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Journal of Applied Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5662
pISSN: 1812-5654

Editor-in-Chief:  Gazi Mahabubul Alam
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Research Article
Influence of Weather Factors on Incidence and Severity of Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Mulberry
Mohd Yaqoob Dar, Asha Singh, G.K. Ramegowda and R.J. Rao
Background and Objective: Production of quality mulberry leaf and subsequent production of quality silk is hampered due to the incidence of various insect pests. Such incidence of pests has been found to be affected by weather parameters. Strawberry spider mite, Tetranychus turkestani (Ugarov and Nikolskii) have been found to damage large number of agriculture crops. This study was conducted in Pampore of Kashmir valley, India during 2011-2012 cropping seasons to measure the incidence (mite incidence, MI) and severity (percent damage index, PDI) of Tetranychus turkestani on mulberry foliage in relation with climatic factors. Materials and Methods: Observations were made fortnightly on the incidence and severity of pest from May-October along with the influence of weather parameters. Mite species were recorded from May onwards until leaf fall in October during 2011 and 2012. Results: Incidence and severity were lesser during May and reached maximum during 2nd fortnight of July and 1st fortnight of August from there it declined to reach a lower level during 2nd fortnight of October with the onset of leaf fall. Correlations were positive and highly significant for both incidence and severity. The minimum temperature and relative humidity registered significant positive correlation and rainy days showed negative correlation with both MI and PDI. Multiple regression modules with five weather parameters of same and previous fortnight with incidence and severity had higher probability and R2 values. Conclusion: This study showed that T. turkestani is a serious pest to mulberry foliage causing severe damage to its quality and quantity with respect to the weather conditions.
Research Article
Perceived Causes of Household Food Insecurity and Policy Implications for Food Production in Kano State, Nigeria
Ifeoma Quinette Anugwa and Agwu Ekwe Agwu
Background and Objective: Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. Hence, this study was conducted to ascertain the perceived causes of household food insecurity in six rural areas of Kano state where intensive crop farming is practiced by rural farmers. Materials and Method: Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting 120 respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean scores were used to analyze the data. Results: A greater percent of the households were engaged in food, cash crop production and animal rearing. Also, the major crops produced were cereals such as maize, sorghum and millet, among others. Though the majority of the respondents ate three times daily, but they consumed mostly carbohydrate containing foods such as rice, Tuwo shinkafa, cornflour, gero and yam, among others. The respondents indicated that their food security situation was worse off than the previous years. The respondents also indicated that perceived causes of their food insecurity were mainly, poor extension services, large family size and poverty. Conclusion: In spite of the agricultural production activities of the farmers, the study found out that farmers were increasingly food insecure. There is urgent need for policy makers in Kano state to implement pro-poor agricultural policies that would reduce farmers’ vulnerability to food insecurity. This has the potential to raise efficiency in food crop production and enhance farmers’ food security status.
Research Article
Disruption of Lipid Profile and Alteration of Hepatic Lipoprotein Metabolism Gene Expression in Anaemia-induced Rat
Olabisi O. Ogunrinola, Samuel N. Olaitan, Olusegun O. Fajana, Kehinde O. Olatunji, Loveth Obodokwe, Oluwaseyi A. Ogunrinola, Oluwakemi A. Rotimi and Solomon O. Rotimi
Background and Objective: Iron metabolism in animals is altered by haemolytic anaemia induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ), however, its effects on lipid metabolism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of anaemia on lipid profiles and lipoprotein metabolism gene expression in rats. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly classified into normal control and anaemia-induced group (n = 7), respectively. Anaemia was induced in rats by daily administration of PHZ at 10 mg kg–1 for 8 consecutive days, after which blood was collected and liver excised. Lipid profiles of plasma and liver were determined spectrophotometrically while the expression of genes associated with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism was assayed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: The induced-anaemia resulted in hypotriglyceridemia and hypophospholipidosis, with concurrent hypercholesteromia compared to control, respectively. Liver triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol were observed to be up-regulated. Anaemic rats showed a significant (p<0. 05) up-regulation of the relative expression of hepatic lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (Lcat), paraoxonase-1 (Pon-1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr) and down-regulation of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I (Scarb1). Conclusion: The induced-anaemia alter the expression of lipoprotein metabolizing genes which might be the underlying mechanism of anaemia to disrupt lipid metabolism.
