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Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Asian Journal of Scientific Research
eISSN: 2077-2076
pISSN: 1992-1454

Editor-in-Chief:  Kaiser Jamil
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Research Article
Effects of A Body Shape Index, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Korean Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Tchaewon Jeong and Junwoo Lee
Objective: This study investigated a comparative analysis of ABSI (a body shape index), BMI (body mass index) and waist circumference (WC) regarding their relationships with CVD (cardiovascular disease) risk factors in Korean middle-aged and older adults. Materials and Methods: The raw data of the sixth KNHNES were utilized. Data of 2,464 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood testing and blood pressure. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The study found that ABSI, BMI and WC have significant relationships with blood lipid levels, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose in Korean middle-aged and older adults. Specifically, WC was found to be significantly related with triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and HDL cholesterol. BMI and ABSI were found to have a significant relationship with blood pressure. Therefore, this study showed that each anthropometric factor has different effects on CVD risk factors in Korean middle-aged and older adults. Conclusion: Based on the study results, it was concluded that healthcare professionals should not rely on a single anthropometric measurement in CVD risk management.
Research Article
Influence of Intellectual Capital Dimensions on Knowledge Process Capability and Organizational Performance
Waseem Barkat and Loo-See Beh
Background and Objective: Intellectual Capital IC has been much studied in developed nations, but less considered on developing countries. This study was conducted in the context of a developing country like Pakistan to discover its impact on organizational performance. This study aimed to develop a conceptual model and to measure the individual dimensional effects of intellectual capital (human, structural, relational and technological capital) on knowledge process capability as well as organizational performance in the context of a developing country. Methodology: The survey was conducted with 267 respondents from the textile industry in Pakistan. This research used structural equation modeling with partial least squares regression. The structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to run the multiple regression analysis and the analysis is performed with Warp partial least square (WarpPLS) software. Results: Results corroborate that all dimensions of intellectual capital have significant positive effects on organizational performance, except for structural capital. Similarly, knowledge process capability is partially mediated with relational, human and technological capital. Conclusion: This study presents implications for human resource managers and policy makers by examining the various dimensions of intellectual capital on organizational performance in the context of a developing country. This study offers selected relevant intellectual capital dimensions in workplace settings and suggests the importance of knowledge process capability in an organizational context.
Research Article
Designing Training Module to Improve Nursing Clinical Competence Based on Needs Analysis: A Developmental Study
Tiarnida Nababan and Erikson Saragih
Background and Objective: Competence refers to knowledge, skills, abilities and traits. It is gained in the health care professions through pre-service education, in-service training and study experience. Based on some nursing education institution reports, few nursing graduates are competent and ready for professional work. Measuring competence is essential to determine the ability and readiness of health workers to provide quality services. In order to improve nursing competence, there have been some efforts made by nursing education institutions in Indonesia. The research objectives were, firstly to explore needs analysis of nursing clinical competency at hospitals in Indonesia and overseas, secondly to design training module for improving nursing clinical competence based on the results of needs analysis. Methodology: This research applied developmental research method, planning, conducting and reporting the results. The research data were the result of in depth-interview with 3 senior nurse managers of 3 hospitals, FGD with nursing students and nursing clinical competency assessors concerning required nursing clinical competencies and the results of the needs analysis were taken as a basis for constructing a training module for improving quality of nursing clinical competence applying developmental research design. Results: The results of FGD revealed that 8 nursing competency domains need to be well comprehended by nursing graduates covering 32 major clinical competencies. From the needs analysis, a training module for improving nursing clinical competency was arranged and developed to meet requirements as stated in needs analysis. The designed module has proved to be effective in improving clinical competency of nursing graduates as observed in simulation assessment model. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that nursing clinical competence can be improved by using needs analysis and well designed training module that directly touches the required nursing clinical competence in practice.
