrents resulting in damage to power system equipment and customer installations. It can also cause subharmonics and nonlinear harmonics in power system. In this study, a new method was proposed to control and damp ferroresonant oscillations, which is based on a new ferroresonance limiter (FL). Materials and Methods: In order to control ferroresonance oscillations, a saturating choke and damping resistor was used to eliminate all the unwanted ferroresonant states. Since the ferroresonance phenomenon in transformer was described by nonlinear dynamics, chaos theory was used to study this phenomenon. By using this theory, the changes in system parameters which can cause chaotic ferroresonant oscillations, can be reviewed and analyzed in detail. Results: The behavior of the system during ferroresonance occurrence, with and without using proposed ferroresonance limiter, are discussed in bifurcation and phase plane diagrams. By using these diagrams, the behavioral changes of the system can be easily seen in two cases. Conclusion: The simulation results strongly show the effectiveness of using the proposed FL for limiting ferroresonant oscillations and creating stable orbit in power transformer terminals that energized by series capacitors or transmission lines compensated.
Research Article
Pre-treatment by Acidification and Freezing on Corncob Polymers and its Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Carlos Echeverria, Ghenghis Bazan, Jesus Sanchez-Gonzalez, Leslie Lescano, Sandra Pagador and Guillermo Linares
Background and Objective: Corncob contain high percentage of cellulose (40.95±0.38%), hemicellulose (38.94±1.72%) and low lignin content (16.54±0.38%) which has a great potential of bioconversion to bioethanol. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of acidification, freezing and the combination of these pre-treatments in corncob compounds and its enzymatic hydrolysis. Materials and Methods: It was evaluated the changes occured in macrostructure and lignocellulosic compounds after pre-treatments. Corncob fiber was pretreated by freezing at -20°C for 12 h; with 0.25 M sulfuric acid, pH 2.0, at 121°C for 20 min and by the combination of both pre-treatments. After pre-treatment, an enzymatic hydrolysis with 150 Ucellulase/gsubstrate in 10 mL of acetate was performed at 100 rpm, 37°C and pH 5.48 for 72 h. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance using SPSS. Results: The combined pre-treatment (acidification and freezing) allowed to obtain the highest amount of cellulose (64.12±1.03%) and lignin (19.76±0.42%) and low amount of hemicellulose ( 10.16±1.42%) was determined. The optical microscopy analysis of samples with combined pre-treatment show partitioned and less agglomerated structure. Conclusion: The higher concentration of glucose (40.90±2.11 g L–1) was obtained by combined pre-treatment, which increased the enzyme efficiency with 57.41%, which could be approved for the conversion of high value products, like bioethanol.
Research Article
Analysis of Rifampicin in Dried Blood Spots Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Yahdiana Harahap, Ghina Ashiila Amalia and Baitha Palanggatan Maggadani
Background and Objective: Rifampicin (RIF) is one of the first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs combined with isoniazid in fixed dose combination (FDC) form. Tuberculosis patient using RIF has been correlated with treatment failure because of low blood drug concentrations. Therefore, the application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended. Besides the conventional venipuncture bio-sampling method, dried blood spots (DBS) offer several potential benefits, which increase the patient comfort. The main objective of this research is to obtain an analysis method of RIF in DBS. Materials and Methods: A simpler analytical method was developed and validated to quantify RIF in DBS samples using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A linear regression was used as the statistical analysis method. Results: The optimum chromatographic condition was obtained using C-8 (Waters, SunfireTM 5 μm; 250×4.6 mm) with the mobile phase consisted of 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.5-acetonitrile-methanol (40:30:30), flow rate was 0.5 mL min–1, column temperature was 40°C and was detected at 261 nm. The time of analysis was 16 min and cilostazole was used as an internal standard. The DBS extraction was done by protein precipitation technique using acetonitrile:methanol (1:4 v/v%) with 1000 μL as the volume. The method was linear at concentration range of 1.0-30.0 μg mL–1 with r>0.9984. Conclusion: The analysis method was fulfilled the acceptance criteria of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Bio-analytical Method Validation Guideline, 2011 and it is applicable for TDM of RIF.
