ABOUT US
JOURNALS
PUBLICATION ETHICS
PEER REVIEW
 
       
Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Journal of Applied Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5662
pISSN: 1812-5654

Editor-in-Chief:  Gazi Mahabubul Alam
Current Issue
Archive
Guide for Authors
Editorial Board
Article Processing Charges
Newsroom
 
Review Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Role and Mechanisms Lowering Cholesterol by Dietary of Probiotics and Prebiotics: A Review
Mohamed G. Shehata, Malak A. El-Sahn, Sobhy A. El Sohaimy and Mohamed M. Youssef
Cholesterol plays a pivotal role, since it is a necessary compound for functions of brains and heart. Moreover, cholesterol is an important precursor for biosynthesis of some important hormones. Notwithstanding, high cholesterol is a leading risk factor for human cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Most pharmacological agents that are utilized in the control of hypercholesterolemia are bile acid sequestrates, fibrates, niacin and cholesterol absorption inhibitors. Nevertheless, these drugs have also been correlated with many adverse effects that limit treatment agreement as well as the state of life. Live micro-organisms that possess healthy benefit upon consumption are namely probiotics being different from prebiotics. The latter are defined as non-digestible food components and selectively stimulate the growth of probiotics. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-removal effects. In addition, there are several articles on the cholesterol-lowering ability of probiotics. Many mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics have been suggested. Some of these mechanisms include: deconjugation of bile via bile salt hydrolase, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface of growing cells, coprecipitation of cholesterol with deconjugated bile and incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane and short-chain fatty acids produced by oligosaccharides. The current paper reviews the mechanisms of action of the cholesterol-lowering potential of probiotic micro-organisms and functional food contain probiotics and prebiotics, with the aim of lowering the risks of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and also focus on the ability of combination of probiotics and prebiotics (synbiotics) to be novel substitutional to chemical drugs for elimination of hypercholesterolemic problems.
Review Article
Published on July 25, 2019
A Review on the Availability and Economics of Rice Milling Waste as Animal Feeding Stuff in Nigeria
Nwandu Peter Ifeanyichukwu, Eboh Sule, Oyedapo Folasade Adebisi and Okpanachi Uchele
The need to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) numbers 1, 2 and 6, the increase in the world population, the high cost of conventional feeding stuffs and inadequate protein intake in most developing countries have shifted the attention of scientists to find alternative sources of feeding stuff. One of such alternative ways includes the waste associated with the milling of rice. This review was aimed at pulling information on rice milling waste together in order to provide information for researchers and also to bring to the knowledge of researchers that rice milling waste is a cheap and available feeding stuff. Rice milling waste (RMW) is one of the commonest agro-industrial wastes generated in large quantities in most parts of Nigeria, causing environmental pollution if not harnessed. Literature materials from different authors on the availability and use of rice milling waste were pulled together to show that rice milling waste is in abundant supply and it has been used to feed various species of animals such as poultry, rabbit, ram and fish. The review showed that RMW is made up of the husk, bran and broken pieces and it is of very high quantity in Nigeria as documented by several authors. Moreover, it was also revealed that diets formulated with RMW (especially after been treated) at different inclusion levels had no adverse effects on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio and carcass quality. Its use results in saving cost, production of meat at a cheaper cost and improved performance. In this way, the large amounts being dumped as waste can be prevented which pose disposal problems and bring about methane emissions. The disposal problems posed by RMW have led to indiscriminate burning of the waste, resulting in environmental pollution and loss of land. Inclusion of different levels of RMW is quite acceptable in the diets of most livestock species. Rice milling waste is in abundant supply and very cheap. It is a by-product of the rice milling industries, which comprises of rice bran, rice husk and broken pieces of rice. Processing of RMW ensures better utilization by animals and it has been fed to several species of animals. The use of RMW is cost effective and without adverse effects to the animals. The use of RMW as an alternative source of feeding is therefore strongly recommended.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Chemical Evaluation of Biscuit Produced from Wheat, Yellow Maize and Beniseed Flour Blends
Ighere Dickson Arienkoko, Onabanjo Oluseyi Olusegun, Olayiwola Ibiyemi Olasunbo and Adegunwa Mojisola Olanike
