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Journal of Applied Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5662
pISSN: 1812-5654

Editor-in-Chief:  Gazi Mahabubul Alam
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Review Article
Thermal and Economic Analysis Review on Flat Plate, Parabolic Trough and Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors for Process Heat Applications
Chandraprabu Venkatachalam, Samuel G. Mariam and Abdi Chimdo Anchala
Energy plays a pivotal role in our society because of new life trends which are accompanied with high energy consumption. To meet these needs renewable energy technologies such as solar energy systems have proven to be advantageous in many ways. This paper presented a review of thermal and economic analysis of solar energy collectors and processes. Three non-concentrating and concentrating collectors have been analyzed, which includes flat-plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors from the first category and heat transfer enhancement from the second category. Initially, an introduction into the nature of solar energy was attempted followed by a description and working principle of all three collectors. This was followed by an optical, thermal and thermodynamic analysis of the collectors and a description of the methods used to evaluate their performance. Another important consideration for solar collectors will be the economic analysis, which includes the manufacturing, operation and maintenance costs, etc. Beside these, complexity, uniform flux distribution and working fluid selection of some other important factors in solar collector systems. Typical applications of the various types of collectors have also been reviewed and presented. Through the literature review, it is shown that exergy analysis gives a representative performance evaluation method and is emphasized as a valuable method to evaluate and compare possible configurations of these systems.
Research Article
Discrepancy in the k0-values of 134Cs, 152Sm, 75Se and Experimental Implementations in k0 Standardization Techniques
Raymond Limen Njinga
Background and Objective: The k0-users are faced with the challenge of the accurate the k0-values of 134Cs, 152Sm and 75Se produced by (n,γ) reaction are in k0 standardization techniques. These values are used in determination of elemental concentrations via neutron activation analysis (NAA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the actual discrepancy of the k0-values of 134Cs, 152Sm and 75Se by using Certified reference materials (CRMs) for k0-users. Materials and Methods: The CRMs SMELS I and III, NIST 1633b Coal fly Ash were used. These samples were irradiated using the Nigerian Research Reactor (NIRR-1) at half-full power (15 kW) with neutron flux of 5×1011 n/cm2s for 7 h in the inner channel and evaluated following the established protocols. Results: The experimental and empirical calculated values of 134Cs, 152Sm and 75Se were compared with recommended data. The experimental k0 value of 152Sm (103 keV) showed a large deviation while 134Cs and 75Se agreed with recommended values. Conclusion: The k0 values of 134Cs and 75Se compared well with the recommended values while 152Sm showed high deviation. The discrepancy using the empirical calculation was high for all the nuclides.
Research Article
Isolation and Characterization of Fungal Species from Spoilt Fruits in Utako Market, Abuja, Nigeria
Mairami Fatima Mukhtar, Ndana Rebecca Wusa, Umar Iliya Danladi and Nura Salisu
Background and Objective: Fruits are subjected to natural contamination by many different kinds of micro-organisms, including pathogens such as fungi. This research was carried out to investigate the types of fungal flora associated with the spoilage of fruits at Utako market, Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: One hundred fruits comprising of 70 spoilt ones and 30 healthy ones were collected from the market and transported to the laboratory. Thin sections of the rotten fruits were obtained using a sterile blade and inoculated onto PDA media and incubation was carried out at 27°C for 5 days. Results: The result obtained indicated the presence of 7 different fungal species: Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor mucedo and Alternaria sp. However, Aspergillus niger was the most predominant species while Alternaria sp. was the least common. However, the pathenogenicity of Rhizopus stolonifer was higher than that of the remaining fungal species isolated, while that of Alternaria sp. was the least. Conclusion: It was concluded that, seven fungal species were found to be responsible for the deterioration of fruits in Utako market. Some of these isolated fungal species produce toxins that could cause severe food poisoning and other potential health hazards.