Research Article
Comparative Study of Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Barringtonia acutangula Leaves and Bark Extracts and its Biological Activity
S. Chandra Mohan and T. Anand
Background and Objective: There has been not much information available on phytochemical components and biological activity in the bark and leaves extract of Barringtonia acutangula L. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity and characterize the chemical constituents of leaves and bark extract of Barringtonia acutangula L. by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Materials and Methods: This investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from Barringtonia acutangula L. by GC-MS.-QP 2010 PLUS SHIMADZU JAPAN. The antioxidant activity of plant material was assayed by reducing power assay. Results: This analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of Barringtonia acutangula L. (Bark) contained 32 phyto components, mainly 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester, Dibutyl phthalate, 1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid, etc. The leaves extract contained 37 phyto components, among them 2,6,10-Trimethyl, 14-ethylene-14-pentadecene, 4,4a,6b,8a,11,11,12b,14a-Octamethyl-eicosahydro-picen-3-one, Dibutyl phthalate, 1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid, Friedelan-3-one were the major components. The reducing power of the plant extract was compared with the standard ascorbic acid and found to be dose-dependent. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Barringtonia acutangula L. contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
Research Article
Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Palm Oil Diets Reduce Blood Pressure via Katp/Bkca Ion Channels in Rats
Etah E. Nkanu, Daniel U. Owu and Eme E. Osim
Background and Objective: Extra virgin olive oil is consumed in most areas of the Mediterranean and the tropics and has been reported to be involved in the lowering of arterial blood pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the possible mechanism of arterial blood lowering effect of extra virgin olive oil and palm oil diets. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (10 rats per group) were fed on normal rat chow (control), Fresh Palm Oil (FPO), Extra Virgin Olive Oil EVOO) and Thermoxidized Palm Oil (TPO) groups. The oil-fed groups received 15% (weight/weight) of oil mixed with rat chow for 18 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by direct cannulation and blood samples, heart and kidney were collected for biochemical analysis. Results: The basal Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and after phenylephrine (10–6 mmol L–1) infusion was significantly (p<0.01) elevated in EVOO, FPO and TPO compared with control. Levcromakalim (10–6 mmol L–1) (a KATP-channel opener) and NS1619 (Bkca channel opener) infusion significantly (p<0.01) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) in FPO and EVOO compared with control and TPO. Heart and kidney SOD and catalase activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in EVOO and FPO groups when compared with other groups but decreased in TPO. Conclusion: Long term intake of thermally oxidized palm oil may suppress potassium ion channel function thereby increasing blood pressure. Blood pressure reduction property in FPO and EVOO is via KATP and Bkca ion channels and the greater effect of EVOO is probably due to its high content of oleic acid and polyphenols.
Research Article
Study of Essential Oil Composition and Antifungal Activity of Lavandula mairei, L. dentata and Tetraclinis articulata
Hassan Boubaker, Hicham Karim, Fouad Msanda, El Hassan Boudyach and Abdellah Ait Ben Aoumar
Back Ground and Objective: Medicinal plants are getting popular day by day because of their easy accessibility and reasonable costs. This study investigated the chemical composition and antifungal activity of Lavandula mairei, Lavandula dentata and Tetraclinis articulata plants essential oils against Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the main post-harvest pathogens in citrus. Materials and Methods: Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from areal parts of tested plants. Afterwards, they were analyzed by means of GC-MS and their antifungal efficacy was tested in vitro by using the agar plate’s method. Results: The main constituents were carvacrol for L. mairei, camphor, linalool and β-pinene for L. dentata and bornyl acetate, α-pinene, borneol and limonene for T. articulata. In the in vitro assay, the effect of essential oils on mycelial growth and spore germination varied significantly between tested plant species. Complete growth inhibition of the three pathogens was obtained by L. mairei essential oil. Also, L. mairei displayed the highest bioactivity, inhibiting completely the spore germination of the three pathogens. Moreover, this species showed fungistatic and fungicidal activity on the three fungal pathogens. Conclusion: In this study, L. mairei essential oil showed great antifungal activity which could represent a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides for the control of citrus fruit fungal pathogens.
