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Plant Pathology Journal
eISSN: 1812-5425
pISSN: 1812-5387

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Geographical Distribution and Incidence of Cassava Bacterial Blight (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in Two Agro-ecological Zones of Cote d'Ivoire
Affery Arthur Martin,, Abo Kouabenan, Tuo Seydou, N`Zue Boni and Kone Daouda
Background and Objective: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the second largest food crop in Côte d’Ivoire after yam. It is cultivated for its fleshy roots rich in starch and for the richness of its leaves in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and iron). However, this crop is subject to numerous biotic constraints of which one of the most formidable is bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. In Côte d’Ivoire, no concrete study has been conducted on this emerging disease with the aim of reducing its impact on the yield of tuberous roots of traditional and improved varieties. The objective of this study is to study the distribution of bacterial blight on the one hand and to assess the sensitivity of 8 varieties through an epidemiological study in two agro-ecological zones of Côte d’Ivoire on the other hand. Materials and Methods: Survey missions conducted in 2013 and 2014 have helped establish the health map of the different cassava production zones, followed by an epidemiological study of the disease with 8 cassava varieties of which four are improved, in two cassava production zones (Yamoussoukro and Ferkessedougou). Results: The results showed that bacterial blight was observed in all agro-ecological zones with an incidence ranging from 2.17-66.67%. As for the epidemiological study, it showed a contrast between the two areas of study. The severity of the disease was very low in the dry season (December-March) corresponding to the 7th until the 10th month of this study. Moreover, the rainy season contributed to an expansion of the disease. Diarrassouba and Yace (traditional varieties) and Bocou 1 (improved variety) were the most susceptible to the disease. Conclusion: A fight against this disease must be envisaged before it spreads to all cassava cultivation zones in Côte d’Ivoire.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
In vitro Biocontrol Potential of Agro-waste Compost to Suppress Fusarium oxysporum, the Causal Pathogen of Vascular Wilt Disease of Roselle
L.C. Ng, W.A. Ismail and M. Jusoh
Background and Objective: Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is an important crop used in confectionery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries and vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the obstacles in roselle production. Compost has been use to control disease infection in various crops through several suppression mechanisms. However, the bio-efficacy of agro-waste compost in suppression of F. oxysporum in roselle is still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-efficacy of agro-waste compost that would be potential soil suppressive amendment to control F. oxysporum of roselle. Materials and Methods: Three types of agro-waste composts: Vermicompost, crop residue and horse manure compost were used in this study. The direct suppression effects of compost and compost extract on the growth of F. oxysporum were determined. The total microbial population in compost was also evaluated. Results: Generally, the non-sterilized agro-waste compost shown prominent suppressive effects on mycelial growth of F. oxysporum over sterilized compost. Similar results were observed when non-sterilized agro-waste compost extracts at 5, 10, 25 and 50% concentrations were used to suppress the growth of F. oxysporum. Non-sterilized horse manure compost extracts significantly inhibit in vitro mycelial growth of F. oxysporum with 70.84%. The total microbial activity in vermicompost was recorded significantly high with 6.46 μg/mL/0.5 h. However, the total microbial activity in vermicompost was not associated with the suppression effect against F. oxysporum. Conclusion: The suppression activities of compost against F. oxysporum was mainly caused by the biotic factor. However, the total microbial activity in agro-waste compost is not sorely contributed to the suppressive activity against F. oxysporum. The present of the strong antagonist in the non-sterilized agro-waste compost was the key factor to explain the high suppressiveness of the horse manure compost. Whereas, the abiotic factor involved indirectly influent the compost property and the colonization ability of the microorganisms. All composts used have potential to suppress the growth of F. oxysporum, especially the non-sterilized agro-waste composts have higher potential to be developed as soil suppressive amendment against F. oxysporum.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Grain Biodeterioration of Sorghum Converted Lines Inoculated with a Mixture of Fusarium thapsinum and Curvularia lunata
Louis K. Prom, Ghada Radwan, Ramasamy Perumal, Hugo Cuevas, Seriba O. Katile, Thomas Isakeit and Clint Magill