Research Article
Maintainability and Capability of the Multi-Server System in Repairing Defective Machine Configurations with Different Probability Distributions
I.M. Hanafy, Mohammed Mohammed El-Genidy and Esraa Ahmed Hebeshy
Background and Objective: The efficiency study of the defective machine repairing system is an imperative field in the industrial engineering because it depends on the elapsed time of repairing defective machines in multi-server system configurations. This study seeks to introduce an accurate statistical method for different cases of the multi-server system in order to obtain important statistics such as the failure rate, reliability, availability, maintainability, capability and efficiency of the repairing machine system. Methodology: The moment’s method and its corresponding software implementation are applied to estimate the parameters of the exponential, Weibull, Gamma and normal distributions. Moreover, conduct a simulation study to generate a dataset of the time of servers in the general case. Finally, Anderson-Darling test is performed to fit datasets with the aforementioned distributions. Results: The equations of failure rate, reliability, maintainability, unreliability, availability, nonlinear regression are derived for each stage of the repairing time of the system under consideration and also for the entire system. Thus, in this study, evaluate the capability and efficiency of the system. Conclusion: The statistical method, used in this study, shows that it is possible for researchers to find all characteristics of each server in the multi-repairing systems as well as the entire system. As a result, the safety of designing multi-server system will be increased and the economic losses will be reduced.
Research Article
Mathematical Modelling of the Performance of a Biogas Digester Fed with Substrates at Different Mixing Ratios
Patrick Mukumba, Golden Makaka and Sampson Mamphweli
Background and Objective: The mathematical models would be of high benefit in rural areas of Eastern Cape province of South Africa that keep plenty of donkeys, cattle, horses and goats. The aim of this study was to investigate and establish the optimum mixing ratio for the co-digestion of cow dung, donkey dung, horse dung and goat dung and develop a mathematical model for the mixture producing optimum methane yield. Materials and Methods: The research was carried out using a 1 m3 field batch biogas digester. The substrates were analysed for total solids, volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, ammonium nitrogen, total alkalinity, pH and calorific value before they were co-digested in different mixing ratios. A multiple regression model was developed for the methane yield as a function of pH, chemical oxygen demand, ammonium nitrogen, digester temperature and total alkalinity. Results: The pH for all the mixtures was within the expected range for optimum methane production and the alkalinity values were all high showing good buffering capacity. The highest methane content of 75% was obtained from the co-digestion of 25% cow dung and 25% donkey dung with 25% horse dung and 25% donkey dung as compared with other co-digestion trials because of balanced nutrients as well as buffering capacity that enhanced the anaerobic digestion process. Conclusion: All the batch digestion tests were performed within a retention period of 30 days. The beneficial effect of the co-digestion is mainly due to the optimisation of the nutrient balance in the co-mixtures. The developed mathematical model can be used to predict methane yields from different mixtures of cow dung, donkey dung, horse dung and goat dung.
Research Article
Allocation Optimization of Farmers’ Resources to Achieve Maximum Income in Parigi Moutong Regency
Made Antara and Effendy
Background and Objective: In both the rural and urban areas of Parigi Moutong Regency in Indonesia, rapid socio-economic development has created a contradiction between increasing resource needs and the availability of farmers’ resources. The objective of this research was to examine how the resources of farmers might be optimally allocated in order to achieve maximum income through farming. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy farms were sampled. Sampling was done by stratified random sampling based on the area of cultivated land. Results: The research results showed that farmers in rural areas were more efficient in resource usage, both of their own resources [especially labor inside family (LIF)] and of outside resources (fertilizer usage, labor outside family (LOF) and credit loans). As a result, the average rural farming household income of the region surveyed was much higher than the equivalent average in the urban area. Farmers in both areas (rural and urban) would be able to achieve optimal resource management. However, the optimal allocations reached by the two areas would necessarily be different. Some farmers in rural areas could choose to increase labor productivity. This would be reflected in the utilization of more controlled capital and would produce a dual value of 10.11%, much larger than that achievable by farmers in the urban area. Conclusion: With the best use of capital, farmers in the rural area would be able to earn a higher household income on average. The average farmer’s household income in the rural area could increase by as much as 5.10%, whereas the same in the urban area would result in an increase of only 2.15%.
