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Journal of Applied Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5662
pISSN: 1812-5654

Editor-in-Chief:  Gazi Mahabubul Alam
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Research Article
Silicon Pyramid Structure as a Reflectivity Reduction Mechanism
Ammar Mahmoud Al-Husseini and Bashar Lahlouh
Background and Objective: Light capturing is an essential part of many optical devices such as optoelectronic devises and solar cells. This study aimed at modifying surface reflectivity of silicon to improve light trapping. A simple and easily controllable etching technique was used to achieve this goal. Methodology: The surface topography of (100) P-type silicon wafers was modified by etching a controllable pyramid structure on these surfaces. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution was used to etch the silicon surface; the concentrations of KOH were varied between (20-36 wt%)±0.14 wt% with 3±0.1 wt% of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at temperatures between (60-80°C) ±0.1°C and a varying etching time between 20-40 min, the mean and standard deviation of the pyramids size was calculated by taking five SEM images per case. Results: The optimal etching condition was determined as a 20±0.14 wt% aqueous KOH solution with a 3±0.1 wt% IPA for an etching time of 40 min at an etching bath temperature of 80°C. The pyramids resulting under this condition has a size of 1.7±0.2 μm. The surface reflectivity at these optimal conditions was measured to be 11±0.2% in the wavelength range 550-840 nm. Conclusion: The optical conditions for etching and modifying the morphology and reflectivity of (100) silicon surfaces were determined. Surface reflectivity modification is one the effective methods that can be used to control light trapping and light scattering needed for proper functioning of many optical applications and optical devices.
Research Article
Effects of Alkaloid Rich-Fraction (ARF) of Methanol Extract of Ricinus Communis (RC) Seeds on Immune Responses, Inflammatory Reactions and Liver Functions
Njoku Ugochi Olivia, Nwodo Okwesili Fred Chiletugo and Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
Background and Objective:Ricinus communis seeds are widely consumed for nutritional and medicinal benefits. This study investigated the effects of Alkaloid-Rich Fraction (ARF) of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on inflammatory reactions, immune response and its hepatoprotective potentials on male wistar albino rats challenged with CCl4 in order to maximize its health benefits. Materials and Methods: In vitro study was employed in determining the effect of ARF on the hemolytic activity of complement proteins and immunostimulatory activity. The effects of ARF on immune response and hepatoprotective potentials were carried out using male Wistar albino mice and rats challenged with CCl4 in corn respectively. Results: The ARF of Ricinus communis seed caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the phagocytic index and stimulated phagocytosis in a concentration dependent manner when compared to the control. Complement protein activity significantly (p<0.05) increased hemolysis of the sensitized sheep red blood cells in a concentration-dependent manner when incubated in the ARF indicating that the ARF could be used in prevention of infections associated with complement protein deficiency. A dose dependent significant decrease (p<0.05) in the delayed type hypersensitive response was observed while significant increase (p<0.05) in the primary and secondary antibody titers of the test groups relative to normal control were also observed. However, there was significant decrease (p<0.05) in both primary and secondary titer values when compared to the standard control that received 2.5 mg kg–1 of levamisole. At higher dose of the ARF, aspartate aminotransferase activity significantly (p<0.05) increased when compared with the control. In addition, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities of the treated groups significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared to positive control indicating that the ARF could maintain liver integrity and functions. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the ARF has hepatoprotective potentials and positive effects on immune system coupled with potentials anti-inflammatory activity that could help the body defense system, fight diseases and pathogenic organisms.
Research Article
Implementation of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Digester to Produce Household-scale Biogas
Ambar Pertiwiningrum, Jonathan Sintong Parningotan Silaban, Agus Prasetya and Rochijan
Objective: The objective of study was to create digester (reactor) design by using the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) technology for manure handling to produce household-scale biogas. Methodology: The digester consisted of a plastic tank with three rooms. There was the main room, the second room and the gas-solid separator or cross-section room. The volume of the digester was 179 L. The hydraulic retention time was 20 days. It was conducted in two phases: batch phase for 20 days and continuous phase for 21 days. Results: During the batch phase, the average discharge of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were 4856.67 mg L–1, Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) were 8520 mg L–1 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was 14911 mg L–1. During the continuous phase the average discharge of TSS were 13374.29 mg L–1, VSS were 26642.86 mg L–1 and COD were 41653.57 mg L–1. The removal efficiency of TSS, VSS and COD during the batch phase were 55.4, 79.8 and 17.4%, respectively, while this did not occur during the continuous phase. The biogas production began to increase at the beginning and during the continuous phase. The continuous phase had a higher average of biogas production than the batch phase. The highest speed of biogas production occurred at 8 am to 12 pm with a temperature of 34.97±3.18°C and pH of 5.67±0.04. The average volume of biogas production per day during the batch phase was 2,534 mL and during the continuous phase was 22,519.05 mL. Methane content in the biogas on day 10, 21, 30 and 41 were 2.65; 38.12; 78.99 and 76.97% mol, respectively. Sedimentation occurred during the batch phase while the continuous phase had no sedimentation at all. Conclusion: The implementation of UASB design to process cow manure by handling to produce household-scale biogas had the advantages of upward flow, a gas-solid separator and the sedimentation process. The upflow and gas-solid separator has the roles to help remove and separate the biogas bubble from the sludge’s solids and liquids and the highest methane content during production achieved in the continuous phase. It can be applied efficiency and massively to manage livestock waste in household-scale in remote areas, especially in disadvantaged villages.