Background and Objective: Globally, grain mold is a major hurdle affecting sorghum productivity and quality. This disease is caused by complex fungal pathogens, among them Fusarium thapsinum and Curvularia lunata are the major fungi prevalent in many sorghum growing regions. This study examined the effect of inoculating a mixture of F. thapsinum and C. lunata on 60 sorghum converted lines with five adapted inbred lines as checks. Materials and Methods: Sorghum lines and checks were evaluated in field trials at the Texas AgriLife Research Station. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of F. thapsinum and C. lunata at 50% bloom. Results: The overall result showed that SC 725 (PI 534101), SC 218 (PI 534127), SC 691 (PI 534050), SC 91 (PI 534145) and Sureno exhibited grain mold severity of 2.3 or less. This level of grain mold infection was lower than the scores exhibited by the two resistant checks RTx 2911 (2.8) and SC 719-11E (2.5). Significant negative correlation (r = -0.385, p = 0.002) between grain mold and germination indicated the impact of these two fungi infection on germination rates. The significant negative correlation detected between germination and daily maximum temperature during the evaluation period shows planting of sorghum cultivars/hybrids that mature during periods of dry moderate weather will avoid problem of grain mold infection. Conclusion: The identified four converted lines for grain mold resistance in this study is recommended to use in breeding program to introgress grain mold resistance genes into other adapted sorghum inbred lines to increase the yield and seed quality traits.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Role of Indigenous Rhizosphere Bacteria in Suppressing Root-knot Nematode and Improve Plant Growth Tomato
Rika Alfianny, I. Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha and Tati Suryati Syamsudin
Background: Root-knot nematode caused by Meloidogyne spp., is a significant disease in tomato plants in Indonesia, causing yield loss up to 46.2%. The use of rhizosphere bacteria is one alternative method for controlling Meloidogyne spp. The mechanism is brought into action, either directly (antagonist) or indirectly through induced systemic resistance. In the tomato central production area of West Java, tomato cultivation is quite intensive in using fertilizers and pesticides. Different method of cultivation will cause differences in characteristics of the local rhizosphere bacteria. Objective: The aim of this study is to find out the indigenous rhizosphere bacteria which are able to control root-knot nematodes and to improve growth of tomato. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in an agriculture experimental station using a split-root method with 57 treatments of rhizosphere bacteria in the form of single isolates or consortium. Results: The consortia of five bacteria could increase of 37.6% in plant height, 58% number of leaves, 100% in the number of bunches, 37.1% in the number of flowers and 30.9% in the yield of tomato fruits. Three consortia belongs to three isolates bacteria and one single isolates decreased in the number of gall and larvae II by 74.8 and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The five indigenous rhizosphere bacteria consortium capable to control root-knot nematodes and four indigenous rhizosphere bacteria consortium could improve the growth of tomatoes.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Morphological Characteristics and Mating Populations of Fusarium Species in Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex (Gfsc) Associated with Stalk Rot Disease of Maize in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand
Darnetty and Baharuddin Salleh
Background: Fusarium stalk rot disease of maize is universally important because it is the most widespread destructive disease throughout the maize plantations all over the world including Southeast Asia. So far, the studies on the disease have not been carried out intensively in tropical countries including Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Objective: The study was designed to determine the species and mating populations (MPs) of Fusarium in Gfsc associated with stalk rot disease in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Materials and Methods: A total of 106 strains of Fusarium in Gfsc were isolated from maize plants showing typical stalk rot symptoms and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and carnation leaf pieces agar (CLA) for morphological identification. For MPs, the strains of Fusarium were crossed with 9 standard tester strains on Carrot Agar (CA). Results: Four species of Fusarium were morphologically identified as F. verticillioides (75%), F. proliferatum (20%), F. subglutinans (4%) and F. konzum (2%). Three mating populations were identified as MP-A, Gibberella moniliformis (71.7%), MP-D, G. intermedia (18.87%) and MP-E, G. subglutinans (2.83%) and 7 strains were not detected. All strains identified as MP-A, MP-D and MP-E were the strains morphologically identified as F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans, respectively. The MP-A (F. verticillioides) was the most dominant species associated with stalk rot disease of maize in this region. Conclusion: The results of biological identification and mating populations were corresponded to the results of morphological identification. This is the first report on the presence of MP-A, MP-D and MP-E on stalk rot-infected maize in Indonesia and Thailand, MP-A and MP-E in Malaysia. Additionally, the occurrence of F. konzum on stalk rot-infected maize plants are new records.