Research Article
Crop Hosts and Pollination Potential of the Red Dwarf Honey Bee (Apis florea F.) in the Semi-arid Environment of North West India
Ram Chander Sihag
Background and Objective: The red dwarf honey bee (Apis florea, Fabricius) is indigenous to semi-arid tropical environments of several parts of Asia and some parts of Africa. This species is also one of the important natural and wild pollinators of these regions. Therefore, knowledge on the crop hosts and pollination potential of this honey bee is important and this study was planned to get this information. Materials and Methods: A record of the crop plants visited by this honey bee during the year round was maintained. Pollination potential of this honey bee was ascertained on the basis of its foraging behavior and abundance of the foragers on the crop plants in the study area. Results: Red dwarf honey bee visited some 38 crop plants for pollen and/or nectar and acted as an important pollinator of more than 35 crops in the semi-arid environment of northwest India. Conclusion: Red dwarf honey bee has an excellent pollination potential for more than 35 crops of semi-arid environment of northwest India. On the basis of its pollination service, this honey bee needs vigorous conservation efforts.
Research Article
Production of Citric Acid from Corn Stalk through Submerged Fermentation Using Aspergillus niger
Judy Atabat Adudu, Shefiat O. Arekemase, Ibrahim Abdulwaliyu, Musa Latayo Batari, Helen Hoomsuk Raplong, Bamidele D. Aronimo and Yakubu Sani
Background and Objective: Many agro wastes have been explored for the production of citric acid. However, information on the use of corn stalk is scarcely available, hence, there is need to explore the use of corn stalk in the production of citric acid. This study is aimed at producing citric acid from corn stalk by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger isolated from the soil. Materials and Methods: Dried and pulverized corn stalk and A. niger obtained from soil samples were used in this study. The effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, incubation time and methanol on citric acid production were studied. Results: Eight fungal isolates were characterized and isolate Asp 2 had the best citric acid production efficacy. Corn stalk powder mixed with 50% sucrose and 1 g of ammonium nitrate gave the highest yield of citric acid when compared to the other carbon and nitrogen sources. More so, pH 5, temperature of 30°C and 7th day of fermentation offered the highest yield of citric acid. Furthermore, a higher yield was obtained when 3% (v/v) methanol was added to the medium. Conclusion: Observation in this study deduced that corn stalk is a suitable and inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid and could serve as value added agro wastes in the production of citric acid.
Research Article
Profit Analysis of a Serial-parallel System under Partial and Complete Failures
Ibrahim Yusuf, Baffa Sani and Bashir Yusuf
Background and Objectives: The industrial and manufacturing systems comprise of large complex subsystems arranged in series-parallel whose failure is costly. Through mathematical modelling of such systems, the maximum profit level in which the system can attain can be identified and the corresponding subsystem that enable the maximum profit in order to lay emphasis on its preventive maintenance as well as the most critical subsystem leading to drop in profit can also be identified. Materials and Methods: Through the transition diagrams, systems of first order differential difference equations are developed and solved recursively to obtain the steady-state availability, busy period of repair men and profit function. Profit matrices for each subsystem have been developed to provide various performance values for different combinations of failure and repair rates of all subsystems. Results: Mathematical models of availability, busy period of remain man due to partial and complete failure as well as profit function for the systems have been developed using the probabilistic approach. Through these mathematical models impact of each subsystem parameters on the system’s profit has been analyzed through simulation and profit matrices. Through profit matrices and value of correlation coefficient, the most critical system leading to drop in profit is identified. Conclusion: Mathematical models of the system are developed in the form of availability, busy period of repairman due to partial and complete failure and as well as profit function. Profit generated are presented in the form of matrices (or tables). The effects of failure and repair rates of all the subsystems are presented in the form of profit matrices. It is evident from the profit matrices that as failure/repair rates increases, the profit tend to decrease/increase. From the value of correlation coefficient presented in the study, it is evident sub-system E is the most critical whose failure is catastrophic to the system. Mathematical models developed in this paper are vital to plant management for proper maintenance analysis and safety of the system as a whole. The models will also assist plant management to avoid an incorrect reliability, availability and profit assessment and leading to inadequate maintenance decision making, which cause unnecessary expenditures and reduction of safety standards.