Research Article
Community Motivation and Learning to Pay the National Health Insurance Contribution
Sukri Palutturi, Muhamad Sahiddin, Hasanuddin Ishak and Hamzah
Background and Objective: The implementation of national health insurance in Indonesia is still very new and vulnerable to various problems. Investigating community motivation and learning towards national health insurance payments is vital for policy makers. This study aims to examine the community motivation and learning in the payment of contributions in Muna District, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data collection was conducted with in-depth interviews of 50 informants and 3 focus group discussions, consisting of participants who were in arrears on the payment of contributions, participants who routinely paid contributions, non-participant communities and local government. Results: The community conducting national health insurance registration is encouraged by the desire to relieve medical expenses in health facilities, family guarantees and some participants are not covered as beneficiaries. Participants are in arrears due to unpredictable family income, greater fees, other needs, busy activities, improved family health conditions and others. Participants who regularly pay due to family members still routinely perform health checks at health facilities, participants are satisfied with the health services. Participants have various experiences during treatment at health facilities, such as long queues at health facilities, referrals and no effective drugs. Conclusion: The motivation and learning of the community in the payment of contributions are made up of the economic condition of the family, the health condition and the experience of receiving health services at the health facility.
Research Article
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Waste Production from Different Fish Species Cultured at Floating Net Cages in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia
Hafrijal Syandri, Azrita and Ainul Mardiah
Background and Objective: Aquaculture operations that use floating net cages have become one of the primary mean of intensive fish-culture in Lake Maninjau. The fish-culture species studied were Cyprinus carpio (C. carpio) (T1), Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) (T2), Osphronemus goramy (O. goramy) (T3) and Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) (T4). The objective of the research was to estimate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads into Lake Maninjau. Materials and Methods: The capacity of floating net cages was approximately 32 m3 (4×4×2 m) with densities of 32 fish m–3 in triplicate groups. Approximately 1,500 kg of feed was used in each cage during the experiment. The difference of N and P loads from different fish species were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (SPSS 16.0) computer software. Results: The total N loads into the water bodies from T1, T2, T3 and T4 were estimated at 37.93±2.59, 49.90±5.17, 45.90±4.18 and 20.35±4.12 kg t–1 of fish production, respectively. The P load was estimated to be 18.30±0.12, 20.01±0.99, 22.60±0.80 and 13.93±1.47 kg t–1 of fish production, respectively. Every ton of feed consumed by each fish species will contribute as much as 38.26±2.55, 35.68±1.69, 32.12± 0.39 and 48.99±2.35 kg N load into the water bodies, respectively. The P load was 11.45±2.43, 9.11±0.21, 8.34±0.04 and 12.51±0.30 kg, respectively. Conclusion: The C. gariepinus species is preferred for aquaculture operations at Lake Maninjau, because it minimizes N and P load releases into water bodies which can maintain sustainable aquaculture operations.
Research Article
Genetic Polymorphism of KRT1.2 Gene and its Association with Improving of Some Wool Characteristics in Egyptian Sheep
Ibrahim Mohamed Farag, Hassan Ramadan Darwish, Ahmed Mohamed Darwish, Mariam Gergis Eshak and Ramadan Wael Ahmed
Background and Objective: KRT genes were found to be the major factors that affect structure component of wool fiber. So, this study focused on the genetic polymorphism in KRT1.2 gene and identified the favorable genotypes associated with improving wool characteristics in some Egyptian sheep breeds. Methodology: One hundred and twelve animals were used to collect blood and wool samples. Measurements of important economically wool traits that involved staple length (STL), fiber diameter (FD), clean fleece weight (CFW) and staple strength (STR) were analyzed. DNA were extracted from whole blood samples. PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was used to identify sequence variation. All allelic variation was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: SSCP analysis recorded 8 unique banding patterns. Some of these patterns, P5, P7, P2 and P3 were associated with strong effects on wool traits, STL, FD, CFW and STR, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified seven alleles A, B, C, D, E, F and G (F and G alleles are considered to be new ones) with eight genotypes, AB, DC, BE, DD, DE, DF and DG. The longer STL, lowest FD, high yield of CFW and improvement of STR were associated with DF (P5), DE (P7), DG (P2) and DD (P3) genotypes, respectively. Conclusion: The present study revealed that there is an association between genetic polymorphism of K33 gene and improving wool traits in Egyptian sheep.

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