Review Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Current Status of Cocoa Frosty Pod Rot Caused by Moniliophthora roreri and a Phylogenetic Analysis
Mariana D. Dorado Orea, Teresa Romero-Cortes, Pablo A. Lopez-Perez, Victor H. Perez Espana, Mario Ramirez-Lepe and Jaime A. Cuervo-Parra
Cocoa is an important crop in tropical climates in America. Nevertheless, cocoa farmers are affected by many fungal diseases of which the frosty pod rot is one of the biggest obstacles for this crop. The causal agent of this disease is Moniliophthora roreri, specialized pathogenic fungus that invades actively growing cocoa pods of Theobroma cacao and related species of gender Theobroma and Herrania. In cocoa pods M. roreri can cause different symptoms or combinations of these. Fruits appear sporadically that appear healthy but are internally damaged, which are recognized being heavier. The M. roreri is able to develop a complete cycle on an average of 183 days, reaching a high incidence of the disease due to the fungus ability to infect all stages of fruit development. Frosty pod rot can cause damage up to 80% in production and has become the principal parasitic limitation for cocoa production in Mexico and other countries, reason for which have been carried out studies on its temporal progress and management. Currently, there is not much updated and scientific information about its occurrence, symptomatology, etiology, epidemiology, life cycle, strategies of control, management of that disease and molecular characterization, so this review is done with these important topics, bringing with it to this area of knowledge.
Short Communication
Published on December 15, 2016
Extracellular Cystatin-like Protease Inhibitor (EPIC1) Gene Based PCR Primers for Specific Detection of Phytophthora nicotianae Infecting Citrus
Sagar G. Nerkar and Ashis Kumar Das
Background: In case of genus Phytophthora, species identification and detection is a difficult task and requires use of taxonomic keys and knowledge of host range of the pathogen. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) or intergenic mitochondrial DNA spacers (mtDNA- IGS), Ypt1 gene, Lpv gene, SCAR/RAPD markers are very much in use in PCR- based molecular detection of Phytophthora spp. Though these genes are effective in detecting Phytophthora spp., but they all have their own limitations. Hence new genes are to be explored to broaden the molecular diagnostic tool box for Phytophthora spp., detection in infected samples. Studies on host-pathogen interaction carried out in last decade showed that the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans secretes effector proteins viz., cystatin-like protease inhibitors (EPICs) targeting host proteases during infection. But potential of EPIC gene in PCR-based diagnosis of plant pathogens in infected samples was not assessed by any of the research groups earlier. Therefore, potential of EPIC1 gene for detection of P. nicotianae from infected citrus samples was assessed in the study. Materials and Methods: The sequence of EPIC1 region of Phytophthora nicotianae was retrieved from whole genomic data available at Broad institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA website and specific primers were designed for its PCR-based identification and diagnosis. Results: Out of 4 primer pairs, FEPIC1F/FEPIC1R was found best suitable pair for its use in PCR-based species specific detection system. These primers were tested successfully on P. nicotianae infected citrus leaf, stem and root tissues. No cross reactivity of primers were observed with six other Phytophthora spp., viz., P. palmivora, P. citrophthora, P. boehmeriae, P. lacustris, P. insolita, P. tropicalis and three other oomycete/ fungi viz., Pythium sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. Detection by these primers was done effectively up to 100 pg μL–1 of DNA isolated from pure culture of P. nicotianae. Conclusion: The EPIC1 PCR assay was found to be robust and reliable technique to detect P. nicotianae in infected citrus samples and thus would be useful in restricting P. nicotianae mediated destruction in citrus. Present investigation, also reports for the first time, isolation and annotation of EPIC1 gene from P. nicotianae pathogenic to citrus.

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