Background and Objective: Vitamin A is important for fighting infections, yet vitamin A deficiency is a widespread health challenge in sub-saharan Africa. This study was designed to investigate the beta-carotene and vitamins composition of biscuit produced from wheat, beniseed and yellow-maize composite flour. Materials and Methods: Maize and beniseed were processed into flour and used in substituting wheat flour at different proportion (100:0:0, 90:5:5, 80:15:5, 70:25:5 and 60:35:5) in baking biscuits using standardized recipe. Vitamins analysis of composite flour and biscuits were determined by standard laboratory methods. Sensory evaluation was carried out on biscuits using the multiple comparison test system. Results: The result showed that, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-carotene content in biscuits produced from 100% wheat flour biscuits produced from the composite flour. Beta-carotene (0.28±0.05 to 19.57±0.19 μ g1) content increased as the quantity of yellow maize flour increased. Results on Thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin E results also showed that there was significant difference between biscuits produced from 100% wheat flour and biscuits produced from composite flour. Sensory evaluation revealed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in taste, texture and overall acceptability between biscuits produced from 100% wheat flour and biscuits produced from composite flour. Conclusion: The research findings suggested that the biscuits produced from composite flour can contribute about 50.33% RDA of vitamin A to preschool aged children due to its high level of beta-carotene. Hence, it can significantly reduce vitamin A deficiency and malnutrition.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Chemical Compositions and in vitro Methane Production Potentials of Some Agro-industrial By-products and Crop Residues
Aberra Melesse, Herbert Steingass, Margit Schollenberger and Markus Rodehutscord
Background and Objective: Crop production provides a range of agro-industrial by-products and crop residues that have been utilized by ruminants and non-ruminants. However, they are also potential sources of methane emission. Moreover, limited information is available on the methane production profiles of these by-products and crop residues. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the chemical, mineral and amino acid compositions and methane production profiles of agro-industrial by-products and crop residues. Materials and Methods: Feed samples of agro-industrial by-products and crop residues were collected and processed and ground to pass 1 mm sieve size. Chemical, mineral and amino acid compositions were analyzed using standard procedures. In vitro gas and methane production profiles were determined according to established procedures. Results: Meat and bone meal (MBM) and fish offal waste (FOW) contained high crude protein (574 and 487 g kg1 DM, respectively). Calcium and phosphorous concentrations in MBM were 67.6 and 36.1 g kg1 DM, respectively. Fat content in FOW was highest followed by MBM. Wheat bran had the highest starch (387 g kg1 DM) and noug seed cake (NSC) the highest iron (4383 g kg1 DM) and manganese (189 g kg1 DM). The NSC contained higher concentrations of arginine, cystein, methionine and histidine than those of wheat bran. Methane production was highest (p<0.05) in wheat bran while it was lowest (p<0.05) in FOW. Conclusion: The FOW and MBM might be used as suitable feed combinations with crop residues to mitigate methane emission from the livestock agriculture.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of African Snakehead (Parachanna obscura, Gunther 1861) from Eleyele Lake, Nigeria
Olanrewaju Adewale Nurudeen and Ajani Emmanuel Kolawole
Background and Objective: Parachanna obscura is a member of African Channidae with great aquaculture potential in west Africa. The knowledge on chemical composition of P. obscura as food is very poor. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of P. obscura from Eleyele reservoir, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three live samples of each sex (382.42±59.41 g) were collected monthly for one year. Samples were segregated according to sex and season and analyzed for proximate composition and mineral contents using AOAC and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry methods. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA at α0.05. Results: The biochemical profile of P. obscura revealed high crude protein (23.19±1.06%), low fat (1.09±0.06%) and good level of carbohydrate (5.13±0.20%) and ether extract (7.00±0.26%). The results showed significant seasonal variation (p>0.05) in biochemical compositions but no marked variation (p<0.05) between sexes for all the samples examined. The highest proximate composition and mineral contents were recorded in wet season samples except for plasma ions (Na and K). Conclusion: The study showed that P. obscura has good nutritional contents with better nutritional value in wet season samples.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Screening Selected Detergents for Use as Positive Control in Assessing for Biosurfactant Production
Lekiah Pedro Peekate and Happy Boreh
Background and Objectives: Chemically synthesized surfactants used as positive controls in assessing for biosurfactant production are expensive and not readily available in microbiology laboratories in Nigeria. The objectives of this study included comparing the response values of selected detergents to screening methods used in assessing for biosurfactant production with those of standard surfactants. Materials and Methods: Glycerol-mineral salts medium was used for culturing Pseudomonas fluorescens for biosurfactant production. At the end of the production period, the medium and 1% of selected detergents (Klin, Ariel and Cussons Morning fresh) were screened for surfactant activity using surface tension, foaming capacity, oil spread diameter and drop collapse activity. Results: The surface tension of the medium used for culturing P. fluorescens for biosurfactant production was reduced from 55.21-34.63 mN m1, the foaming capacity was 58.83% and the oil spread diameter was about 15 mm. The detergent solution having the least surface tension and the largest oil spread diameter was cussons morning fresh (17.84 mN m1 and 70 mm, respectively), while the detergent having the highest foaming capacity was Ariel (82.6%). The drop collapse activity of the medium and the detergent solutions were all positive. Conclusion: The results obtained for the detergents were comparable with those of some chemically synthesized surfactants. This indicates that readily available and inexpensive detergents can be used in place of chemically synthesized surfactants as positive controls in assessing for biosurfactant production.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Comparative Assessment of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculant and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Soybeans (Glycine max L.) Genotypes
