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Asian Journal of Scientific Research
eISSN: 2077-2076
pISSN: 1992-1454

Editor-in-Chief:  Kaiser Jamil
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Research Article
Published on August 28, 2019
Design, Development and Evaluation of a Pneumatic cum Eccentric Drive Grain Cleaning Machine: A Response Surface Analysis
Okunola Abiodun Afolabi, Okonkwo Clinton Emeka, Olumhense Akhere Gift, Ajao Faith and Olayanju Tajudeen Adeniyi
Background and Objective: Grain cleaning is still normally carried out by women and children in rural villages. The aim of this study was to design, develop and optimize the conditions necessary for producing clean maize grains by using a response surface modelling method. Materials and Methods: Maize (Zea mays L. varieties hybrid single cross) was used for this study. Effect of the feed gate openings (13.23, 24.94 and 33.06 mm) and air velocity (9.12, 10.21 and 12.3 m sec–1) on the performance efficiencies (separating loss, cleaning loss and separation efficiency) was studied. Results: The performance efficiencies (separation loss, cleaning loss and cleaning efficiency) evaluated were significantly (p<0.05) affected by feed gate opening and air velocity used with correlation coefficients R2 = 0.803, 0.799 and 0.814, respectively, whereas the effect was not significant on the separation efficiency with correlation coefficient R2 = 0.564 and the optimal performance efficiencies were obtained by using the desirability function method. The desirability value obtained was 0.986. Conclusion: So, it was concluded that the effects of the feed gate opening, air velocity and its optimization were regarded as very useful to ascertain the performance efficiency of the developed grain cleaning machine.
Research Article
Published on August 29, 2019
Effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates Susceptibility Against First and Second-line Drugs Using MGIT 960
Faiqah Umar, Dirayah Rauf Husain, Rosana Agus, Mochammad Hatta, Jamilah , Ressy Dwiyanti, Ade Rifka Junita and Muhammad Reza Primaguna
Background and Objective: With the expanding knowledge about efflux pumps contribution to the resistance mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has increased the attention to efflux inhibitors usage as adjuvants in tuberculosis therapy. Therefore, this study examined the effect and interaction between efflux inhibitor towards first (isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampicin, ethambutol) and second-line (kanamycin, ofloxacin, capreomycin, moxifloxacin) anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five M. tuberculosis isolates collected from sputum samples of tuberculosis patients in Makassar and exposed to anti-TB drugs at critical concentration in the presence or absence of verapamil (40 μg mL1) using drug susceptibility test (DST) proportion method in Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system. Results: About 14 isolates (21.54%) were mono-resistant, 20 isolates were MDR-TB (30.67%), 20 isolates (30.67%) were Pre XDR-TB and 7 isolates (10.77%) were XDR-TB. There were 8 drugs that were tested but only 6 drugs showed a decrease of mean growth unit in STR, INH, RIF, CAP, OFX and MOXI after the addition of efflux pump inhibitor (synergy observed). The overall effect of verapamil towards all groups of drugs tested showed p-value of 0.001 (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that the addition of verapamil plays a significant role in restoring the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates.
Research Article
Published on August 29, 2019
A New High Accurate Estimation Method for Evaluating the Daily Solar Energy by Nested Percentiles Algorithm
Mohammed Mohammed El Genidy and Doaa Abd El-Shafi Abd El-Rahman
Background and Objective: Owing to the wide use of Weibull distribution in solar energy analysis, researchers are constantly looking for easy and applicable methods for estimating its parameters with the smallest margin of error. This study was aimed to find a new algorithm that computes the Weibull parameters easily and accurately. Materials and Methods: Weibull distribution was performed to model the daily solar energy and corresponding maximum temperature in Queensland, Australia over a year. A new method, called nested percentiles algorithm was suggested for estimating the parameters. Anderson-Darling test was applied to measure the fitness of the suggested estimator. Results: Nested percentile algorithm gave high significant results as indicated by Anderson-Darling test. The parameters estimated by the new algorithm provided the best fit of the used datasets over than other results produced by EasyFit program. Conclusion: Nested Percentile Algorithm made two-parameter Weibull distribution more accurate than three-parameter distributions such as; modified Weibull distribution. It also gave more accurate results than EasyFit program.