Research Article
Effect of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Essential Oil on Biofilm-biocorrossion in Formation Water Environment
Intan Taufik, Dea Indriani Astuti, Isty Adhitya Purwasena and Wuddan Nadhirah Rodiana
Background and Objective: Microbial accumulation in oil industry's pipeline system would eventually leads to biofilm formation, which could initiate biocorrosion. Biofilm-biocorrosion caused great loss in industry and is essential to be included in mitigation program. Essential oils extracted from plants are known to have anti-microbial properties. This study aimed to further investigate the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil in emulsion and microemulsion form against biofilm in formation water environment. Materials and Methods: Thermodynamic stability of microemulsion was observed with centrifugation, heating-cooling cycle and freeze-thaw cycle method and confirmed with particle size measurement. Results: Lemongrass essential oil treatment was able to prevent both biofilm and planktonic bacterial growth and eradicate biofilm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of emulsion was observed at essential oil concentration of 0.06% (v/v). The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration of emulsion and microemulsion assayed on carbon steel were 0.06 and 0.03%, respectively. Minimum biofilm eradicating concentration of emulsion and microemulsion were both 1% with eradication percentage of 53.03 and 88.39%, respectively. Biocorrosion mitigation potential of lemongrass essential oil was most effective (96.786% inhibition) at 2% (v/v) after 6 h of exposure. Conclusion: Essential oil in emulsion and microemulsion form could perform as alternative to chemical biocide in mitigating biofilm-biocorrosion.
Research Article
Market Segmentation and Product Positioning Analysis of Cow Milk Processing Brand E-co Farm Bogor Agricultural University
Anggita Putri, Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat and Toni Bakhtiar
Background and Objective: E-co farm is a business unit of IPB livestock faculty which engaged in fresh milk processing. E-co farm hopes to be able to produce and sell more processed dairy products but in fact until now E-co farm has not been able to meet its expectations in terms of producing more products and expanding the marketing area. This research is conducted in order to see the consumers behaviour by analysing market segmentation and the positioning of E-co farm milk products based on attributes in the product and formulating the right strategy for the development of beverage business of processed products of cow's milk of E-co farm IPB. Methodology: This research used sample as many as 100 respondents, with the criteria of buying and consuming the dairy products of E-co farm and D-farm in the last 6 months. Segmentation analysis was conducted with the help of K means cluster and analysis of products positioning was conducted with the help of correspondence analysis. Both of these analysis were processed using SPSS 22.0. Results: The result of the analysis shows that there are three groups of segments formed based on the psychographic aspect that is called experiencer (8%), rational (27%) and conventional (65%). The target segment in this research is conventional segment. Products positioning or image that are most attached to the consumers about the processed products of cow’s milk of E-co farm IPB is affordable price, lots of variations of size/volume and health benefits. Conclusion: The study showed the strategy that can be formulated to develop beverage business of processed products of cow’s milk of E-co farm IPB is improving the human resources and expanding the potential market area, improving the promotion activity with the "above the line" nature where the network is wider and spread evenly to increase the consumers awareness on the products brand so that the product image will be more attached to the consumers.
Research Article
Development of Electronic Floor Mat for Fall Detection and Elderly Care
Viknesh Kumar, Boon-Chin Yeo, Way-Soong Lim, Joseph Emerson Raja and Kim-Boon Koh
Background and Objective: The risk of falls increases for elderly people who are aged 65 and above. Approximately one-third to one-half of the elderly people experience falls on a yearly basis. Falling can be a serious life-threatening event and there is a need to alert their nurses or family members instantly. The developed motion and fall detection is important to response immediate call for medical caregivers and consequently reducing the mortality rate. The objective for this project is to build a cost effective and user-friendly surveillance device. The primary objective of making such system is to track the motion or movement of elderly people in the house. Materials and Methods: Every motion on the mat will reflect to pressure data and collected via a special hardware designed with conductive grids that act like a switch, which is triggered upon pressure exerted over certain area. The pressure value is extracted from a pressure conductive material called velostat. The values are read by microcontroller. Results: The innovative mat will study user’s behaviour daily. Once the fall is detected, an alert message will be sent in the form of SMS and email. Apart from fall detection, surveillance system has been incorporated to support vision-based activation for the fall detection system and user access logging. Conclusion: This designed mat is a non-invasive device essential for detection of fall and monitoring. The developed system gives an accuracy of 80% in detecting a fall event for phase 1 detection and 90% in detecting a fall event for phase 2 detection.