Research Article
Protective Effect of Morin, A Flavonoid Against Hypercholesterolemia-induced Hepatic and Renal Toxicities in Rats
Amal Abdullah Aloud
Background and Objective: Morin is a natural yellow compound that is scientifically proven to have pharmacological activities including hypoglycemia, inflammation and anti-oxidative. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of morin in high cholesterol diet (HCD) fed rats. Materials and Methods: High cholesterol diet (HCD) in pellet form was prepared by adding 1% cholesterol+0.5% cholic acid in rat chow powder and fed male Wistar rats for 6 weeks. Morin with three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg kg1, orally) were treated to HCD fed rats for 4 weeks further feeding HCD. In serum, lipid profile, liver enzymes, renal markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), caspase-3, nitric oxide (NO) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) levels were estimated. In renal and hepatic cells, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were measured. Results: Animals exposed to a HCD exhibited significant increases in serum lipid profile, liver enzymes, renal markers, interleukins, caspase-3, NO and NF-κB levels. Morin supplementation reversed these changes towards normal levels in a dose-dependent manner. The HCD feedings significantly altered the oxidative stress biomarkers TBARS, GSH, SOD, CAT, GST and GPx in hepatic and renal tissues. Four weeks of morin treatment with three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg kg1 day1) to hypercholesterolemic rats significantly reversed oxidative stress levels in liver and kidney tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Morin exhibited inhibitory effect against HCD-induced hepatic and renal damages by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory progressions. Thus, it could be considered as a potential alternative therapeutic agent for management of hypercholesterolemia.
Research Article
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV and α-glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Ceratotheca sesamoides, Corchorus fascicularis, Corchorus olitorius and Abelmoschus esculentus
Pamhidzai Dzomba and Estele Mwanza
Background and Objective: Ceratotheca sesamoides, Corchorus fascicularis, Corchorus olitorius and Abelmoschus esculentus are edible bush okras used to manage diabetes mellitus type 2 in traditional practices worldwide. In this study we investigate the alpha-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitory activity of the four bush okras’ leaf, seeds and pods extracts. Materials and Methods: Liquid-liquid extraction was used for extracting the active phytochemicals. The extracts and standard inhibitors, sitagliptin and precose were then used in in vitro studies to determine percentage inhibition and IC50 values using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Results: The C. sesamoides, C. fascicularis, C. olitorius and A. esculentus ethanolic extracts showed significant dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 1.53-92.32 μg mL1 and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 1.85-8.43 μg mL1. Most of the extracts showed greater than 50% inhibition at concentration lower than 10 μg mL1. Leaf and seed extracts showed the best results with IC50 values lower than those of standard inhibitors, 2.32 and 2.38 μg mL1 for sitagliptin and precose, respectively. Among the okras A. esculentus showed the best results, IC50 values<2 μg mL1. Conclusion: Results of the present studies show that administration of polar extracts i.e., aqueous infusions of C. sesamoides, C. fascicularis, C. olitorius and A. esculentus inhibits the enzymes, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase. Thus the study supports the global use of the edible okra species in traditional medicine to manage diabetes mellitus type 2.