Research Article
Published on August 29, 2019
Impact of Customer Satisfaction on Customer Advocacy; Mediating Role of Trust
Faria Iram, Ammar Rashid, Muhammad Mahboob Khurshid and Muhammad Noman Shafique
Background and Objective: This paper examined the role of customer trust in the relationship of customer satisfaction and advocacy. Trust is an important element in strengthening the relationship between the customer and the firm. Methodology: Winning customer trust is surely not a miracle rather it is the result of careful planning and implementation of customer centric processes. In this study, retail industry of Pakistan was focused as population. Data was collected through survey method and an instrument was developed by adapting questions from previous studies. Results: The results suggested that trust acted as a mediator between the relationship of satisfaction and advocacy. Moreover, customer advocacy helped firms in numerous ways including acquisitions, loyalty and brand rapport etc. Conclusion: The results implied that managers should invest into developing customer trust through customer satisfaction so, that customers could willingly advocate for the company.
Research Article
Published on August 29, 2019
Effect of Mercury (HgCl2) Sub-chronic Doses Exposure in Tubifex sp.
Irawati Mei Widiastuti, Diana Arfiati, Muhammad Musa and Asus Maizar Suryanto Hertika
Background and Objective: Mercury is the most toxic heavy metal found in the environment. All aquatic organism has the potential to accumulate heavy metal on their body including Tubifex sp. Metallothionein has an important role in heavy metal detoxification mechanism which synthesized in each organism body. The aim of this study was to observe the mortality percentage, mercury (HgCl2) levels and mercury metallothionein (Hg-MT) levels in Tubifex sp. after 7 days of exposure at sub-chronic doses. Materials and Methods: The experimental method was used in this study. The mercury different sub-chronic doses (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50 and 100%) were treated to Tubifex sp. triplicate for accumulative 7 consecutive days. Results: The result showed that the highest mortality (%) of Tubifex sp. was 100% sub-chronic dosage of mercury exposure with value 98.7±1.2% and the lowest mortality (%) was 0% sub-chronic dosage of mercury exposure with value 16.7±1.5%. The highest level of mercury and Hg-MT were in the 100% sub-chronic dosage of mercury exposure with value 4930±88.9 and 0.117±0.011 μg L1, respectively and the lowest level were 0% sub-chronic dosage of mercury exposure with value 13.3±5.8 and 0.019±0.009 μg L1, respectively. The Hg-MT level was not significantly different between 100 and 50% of sub-chronic doses, then the mortality (%) and HgCl2 level in Tubifex sp. body were significantly different in 100% compared to all treatment. Conclusion: So, it was concluded that the maximum capability of Tubifex sp. in synthesizing Hg-MT was 50% sub-chronic dosage of mercury exposure statistically with the highest mortality (%) and mercury level in Tubifex sp. was 100% sub-chronic dosage of mercury exposure.
Research Article
Published on August 29, 2019
Comparative Pesticidal Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Indigenous Plants Against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Fasasi Kamilu Ayo, Awojide Shola Hezekiah and Adebisi Abolanle Temitope
Background and Objectives: Tribolium castaneum is a major pest of stored grains that developed resistance against synthetic insecticides. This study was aimed to compare and evaluate the pesticidal activities of essential oils of Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum and Monodora myristica against 4th instars of T. castaneum. Materials and Methods: Extracted essential oils of these 3 botanicals were tested for repellency and larvicidal activities against 4th instar larvae of T. castaneum at different doses for specific experimental periods. The 4th instars were subjected to repellency bioassay of 5, 10, 15 and 20 μL ML1 test solutions at intervals of 1 h for 4 h in 3 replicates. While the larvicidal activities were assayed using 5, 10, 15 and 20 μL mL1 test solutions for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Results: The 3 essential oils exhibited repellency degree in order of P. nigrum>S. aromaticum>M. myristica, respectively at 20 μL mL1 within 4 h exposure time. Piper nigrum has the highest and significant toxicity (p<0.05) at 20 μL mL1 for 96 h. The P. nigrum exhibited the lowest lethal concentration (20.4 μL mL1) to attain 50% mortality of 4th instar larvae of T. castaneum within 24 h of treatment exposure time as compared to S. aromaticum and M. myristica, respectively. Conclusion: Piper nigrum exhibited highest repellent and larvicidal activities against 4th instars of T. castaneum compared to S. aromaticum and M. myristica. Based on this study, P. nigrum essential oil is recommended for indigenous adoption as an aspect of integrated pest management strategies to protect local stored grains in south west Nigeria.