Research Article
Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Avocado Leaf Extract (Persea americana Mill.)
Nurdin Rahman, Nikmah Utami Dewi and Bohari
Background and Objective: Antioxidants are a necessary nutrient component of the body to prevent and cope with oxidative stress. Avocado leaf allegedly has a natural antioxidant that can meet the needs of antioxidants which are still limited, especially for people with degenerative diseases. This study aimed to identify and analyze the phytochemical content and antioxidant power of avocado leaf extract. Materials and Methods: The type of research is pure experiment. The avocado leaf extraction preparation was macerated using 96% ethanol solvent with a ratio of 1:10 (w/v) for 3×24 h. Phytochemical types analyzed were flavonoids, saponins, polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids and steroids. Measurement of antioxidant activity using DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method on avocado leaf extract and vitamin C (control group). Data analysis was unpaired t-test, one-way ANOVA test and linear regression test with significant value was p<0.01. Results: Positive avocado leaf extract contains flavonoids, saponins, tannins and steroids. Antioxidant activity avocado starch extract (absorbance DPPH = 0.797) is strong with IC50 of 72.61 mg L–1 and vitamin C as positive control is also very strong with IC50 (mg L–1) of 23.03. Conclusion: Avocado leaf extract contains phytochemical substances with a strong antioxidant that can be used to prevent and cope with oxidative stress.
Research Article
Preparation of Biodegradable Stereocomplex Polylactide Films by Compression Molding Using Poly(ε-caprolactone-co-L-lactide) Copolyester as a Film Former
Yodthong Baimark and Yaowalak Srisuwan
Background and Objective: Bio-renewable and biodegradable stereo complex polylactides (scPLs) have widely investigated for use as high-performance bioplastic products. However, melt process ability and brittleness of the scPL were limited for this purpose. In this study, physicochemical and mechanical properties of scPL/poly(ε-caprolactone-co-L-lactide) copolyester blends with and without chain extension were determined. Materials and Methods: The scPL/copolyester blend pellets were prepared by in situ melt blending of poly(L-lactide), poly(D-lactide) and copolyester. The influences of the copolyester ratios (100/0, 90/10, 80/20 and 60/40 w/w) and chain extension on the characteristics of the scPL pellets, including stereo complex formation, thermal stability, melt flow index (MFI) and their film forming were determined. Properties of the compressed blend films were also investigated. Results: The copolyester blending enhanced the stereo complexation of the blend pellets. The MFI of the blend pellets increased with the copolyester ratio. The continuous and smooth blend films were successfully prepared using a compression molding technique when the copolyester ratio was increased up to 20% wt. The compression force also enhanced the stereo complexation of the blend films. The chain extension improved the phase compatibility of the scPL/copolyester blend films. The flexibility of the blend films slightly improved as the copolyester ratio increased. Conclusion: This study could provide a new insight into the synergistic effects of copolyester blending, chain extension and compression force for designing high-performance scPL products with controllable film forming and flexibility.