Research Article
Comparative Studies Between Annual and Perennial Sesbania Using Karyological, Biochemical and Molecular Studies
Magda Ibrahim Soliman, Amira AbdAllah Ibrahim, Linda Zakhary Samaan and Eman Sedky
Background and Objective: Genetic diversity of two Sesbania species (annual and perennial) was studied via using different attributes karyotype formula, biochemical study (SDS-PAGE) and molecular studies (RAPD and ISSR markers). This study was focused on Sesbania due to its medicinal importance from the previous literature. The objective of the paper is studying the genetic conservation of Sesbania and put light on the main difference between annual and perennial one. Methodology: Seeds and young leaves of two species of Sesbania were collected from ten locations in Egypt and then the seeds prepared into slides via different steps of fixation and squashing. SDS-PAGE was done using the seeds of investigated taxa, in addition to two molecular markers RAPD and ISSR using five primers in each were used based on fresh young leaves of the investigated taxa. Results: This present investigation confirmed the chromosome number of two species of Sesbania (annual Sesbania sericea and perennial Sesbania sesban) was diploid 2n = 2x = 12. The karyotype parameters showed slight difference between ten taxa, where Sesbania sericea (Ssa5) had the lowest values of TF (%) and Syi index in addition to the highest value of A1, whereas, Sesbania sesban (Ssp1) had the highest values of TF (%) and Syi index and also the lowest value of A1. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that two unique bands with molecular weight of 69 and 71 KDa were characteristic for annual Sesbania (Sesbania sericea), these two bands differentiate the annual species from the other studied perennial taxa. The RAPD and ISSR molecular markers yielded a total number of 57 bands out of which 31 were polymorphic ones and only 26 bands were found to be monomorphic. Conclusion: Karyological parameters beside biochemical and molecular attributes had the ability to study the genetic diversity of Sesbania species and can be used in the conservation of these species in gene banks.
Research Article
Testicular Parameters and Scrotal Measurements in Relation to Age and Body Weight in Growing Naemi-Rams
Ahmed A. Al-kawmani
Background and Objective: The attainment of pubertal age in farm animals is a crucial stage in the reproductive life cycle. The objective of this study was to discover the association between the testicular parameters and scrotum and body weight and age and detection of stages of spermatogenesis, during the before and after puberty period. Materials and Methods: Eighty Naemi ram lambs in Saudi Arabia were divided into 8 groups corresponding to ages of 2-16 months (10 males in each group). Testis parameters, scrotum circumference (SC) and Testicular volume (TV) and A testicular histological were measured. Results: The results showed that the mean body weight (b.wt.), SC and TV of the rams increased at a quick rate to reach the maximum at 16 months. This character was significantly (p<0.05) different between all the age groups. A positive relationship was found between b.wt. and Testicular parameters. A testicular histological examination revealed that before 4 months of age seminiferous tubules (ST) contained nearly spermatogonia only, while Sertoli cells were seen for the first time at 6 months of age. At 14 month of age complete spermatozoa filled the ST lumen. Conclusion: It could be concluded that all the testicular and scrotal parameters measured in this study were greatly influenced by b.wt. and age of Naemi ram lambs. This research suggests that Naemi rams reach full pubertal development around one year of age and should not to be used for mating before that age.