Nmadzuru Badeggi Ibrahim and Muhammed Mustapha Ibrahim
Background and Objective: Variability in symbiotic effectiveness of soybean varieties to inoculation and phosphorus supplementation have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant and single super phosphate (SSP) on growth and yield parameters of three improved soybeans genotypes. Materials and Methods: A field trial was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria during the rainy season in 2017. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three soybeans genotypes constituting the main plot and the inoculant and SSP in the subplot. The inoculant and SSP were incorporated into the soil at planting. Results: Results showed that under main effects of fertilization types, inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, irrespective of variety gave the highest biomass per plant (13.61 g) and grain yield of 3.44 t ha1 while nodules and root weights were statistically higher under SSP fertilization. All varieties performed best under P fertilization across all parameters measured, although there was significant variability in P responses by individual varieties. However, the interaction of TGX 1904-6f and inoculation gave the highest grain yield of 4.62 t ha1, which indicated higher symbiotic effectiveness between this variety and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Conclusion: Symbiotic effectiveness, P requirement and yield of soybeans varied among the different varieties and variety interaction with inoculation had the highest yield. Although P remained the major requirement for overall soybean productivity.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Production and Purification of Keratinase Enzyme from Serratia sp. Isolated from Poultry Wastes
Veerapura Narayanappa Yogananda Murthy, Veerapura Narayanappa Murulidhara and Mahesh Mariswamy
Background and Objectives: Keratins comprise largest complex family of cytoskeletal filament proteins found in human hairs, chicken feathers and wool. Biotechnical applications might augment the human efforts to degrade these keratins which pose a problem to environment. Present study was aimed to enumerate the potential microbial sources for production and purification of keratinase followed by characterization. Materials and Methods: Poultry waste samples (n = 20) collected and used for the isolation of organism through serial dilution. Keratin broth media employed to assess the activity using azocasein as substrate by spectrophotometry. Biochemical and morphological identifications done and confirmed as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. To purify the enzyme, ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography were carried out followed by SDS-PAGE based molecular weight determination. Results: Out of 12 organisms, one showed increased keratinase activity. The activity and yield were increased 6.4 and 16.25%, respectively followed by purification. Enzyme activity was maximum at pH 7 and temperature 37°C with keratin azure as substrate. Molecular weight of purified enzyme was shown to have 50 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Conclusion: It is revealed that Serratia sp. could be a potential microbial source can be harnessed for alleviation of environmental pollution and feather waste utilization.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Confirmation of the Identity of Lactobacillus Species using Carbohydrate Fermentation Test (API 50 CHL) Identification System
Hassan Pyar and Peh Kok
Background and Objective: The word ‘probiotic’ in greek, means ‘for life’. Probiotics are defined as live microbial feed supplement which have several health benefits. The objective of this study was to screen and identify 20 bacterial strains provided by School of Industrial Technology, USM, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Twenty bacteria culture was screened using morphological and biochemical studies. From the 20 bacteria cultures, 9 of those exhibited viable count of above 9.0 log10 CFU mL1 are selected for acid and bile tolerance tests. From 9 bacteria, five bacteria culture were able to tolerate acid and bile which exhibited viable counts of more than 9.0 log10. Results: All the 20 bacteria were confirmed as probiotics Lactobacillus using morphological and biochemical studies. The identity of the five lactobacilli, FTDC 0582, FTDC 0785, FTDC 2916, FTDC 4462 and FTDC 4793 were confirmed to be L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. plantarum, L. casei and L. plantarum, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, a carbon utilization microplate assay system developed by API CHL 50 has the potential to simplify the identification scheme of probiotic bacteria to the genus level.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Effect of Pecuniary Benefit on Some Haematological and Iron-related Parameters of Blood Donations: A Study at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Blood Donor Clinic, Calabar, Nigeria
D.C. Okpokam, E.E. Osim and E.A. Usanga