Research Article
Performance of Bayesian Using Conjugate Prior Estimator for Weibull Right Censored Survival Data
Sri Astuti Thamrin, Masli Nurcahya Zoraida, Andi Kresna Jaya and Ansariadi
Background and Objective: The Weibull distribution is widely used to model and to analyze data on the survival time. Bayesian estimation approach has received much attention as it has been in contention with other estimation methods. In this study, it was examined the performance of the Bayesian estimator using conjugate prior information for estimating the parameters of Weibull distribution with censored survival data for dengue fever (DF). Materials and Methods: Through the simulated Weibull distributed survival dataset, the performance of conjugate estimator for estimating the Weibull distribution parameters can be checked before applying it to the DF survival dataset in Makassar, Indonesia. Statistical analysis of the simulation data and collected DF data were analyzed through summary tables and Markov Chain Monte Carlo method via Gibbs sampling algorithm. It was performed using R version 3.3.3 and Win BUGS. Results: Based on the simulation study, the mean of posterior means of all Weibull distribution parameter estimates are still reasonably accurate. After fitting the Weibull models to the DF survival time’s dataset using the conjugate prior distribution, the age factor substantially described DF patients’ survival times and had a positive effect on the estimated survival time. Conclusion: To choose sample size and censoring level, the estimates generated by the conjugate prior do not only depend on the data but also on the parameters of the prior distribution. The amount of uncensored data must be more than one in order to obtain an estimate of greater than zero. The results of estimated parameters of Weibull model using conjugate prior either with simulated survival data or the DF data is good.
Research Article
Effect of Ohmic Heating Parameters on Inactivation of Enzymes and Quality of Not-from-concentrate Mango Juice
Tarek Gamal Abedelmaksoud, Sobhy Mohamed Mohsen, Lene Duedahl-Olesen, Mohamed Mohamed Elnikeety and Aberham Hailu Feyissa
Background and Objective: Ohmic heating (OH) is one of the electrothermal technologies that used recently for food processing to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. In present study, effect of OH parameters (voltage gradients and temperature) on inactivation of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) of not-from-concentrate (NFC) mango juice was investigated. Multiple response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the OH parameters, where the effect of voltage gradient and temperature on PPO and PME in the NFC mango juice was evaluated. After optimization, the NFC mango juice was produced with optimized OH conditions. Methodology: The PPO and PME activity, total phenolic, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, cloud value, color as well as physical properties were determined and compared with mango juice reported by conventional heating (CH). Results: The PPO activity was completely inactivated for mango juice produced by OH (at 40 V cm–1, 80°C and holding time for 60 sec) and CH (at 90°C holding time for 60 sec), while the inhibition of PME activity were 96 and 90%, respectively. The reduction in the ascorbic acid for OH (11.3%) was significantly lower than for CH (20%) treated samples. The total phenolic content was increased by 8 and 5% for the OH and CH treated samples, respectively. The reduction in total carotenoids level was significantly lower in the OH (10.9%) than in the CH (19.4%) treated sample. Conclusion: Overall, OH is a potential mild thermal treatment in the production of mango juice with improved functional properties instead of conventional methods.
Research Article
Assessment of Psychometric Properties for Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices in Measuring Intellectual Quotient (IQ) Using Rasch Model
Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matore, Siti Mistima Maat, Haryanti Mohd Affandi, Suziyani Mohamad and Ahmad Zamri Khairani
Background and Objective: Items evaluation towards intellectual quotient (IQ) instruments is rarely focused on technical students for local contexts. Empirical evidence is essential for the purpose of assessing the quality of cognitive testing items. This study aimed at evaluating the quality of multiple choices of Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) items in measuring IQ using Rasch model analysis in the polytechnics context. Methodology: The research design used a survey design with the fully quantitative approach. The total of 150 students from one of the polytechnics in Perak was selected by convenience sampling technique. Results: The results showed that 23 items have been dropped from 36 items of RAPM and 13 items found to fulfil Rasch model assumptions such as item fit, uni-dimensionality, local independence, item polarity, gender differential item functioning with evaluating the aspects of reliability and separation index. Conclusion: The items assessed are applicable for Malaysian polytechnics in order to measure IQ for the technical workers in future.