Research Article
Efficiency of Nano-Zinc Foliar Spray on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Flame Seedless Grape
Rasha El-Said Abd El-Hak El-Said, Saeed Abd El-Aty El- Shazly, Ahmed Abd El-Fattah Mahmoud El-Gazzar, Essam Abd El-Azeez Shaaban and Mohamed Maher Saad Saleh
Background and Objective: Nano-fertilizers are effective in improving solubility, bioavailability, efficiency and uptake ratio of soil nutrients. This study was investigated the effect of different concentrations of nano-zinc on growth, leaf mineral content and yield also fruit quality of flame seedless grape vine. Materials and Methods: This investigation was carried out through two successive seasons (2014 and 2015) to investigate the effect of nano-zinc on growth, leaf mineral content, yield and fruit quality of 5 years old flame seedless grapevines, cultivated in a private orchard at Sammond region, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. Six treatments were applied as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Grapevines were sprayed with: T1 water only (control), T2 zinc sulphate at 565 ppm, T3 zinc EDTA at 140 ppm, T4 nano-zinc at 0.4 ppm, T5 nano-zinc at 0.8 ppm and T6 nano-zinc at 1.2 ppm. The used nano-zinc was 25 nm. Results: The result indicated that spraying grape vines with 0.4 ppm nano-zinc increased significantly leaf area and fresh weight compared with the control, while1.2 ppm nano-zinc increased significantly total carbohydrate, leaf concentration of Fe, No. of clusters, cluster weight and yield. Also results showed that 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 ppm of nano-zinc had a significant increase on yield compared with conventional fertilizer. The utilization rate of nano-zinc fertilizer was decreased, which means saving the amounts of zinc fertilizer in production practice. Conclusion: So it was concluded that spraying vines with 0.4 ppm as nano-zinc was the best treatment for increasing some vegetative parameters.
Research Article
Repellent and Mosquitocidal Properties of Smoke from Oil and Non-polar Extracts of Ocimum viride Leaf Against Aedes aegyptii
Ernest Amponsah Asiamah and Mary Akumah Botchey
Background and Objective: Ocimum viride leaf extracts exhibit mosquito repellent activities. However, the duration of its protection is not reported. This study therefore assessed and compared the protective times, percent flying inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration of oil and non-polar extract of Ocimum viride leaf against Aedes aegyptii. Materials and Methods: Five different concentrations (50, 40, 30, 20 and 10%) each of the two extracts dissolved in acetone were formulated and incorporated into a burning material made of coconut shell flour, potato starch and sodium nitrate. A blank burning material which contained none of the extracts was formulated as control. Ten mosquitoes released into a test cage were exposed to smoke from the burning material. The repellence and insecticidal activities of the oil, non-polar extract and control were monitored at 5 min interval over a period of 30 min. The protective time (Pt) and percent flying inhibition for each treatment were determined and analyzed with ANOVA. Results: Non-polar and oil extracts offered dose-dependent repellent potential but no mosquitocidal activities. The oil exhibited significantly longer protective time (p<0.05) [Pt (oil) = 0.4400x+2.0, Pt (non-polar) = 0.006429x2-0.1957x+2.3] and flying inhibition (p<0.001) than the non-polar extract with minimum inhibition concentrations 2.17 and 5.62%, respectively. Conclusion: Oil from Ocimum leaf repelled Aedes aegyptii better than its non-polar extract at minimum concentration and offered higher protective time.
Research Article
Sources and Variations of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Petroleum Products Contaminated Soils
Ifenna Ilechukwu, Mark Obinna Onyema and Grace Imperial Tejano
Background and Objective: Aliphatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic at high concentrations and can be hazardous to biological system. This study aimed to examine the aliphatic hydrocarbon variations in soils from the vicinity of mechanic workshops. Materials and Methods: The aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) in soil samples collected from auto-mechanic workshops in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria, were analyzed with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to determine their sources and examine the variations in their composition. Petroleum products contribution to the hydrocarbons in the soil samples were estimated from composition of n-alkanes. Results: The GC-FID resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) in the samples were composed of C8, C10, C16-C35, C16, C25, C28, C30-C36, C16 - C18, C21-C36 n-alkanes with unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from C22-C36 in one of the samples. These n-alkanes carbon number ranges suggest gasoline, diesel, lube oil and grease as the source of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the samples. The kerosene range n-alkanes (C10-C15) were not detected in any of the samples. Conclusion: The chemical composition features showed grease as the dominant source of petroleum products in the soils with varying inputs from gasoline, diesel and lube oil. The presence of UCM of hydrocarbons in one of the samples indicated the aliphatic hydrocarbons in the soil had undergone degradation.

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