Research Article
Mechanical Burning Unit for Wheat Stalks Residual after Harvesting
Mahmoud Ali Awad and Mohamed Ahmed El-Metwally
Background and Objective: Wheat stalks residual is the important problem which faces both planting and germination of rice seeds. So, wheat stalks must be burnt before soil tillage. The aim of this study was the development and evaluation of a-unit for burning wheat stalks residual before soil tillage. Materials and Mathods: To achieve that aim 3 operating parameters were used in sub-sub plot design, 4 forward speeds (3.19, 3.97, 4.5 and 5.4 km h–1), 3 distance between flame cannon (30, 40 and 50 cm) and 3 flame cannon height from soil (10, 15 and 20 cm) with 3 replicates. The obtained data in this study was analyzed with the statistical analysis software CoStat (version 6.4) in one way completely randomized design. Duncan’s multiple range test was used to compare the means at probability level of 0.05. Results: The obtained results show that, the maximum burning efficiency and gas consumption were 95.86% and 4.15 (kg fed–1), respectively at forward speed (3.19 km h–1), flame height from soil 10 and 30 cm distance between flame cannon. Fungal population of all genera decreased in the 1st speed and 3rd h after treating compared with control. This study gave good results when use temperature to control soil-borne pathogens. Conclusion: It was concluded a simple flame unit fitted on a chisel plow was developed, tested and evaluated. Using the flame to control the pests can reduce the chemical applications that increase environmental pollution. This treatment could be applied to control soil pests once every year.
Research Article
Treatment with Methanol Extract of Ficus capensis Stem Bark Protects Against Changes in Biomarker Levels of Carbontetrachloride-induced Cardiotoxicity of Rats
Ugochi Olivia Njoku, Martins Obinna Ogugofor and Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo
Background and Objective: Ficus capensis is one of the plants used in folklore medicine in Nigeria, for the treatment of various disease conditions and promotion of vascular health. This study was undertaken to investigate its cardioprotective potential against carbontetrachloride (CCl4)-induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Materials and Methods:Albino rats were divided into four main groups: normal control, CCl4 control, 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin pre-treated and Ficus capensis extract pre-treated groups. Extract was administered orally at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., for 7 days to evaluate their effect on CCl4-induced cardiotoxicity. Aspirin was used as standard drug. On day 7, cardiotoxicity was induced in animals of CCl4 control, aspirin and extract pre-treatment groups. Histopathological examination was performed to evaluate the basic action of extract and statistical differences were assessed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test with SPSS version 22.0. Results: CCl4 intoxication in CCl4 treated rats caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum contents of cardiac biomarker enzymes and raise in lipid peroxidation whereas significant (p<0.05) decreases in cardiac enzymatic antioxidant and glutathione reductase contents were observed when compared to normal control. Pre-treatment with Ficus capensis stem bark extract expressed cardioprotective ability against CCl4-induced oxidative changes in myocardium by significantly (p<0.05) altering levels of cardiac biomarker enzymes towards normal, enhancing the activity of suppressed antioxidant enzymes and lessening lipid peroxidation level. Histopathological examination of cardiac tissues, following extract pre-treatment showed correlation with serological studies. Conclusion: Based on these findings, Ficus capensis stem bark is potent against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in heart due to its antioxidant and cell stabilization property.
Review Article
Crack Inspection Using Guided Waves (GWs)/Structural Health Monitoring (SHM): Review
Hatem Mostafa Elwalwal, Shahruddin Bin Hj. Mahzan and Ahmed N. Abdalla
The Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) serves as an efficient and cost effective way to assist the guided wave study and the development of diagnostic algorithms before conducting time consuming experiments. In this paper introduce a review of Guided waves used for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Significant work has been done in guided wave modelling, guided wave generation and sensing and crack detection. In addition, presents the state of the art in these research areas with particular emphasis on guided waves in complex structures literature about guided waves and their applications in assessing the integrity of structures such as pipelines presented. Finally, the state of the art of Lamb-wave-based SHM technologies applied in pipeline structures, for the identification of crack and fatigue crack in science and industry.

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