Research Article
Published on August 30, 2019
Influence of Chain Extension on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Injection-molded Poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene Glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide) Bioplastic
Yodthong Baimark, Supasin Pasee, Wuttipong Rungseesantivanon and Natcha Prakymoramas
Background and Objective: Poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) is a biodegradable bioplastic that has attracted much attention for use in biomedical and packaging applications. In this work, effect of chain extender on thermal and mechanical properties of injection-molded PLLA-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-PLLA triblock copolymer (PLLA-PEG-PLLA) and their comparison with the injection-molded PLLA were investigated. Materials and Methods: A flexible PLLA-PEG-PLLA was adjusted by changing its Melt Flow Index (MFI) by chain-extension reaction before injection molding. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to investigate the thermal properties. The mechanical properties of injection-molded PLLA and PLLA-PEG-PLLA were determined by universal testing machine for tensile and flexural properties, impact tester and hardness testers. One-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple test (p<0.05) were used to assess data. Results: The addition of chain extender decreased the MFI of PLLA-PEG-PLLA. The chain-extended PLLA-PEG-PLLA exhibited faster crystallization and more hydrophilicity than the PLLA. Hydrophilicity of PLLA-PEG-PLLA increased with the chain-extender content. From tensile curves, the chain-extended PLLA-PEG-PLLA had a yield effect indicating they were flexible. Strain at break and impact strength of chain-extended PLLA-PEG-PLLA were higher than the PLLA while their flexural stress and hardness were lower. The crystallization behaviors and mechanical properties of PLLA-PEG-PLLA did not change with the chain-extender content. Conclusion: The injection-molded bioplastics with high flexibility and toughness could be fabricated from chain-extended PLLA-PEG-PLLA.
Research Article
Published on August 30, 2019
Microencapsulation of Date Seed Oil by Spray-drying for Stabilization of Olive Oil as a Functional Food
Khaled El-Massry, Ahmed El-Ghorab, Amr Farouk, Said Hamed, Hassan Elgebaly, Nermeen Mosa, Ibrahim Alsohaimi and Ayman Mahmoud
Background and Objective: Microencapsulation of oils in spray dried powder is an effective approach to protect against oxidation. This study investigated the influence of microencapsulated date seed oil on the stability of olive oil. Materials and Methods: Date seed oil was extracted from two Phoenix dactylifera L. seed varieties (Ramly and Helwa Aljouf) and the saponification (SV), acid (AV), iodine (IV) and peroxide (PV) values and the fatty acid profile were determined. Microencapsulation of date seed oil was carried out in gum Arabic and maltodextrin (1:1 w/w) using a spray dryer. The date seed oil powder was characterized and the total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity (RSA) and oxidative stability of olive oil after addition of microencapsulated date seed oil were measured. Results: Ramly and Helwa Aljouf seed oils showed AV of 0.87 and 0.41 mg KOH g1 oil, PV of 3.42 and 1.02 meq O2 g1 oil, SV of 199.05 and 204.15 mg KOH g1 oil and the IV was 75.51 and 54.86 g I2/100 g oil, respectively. The fatty acid profile showed 17.13% linoleic acid (C18:2) and 2.3% linolenic acid (C18:3) in Ramly date seed oil, whereas the Helwa variety contained 6.73% linoleic acid and no linolenic acid. Helwa Aljouf date seed oil contained 55% total phenols more than the Ramly oil and showed a higher RSA. In addition, Helwa Aljouf, Ramly and the encapsulated Helwa Aljouf seed oils enhanced the oxidative stability of olive oil. Conclusion: Helwa Aljouf and Ramly seed oils showed higher oxidative stability when compared with olive oil and both oils increased the oxidative stability of olive oil. In addition, the microencapsulated date seed oil provided additional protection and improved the nutritional value and functionality of olive oil.

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