Background and Objective: In many countries, there are cultural attitudes that limit acceptance to blood donation activities, governments and other institutions do little to counteract these attitudes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine demography, some haematological and iron-related parameters of 184 male frequent paid and not paid blood donors in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: About 184 subjects comprising five groups were recruited into this study, that is, 35 (19.0%) control group (donors donating for the 1st time), 32 (17.4%) of first (donors donating for the 2nd time), 35 (19.0%) of second (donors donating for the 3rd time),41 (22.3%) of third (donors donating for the 4th time) and 41 (22.3%) of fourth (donors donating for the 5th time) time blood donors. The donors were within the range of 18-49 years of age. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling method for selection of the male blood donors by filling the questionnaire form after giving their consent. Their haemoglobin concentration was evaluated using complete automated cell counter (ERMA INC. Tokyo PCE-210, 5.10 version). Photometric/colorimetric and ELISA method was used to estimate the biochemical iron-related parameters (TS, SF, STfR and STfR/SF ratio). Results: Students (42.4%) comprised the highest percentage of donors followed by artisans (19%). The smallest occupational group was made up of bankers, politicians, businessmen). Most (63.4%) of the donors were commercial blood donors while 37.5% were not paid at the time of donation. There was a significant decrease in 184 paid blood donors in Hb, Hct, TS, SF and significant increase in STfR and STfR/SF ratio when compared with not paid ones There was also a progressive significant fall in average Hb, TS, SF and rise in STfR, STfR/SF ratio in the repeat paid blood donors of more than 3 times. There was also general impairment of haematological and biochemical iron-related parameters in paid and Not paid blood donors. Conclusion: Most repeated blood donors in this study were young persons between the ages of 18-35 years and most of them donated blood for pecuniary benefit. It is, therefore, necessary to inculcate motivational campaign and also educate the blood donors to devote in donating willingly without being remunerated. The Nigerian government should also rely on these findings to legislate on how to regulate blood donation abuse especially for those that do it for pecuniary benefit.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Physiological Response of Two Wheat Cultivars Grown under Sandy Soil Conditions to Aspartic Acid Application
Mohamed El-Sayed El-Awadi, Mervat Shamon Sadak, Kowther Gad Ali El-Rorkiek and Mona Gergis Dawood
Background and Objective: Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops grown in the world. The main amino acids synthesized by plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid and from these two amino acids, the other amino acid may be formed. This study aimed to investigate the physiological role of aspartic acid in improving quality and productivity of two wheat cultivars grown under sandy soil conditions. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was carried out at the experimental Station of National Research Centre, Nubaria district, El-Behrea Governorate-Egypt, during two winter seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018. Wheat grains cultivars (Benisuif 4 and Sohag 3) were obtained from Agricultural Research Centre Giza, Egypt. The experimental design was complete randomized block design with four replications. Foliar application of aspartic acid (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg L1) was carried out twice, plants were sprayed after 45 and 60 days from sowing. Results: It was noted that Benisuif 4 cv. was characterized by higher significant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, grains, straw and biological yield than Sohag 3 cv. when grown under sandy soil conditions. Aspartic acid treatments (50, 75 and 100 mg L1) caused marked significant increases in all growth parameters under investigation, photosynthetic pigments, yield and yield components, quality of the yielded grains (carbohydrate, protein, N, P, K contents) in both wheat cultivars. It is worthy to mention that 75 mg L1 was the most pronounced treatment in increasing quality and productivity of two wheat cultivars grown under sandy soil conditions. Conclusion: It was concluded that aspartic acid treatments (50, 75 and 100 mg L1) increased quality and quantity of two wheat cultivars grown under sandy soil conditions, especially 75 mg L1 was the most pronounced treatment.
Research Article
Published on July 25, 2019
Pre-hatch and Post-hatch Egg Breakout and Hatchability Analysis as an Indicator to Increase Layer Breeder Performance and Egg Hatchability
J.A. Hamidu, D.A. Jerebi, M.A. Okai, D. Wakpal and L.A. Konadu
Background and Objective: An experiment was conducted to analyze mating behaviors of layer breeders, time of egg collection and general handling of eggs, days of egg storage and incubation control mechanisms and records of hatchability and chick quality indicators. The study was conducted at the Olympio hatchery, Department of Animal Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive hatching regimes (from breeding flock through to the hatchery) were observed and monitored. Eggs collected were stored in the cold room at a temperature of 16°C and RH of 70% and pre-warmed for about 6 h interval before setting them in an incubator. Hatchability at the end of incubation was assessed and breakout of hatch debris was done for each regime to measure the impact of incubation parameters on embryo and content of residue left after 21.5 days of incubation. Results: Average mating within 3 h of observation between 05:00-08:00 GMT was between 47-50 times. Pen house temperature and egg room temperature which were 27-32°C were high and above physiological zero especially in the afternoons. When eggs were incubated the eggshell temperature (EST) fluctuated between the time of the day. The EST increased steadily at all times of the day from E11-E17 as the experiment progressed due to the increase in metabolic activity of the growing embryo. The incubator air temperature was not the same as EST. Conclusion: The study showed that long storage of eggs beyond 7 days increased early embryonic mortality.

Newsroom    |    Frequently Asked Questions    |    Privacy Policy    |    Terms & Conditions    |    Contact Us