Research Article
Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern and Virulence-associated Genes in Clinical and Environment Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Iraq
Ahmed Abduljabbar Jaloob Aljanaby
Background and Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is considered one of the most dangerous opportunistic bacteria worldwide, live in hospitals and other environments such as sewage water and soil and cause different infections include pneumonia. The main aim of this study was to investigate antibiotics susceptibility pattern and genotypic detection of virulence genes in P. aeruginosa isolates from clinical and environment sources. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from two sources, 60 isolates from sputum of patients with pneumonia and 60 isolates from sewage water. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was done according to Kirby-Bauer method. Polymerase chain reaction technique was performed to detect the prevalence of six virulence-associated genes. Results: All 120 isolates (100%) were resistance to amoxicillin. While, imipenem was the best efficient antibiotic against clinical and sewage water isolates. Fifty five clinical isolates (91.6%) and 41 sewage water isolates (68.3%) were multi-drug resistance (MDR). The Pap A, Fim H, feoB, iutA, hly and kpsMTII genes prevalence in clinical isolates with percentages 91.6, 100, 80, 95, 20 and 100%, respectively, while the same genes prevalence in sewage water isolates with percentages, 51.6, 68.3, 41.6, 35, 3.3, 5 and 41.6%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggested that there was positive correlation between the high prevalence of virulence-associated genes and increase of antibiotics resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates.
Research Article
A New Variant of Chebyshev-Halley’s Method Without Second Derivative with Convergence of Optimal Order
Wartono , M. Soleh, I. Suryani, Zulakmal and Muhafzan
Background and Objective: The Chebyshev-Halley is an third order iterative method that be used to find the roots of a nonlinear equation. This study is presented a new variant of Chebyshev-Halley’s method without second derivative with two parameters. Methodology: In order to avoid the second derivative, it is approximated by using an equality of two methods, namely, use of a circle of curvature that has the same tangent line and to equate to the Potra-Ptak’s method. Results: The results show that the method requires two evaluation of functions and one its first derivative per iteration with the efficiency index equal to 4 ≈ 1.5874. The convergence analysis shows that the proposed method has the fourth-order convergence for θ = 1 and β = 1 and requires three evaluation of functions per iteration. Conclusion: The final results show that the proposed methods has better performance as compared some other kind of methods. A numerical simulation is presented to show the performance of the proposed method by using several functions.
Research Article
Celebrity-Brand Endorsement: A Study on its Impacts on Generation Y-ers in Nigeria
Daha Tijjani Abdurrahaman, Acheampong Owusu, Bakare Akeem Soladoye and K. Ramanathan Kalimuthu
Objective: The study aimed to examine the effects of celebrity brand-endorsement (CB-endorsement) on attitude as well as the purchase intention of Generation Y-ers in Nigeria using an adapted model of Ohanian. Materials and Methods: Using the quantitative approach, structural equation modelling engaging SmartPLS 3.2.7 was used to investigate the relationships among the research constructs. A probabilistic random sampling technique (stratified) of 273 millennial students, from six selected federal institutions of higher learning in the Northwest and Southwest region of Nigeria, was used. Results: Results revealed that expertise of a celebrity does not influence Nigeria’s Generation Y-ers intention to purchase the endorsed product. Attractiveness and trustworthiness of a celebrity, on the other hand, influence Generation Y-ers purchase intention. However, attitude does not mediate between the independent variables and the dependent variables. The study utilizes student Generation Y-ers mostly residing in the urban areas. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the researchers recommended to the practitioners alternatives to the practice of CB-endorsement. Future research opportunity and constraints are also outlined.