Research Article
Prevalence of Bacterial Loads on some Fruits and Vegetables Sold in Kaduna Central Market, Northwestern Nigeria
Negbenebor Helen Ehimemen, Mairami Fatima Mukhtar and Nura Salisu
Background and Objective: Fruits and vegetables served as the major sources of plant proteins, vitamins and fibers that support human health. This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of various fruits and vegetables sold in Kaduna central market, northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Samples of the fruits and vegetables were procured from the market and analyzed using serial dilution technique and inoculation was done on MacConkey and nutrient agar and incubated for 48 h. Results: The result obtained showed the presence of six bacterial species: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp. Staphylococcus aureus was the most abundant (with 80% relative occurrence) while Streptococcus sp. was the least abundant (with 2% relative occurrence). Conclusion: It was concluded that 6 different bacterial species prevailed on the fruits and vegetables sold in Kaduna central market: The result therefore implied that people consuming these fruits and vegetables are at a higher risk of pneumonia and toxic shock syndrome due to Staphylococcal infection, strep throat, rheumatic fever, scalded skin syndrome, scarlet fever and puerperal fever due to S. aureus, gastrointestinal disorders due to E. coli and bronchopneumonia due to Klebsiella sp. There is therefore; the urgent need for orienting the general populace on the inherent dangers associated with consumption of these types of fruits and vegetables without thorough disinfection.
Research Article
Challenges and Spatial Distribution of Water Infrastructures (Boreholes) in Okene Town, Kogi State, Nigeria
Clement Ameh Yaro, Ezekiel Kogi, Agatha Eleojo Onoja, Taiwo Cletus Attah and Blessing Omeneke Zubairu
Background and Objective: Safe and reliable potable water infrastructures is a vital component of human development. Many communities across the world are yet to meet up with their daily water demand especially in developing countries leading to preventable diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water. This study was carried out to assess the challenges and distribution of boreholes in Okene town. Materials and Methods: A town-wide study was undertaken, geographical coordinates of boreholes were captured at point. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to obtain relevant information on the boreholes ownership, its functionality and challenges. Descriptive statistics was determined for the various variables measured. Chi-square test was used to determine the level of significance in functionality of the boreholes. Spatial distribution map of the boreholes was generated using the coordinates obtained. Results: A total of 285 boreholes were examined in Okene town, with 56.5 and 17.2%, by Private and State Government, respectively. About 97.9% of these boreholes were been operated using motorized pumping system and 31.6% were found not functioning. Two factors were responsible for non-functionality of the boreholes; broken/mechanical repair led to 90.7% of the boreholes not functioning while lack of human personal to maintain the boreholes led to 9.3% of the boreholes not functioning. The spatial distribution map revealed uneven distribution of the boreholes. Conclusion: A total of 285 boreholes were found in Okene town with uneven distribution. Majority of the boreholes are privately owned. Broken parts/mechanical repairs and lack of human personnel to maintain boreholes were the 2 factors that majorly affect the functionality of boreholes in Okene town.
Research Article
Bougainvillea Bract, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Anthocyanin and Antioxidant Development as Affected by AOA, Sucrose and Phloem Cut
A.B.M. Sharif Hossain and Musamma M. Uddin
Background and Objective: Bougainvillea is an evergreen plant and blooms all the year round. Bougainvillea has decorated value in office, home, yard and medicinal values as the treatment of cough. The flowers and stems are dried, boil in water and drink as tea. The study was carried out to investigate the effects of amino oxyacetic acid (AOA), sucrose and phloem tissue cut stress, on the bract size, pigments, antioxidant, flavonoid and physico-biochemical parameters of Bougainvillea bract. Materials and Methods: The treatments were of the phloem cut stress in the bark of one year shoot, 100 ppm AOA and 3% sucrose concentration and water control employing swabbing technique. Results: The floral bract number was higher in the 15th week in phloem cut stress and 3% sucrose treated bract than in water control and AOA treated bract. Moreover, the size of the bract, weight and longevity were the highest in the physiological stress treated bract. However, it had been shown that the Fo, Fm, Fv and quantum or photo-synthetic yield (Fv/Fm) were found higher in phloem cut stress and 3% sucrose treated bract than in other two treatments. The highest chlorophyll (a and b) and carotene content was recorded in the phloem cut stress treated bract. The anthocyanin, total phenol, total flavonoid and DPPH radical scavenging activity increased in all treated bract compared to the control bract. However, the highest anti-oxidant was found in the phloem cut stress treated bract. Conclusion: Finally it seemed that phloem cut stress and 3% sucrose were the effective treatment compared to the AOA and water control.

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