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Journal of Applied Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5662
pISSN: 1812-5654

Editor-in-Chief:  Gazi Mahabubul Alam
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Research Article
Improvement for the Supply Chain Collaboration on the Construction Projects for the Government of Botswana
Haijun Wang and Masego Neo Motlhagodi
Background and Objective: Communication issues have been revealed as some of the problems within some government projects in Botswana. However, a proper and formal collaboration is one of the important features in supply chain management which can decrease these issues. Therefore, this study was proposed to build up a way of motivating long-term supply chain relations within construction projects. This was in order to bid for an arrangement that will enhance improvement in construction project management. The contractors’ collaborative activities were investigated because they are one of the main parties in a main contract with the government. They are also forming another platform for a construction supply chain by dealing with sub-contractors and suppliers. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted through an empirical investigation. Data were collected from contractors engaged in local government projects. Closed-ended questionnaires were dispersed so that comparison of characteristics could be done to look for patterns that give significance to the study. About 82 questionnaires were circulated but atleast 38 responses were received as acceptable. A sample t-test was used to check if a sample mean is significantly different from an assumed mean which was fixed at 95%. One-way ANOVA test was also carried out to investigate the fairness of different population means. Results: The findings of this study work concluded that lack of proper supply chain collaboration in construction projects still exist. The findings of this research study were unique in their nature because they lead in a recommendation to promote business continuity in construction projects. Conclusion: Values that are associated with global development mechanisms, like a strong supply chain within construction sector have to be stimulated and held in high esteem in construction projects. If prepared earnestly, positive outcomes of overcoming time delays and cost overruns will be achieved. Overall population was not surveyed therefore the small sample size restricts the prospect for generalisation but it opens up for future research.
Research Article
A Proposed Adaptive Inverse Multiquadric Shape Parameter Applied with the Dual Reciprocity BEM to Nonlinear and Coupled PDE
Sayan Kaennakham and Nissaya Chuathong
Background and Objective: The effect of shape parameter is known to play a crucial role in determining the final results of a collocation-based numerical method. This is also the case for boundary element method where radial basis functions are used to collocate the non-homogeneous term. However, finding an optimal shape parameter is known not to be simple particularly when dealing with complex PDE problems. This investigation was carried out focusing on three purposes. Firstly, it is to propose a new form of shape parameter contained in the inverse-multiquadric RBF that behaves both linearly and exponentially. Secondly, it is to integrate the effect of the local phenomena of the problem at hand into the mechanism of the proposed shape via. the local Reynolds number (Re). Thirdly, the methodology of dual reciprocity boundary element method is studied, applied and computationally implemented to one of the most challenging types of PDEs, ‘Burgers equations’, famous for its rich in transient, couple and nonlinear phenomena. Materials and Methods: The study began with gathering mostly-used and proposed forms of shape parameter and analyzing the general aspects in terms of their affectiveness. A new form of shape parameter that was hoped to alleviate the drawbacks commonly found when using those previously proposed shape parameter. The investigation then moved on applying the methodology of the dual reciprocity boundary element method in conjunction with the newly formulated shape parameter to one of the most challenging forms of PDE namely Burgers’ equations. The overall effectiveness of the was evaluated by comparing the results against both their analytical solutions and other numerical works when available in literature. Results: Main findings of this work are as follows. Firstly, the method has successfully been applied to Burgers’ equations using inverse multiquadric radial basis function at relatively high Reynolds number. Secondly, it is found from all the results obtained in this work that the proposed shape parameter can outperform the fixed ones and certainly deserves further investigation. Lastly, when compared with other numerical works, the accuracy lies in an acceptable level and moreover, gets better when the problem become advective dominated, at high Reynolds number. Conclusion: It is found in this work that with its ability to adapt itself locally, the proposed choice of variable shape provides reasonable solutions while requiring only the upper and lower bounding values. This makes choosing the suitable shape much more effective and simpler, particularly when the flow reaches the stage of instability, high Reynolds number.
Research Article
Numerical Simulation on Thermal Performance of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Double Glass Covers
Fahim Ullah, Mansoor Khan Khattak, Min Kang, Ninghui Li, Jun Yang and Xingsheng Wang
Background and Objectives: In this study, the numerical simulation of the steady-state thermal performance of flat plate solar collector with double glass cover, physical model, validation and its grid independence test were performed with the finite volume method. Moreover, through comparison with the conventional plate heat collector, the effects of ambient temperature, the inlet water temperature, solar radiated intensity and lower glass cover position on thermal performance of the heat collector were investigated. Materials and Methods: For the simulation of FPSC with double glass covers different physical model, geometric and boundary condition were used and also regression analysis was applied on the data. Results: From the investigated results, it was cleared that, when the ambient temperature is below 18°C, the collector with double glass covers shows advantages, while when the ambient temperature is -10°C, the instantaneous efficiency of the flat plate solar collector with double glass covers was noted 0.26 higher than that of the conventional plate heat collector. Similarly, increase in the inlet water temperature and solar radiate intensity both results in an increase in the temperature inside the collector, which enhances the insulation effect of the double glass covers. Conclusion: When the inlet water temperature was 50°C, the instantaneous efficiency difference between the flat-plate solar collector with the double glass covers and the conventional one increases to 0.27. Furthermore, concluded from the results of the experiment that, when the lower glass cover is located 18 mm over the absorber plate and the solar radiated intensity is to be 1000 W m–2, the instantaneous efficiency of the flat-plate solar collector with the double glass covers can reach up to 0.678.
Research Article
Model of Bad Debt Trading Market Development
Quuynh Pham Thi Truc and Hanh Nguyen Viet
Background and Objective: Lack of a theoretical framework for the development of the bad debt trading market can lead to mistakes in dealing with bad loans. So that, the purpose of this paper was to set up a model of the development of the bad debt market. Methodology: To do so, the study examined the relationship between supply and demand in the financial markets, the relationship between supply and demand, price and volume in the market of bad debt and social welfare were achieved when the market of bad debt was developed. Results: Research results indicated that when the market price of bad debt approaches the value of collateral, demand in the bad debt market tends to decrease and the supply in the bad debt market increases and vice versa. At a point where the market price of bad debt is equal to the value of collateral, commercial banks and credit institutions tend to sell off the amount of bad debt that they own and demand for the non-performing loan (NPL) market tends to be zero. The research result also showed that in order to maximize the social welfare achieved in the bad debt market or minimum social welfare in the financial market, the amount of bad debt must be sold off at a price level that equals to the value of the collateral. Conclusion: Therefore, the best way to deal with bad debt through the bad debt trading market as making the price level of and the amount of bad debt closer to the value of collateral, which could gain when stimulate the demand for NPL market develops. Additionally, the difference between the agreed price in the market of bad debt and the value of collateral could be a reliable measurement to consider the level of bad debt market development, which can help policy-makers, managers and researchers determine the level of development of the bad debt market to take out policies that stimulate the market of bad debt develops.

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