Research Article
Effect of Ship Speed on Ship Emissions
Ayudhia Pangestu Gusti and Semin
Background and Objective: The shipping industry contributes for about 2.2% of the world’s total emissions. It is expected to continue rising by 50-250% by 2050, depending on future economic growth and energy development. Therefore, efforts are needed to reduce the amount of emissions issued by ships. There are many methods that can be used in order to reduce the level of ship emissions, one of which is decrease the speed of the ship. By lowering the speed of the vessel, it is expected that fuel consumption and ship emissions are also reduced. Methodology: This review paper focused the effect of ship speed on ship emissions, as well as highlighted the most common and effective methods recommended for reducing ship emissions. Results: In this study the relationship between ship speed and ship emissions were discussed. The past research was also discussed about the several methods of reducing the ship’s emission levels in terms of operations and the effect of speed on ship emissions. Conclusion: Research on speed optimization is mostly conducted for tankers and container types. For future studies it is expected that more speed optimization research with ship objects other than tankers and containers, such as LNG vessels or other fast vessels so that more renewal can be reviewed in it.
Research Article
TOPSIS Approach Using Interval Neutrosophic Sets for Personnel Selection
Vu Dung, Luong Thu Thuy, Pham Quynh Mai, Nguyen Van Dan and Nguyen Thi Mai Lan
Background and Objective: Personnel selection is one of the most critical strategies for companies to enhance the input quality of human resource their competitive strength in knowledge economy environment. Interval neutrosophic set (INS) is an adequate way for modeling uncertainty in decision making problems. Although numerous TOPSIS methods have been developed for personnel selection, none of them have used INS in their calculation. Therefore, this study integrated the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and INS to support for personnel selection. Materials and Methods: The proposed TOPSIS method is applied for selecting academic staffs at Academy of Finance. In the proposed TOPSIS approach, the ratings of alternatives and importance weights of criteria for personnel selection are represented by the INS. Results: Four academic staffs have been selected under six criteria including number of publications, quality of publications, personality factors, activity in professional society, classroom teaching experience and fluency in a foreign language. The results indicate that the best staff is A2 which has highest closeness coefficient value. Conclusion: This study has developed the TOPSIS method using the information-centric network (ICN) in order to solve the personnel selection problem. The proposed method may also be applied to solve other multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems such as supplier selection, market segment selection and investor selection.
Research Article
Employee Engagement as a Mediator Between Transformational Leadership and Employee Performance
Ong Choon Hee, Ruzilla Ibrahim, Tan Owee Kowang and Goh Chin Fei
Background and Objective: Transformational leadership and employee engagement have been much studied in the private industry but very little has been done in the public sector. This study was conducted in the Malaysian public sector to discover its impact on employee performance. This study aimed to develop a conceptual model and to examine employee engagement as a mediator between transformational leadership and employee performance in the public sector of a developing country. Materials and Methods: The data were collected through a survey of 200 employees in a public sector organization in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample size was determined according to the sample size at the level of confidence of 95% and significant level of 0.05. Stratified random sampling technique was used to achieve the objectives of this research. The survey instruments used in this study consisted of 34 items relating to 3 constructs namely employee engagement (EE, 11 items), employee performance (EP, 13 items) and transformational leadership (TR, 10 items). Results: Results of the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that transformational leadership was positively related to employee performance. In addition, the analysis also showed that employee engagement fully mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance. Conclusion: This study suggested that policy makers should introduce organizational interventions that encapsulate both transformational leadership and employee engagement to enhance employee performance in the public sector.
Review Article
ASEAN Community and Indonesia’s Competitiveness in Higher Education: A Need for Market Orientation
Umi Narimawati, Eddy Soeryanto Soegoto and Dwi Kartini
ASEAN community 2015 moves the competition of Indonesia up to another level, from only domestic competition to a wider ASEAN regional competition. This study aims to investigate preparedness level of universities in Indonesia in the face of ASEAN regional competition. Market orientation in higher education is a definite need of universities to compete effectively. Coordination between functions and standards in universities is the foundation to manage competitiveness. Model of correlation between market orientation and quality of education standard, research standard and community service standard, supported by the accountability framework of the university, develops the competitive advantage and its impact on performance.

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