Asian Network for Scientific Information is a Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) publisher of 37 peer-reviewed open access quality journals. We foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Plant Pathology Journal
eISSN: 1812-5425
pISSN: 1812-5387

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Research Article
Published on March 31, 2015
Artifical MicroRNA Mediated Gene Silencing of Phytophthora infestans Single Effector Avr3a Gene Imparts Moderate Type of Late Blight Resistance in Potato
B.P. Singh, Sanjeev Sharma, Debasis Pattanayak, Nidhi Srivastava, Pradeep K. Shukla, Sundaresha Siddappa, Suman Sanju and Aditi Thakur
RNAi based “host plant mediated pathogen gene silencing” has emerged as a novel strategy for the efficient control of pathogens infecting various important food crops. Artifical microRNAs (amiRNAs) represent a robust and recently developed miRNA based strategy for the effective posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants. Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector Avr3a suppresses hypersensitive cell death in host cells and responsible for virulence. In the present investigation, the effect of artificial microRNAs are studied on the target transcript, Avr3a gene of P. infestans. Five Avr3a amiRNA gene constructs developed targeting five different regions of Avr3a gene of P. infestans and were transformed into two popular Indian potato cultivars i.e., Kufri Khyati and Kufri Pukharaj. Screening analysis study revealed that most of the transgenic lines were susceptible (15) and few lines (4) were found to be moderately or partially resistance. Target effector gene expression level and the pathogen load were determined to identify whether the resistant observed was RNA mediated. Real time PCR analysis showed that there is reduction in pathogen load as well as in transcript level of Avr3a in resistant lines as compared to the non-transgenic control. This revealed that, the invading P. infestans withdraws the dsRNA/amiRNAs from the host cell leading to the silencing of the Avr3a gene expression causing pathogen death and/or loss of virulence. The amiRNA technology developed in this study appears to be potential and promising for durable and long lasting resistance in potato to combat the notorious oomycete, P. infestans.
Research Article
Published on March 31, 2015
Sensitivities of Ralstonia solanacearum to Streptomycin, Calcium Oxide, Mancozeb and Synthetic Fertilizer
Zhihe Yu, Yanfei Huang, Haiqian Xia, Hancheng Wang, Jin Wang, Mengao Jia and Maosheng Wang
Tobacco bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most destructive diseases suffered to tobacco in China. Streptomycin, calcium oxide, mancozeb and synthetic fertilizer are four important non-target chemicals used frequently during tobacco growing period. This study has evaluated the activities of four this chemicals against R. solanacearum. Phenotypic pattern of R. solanacearum under pressure of those chemicals are also compared with control treatments. Ralstonia solanacearum was more sensitive to mancozeb (EC50 value of 3.80 μg mL‾1), less sensitive to streptomycin (EC50 value of 32.06 μg mL‾1) and not sensitive to calcium oxide and synthetic fertilizer (EC50 values >1000 μg mL‾1). Under greenhouse condition the disease severity was reduced by 94.96 and 63.03% with mancozeb and streptomycin treatment, respectively. Metabolic reaction of R. solanacearum on Biolog GEN III Microplates was not or poorly affected by synthetic fertilizer or calcium oxide while significantly inhibited by mancozeb and poorly inhibited by streptomycin.
Research Article
Published on March 31, 2015
Post Harvest Management of Karnal Bunt, A Quarantine Disease in Wheat
C.B. Singh, V.K. Maheshwari, S.S. Atwal, A. Gupta and A. Kumar
Karnal bunt disease of wheat caused by Tilletia indica is a designated disease and a limiting factor in wheat export because most countries regulate the Karnal Bunt (KB) pathogen as a quarantine pest. KB pathogen is seed, soil and air borne. The seed must be threshed and examined for KB infection. Therefore, the post harvest management of KB in wheat seed production through mechanical processing is very important. Pre-cleaner and screen grader removed 83.1 and 61.4% of total KB infected seed present in the seed lot and reduced KB infection from 1.42 to 0.24% and 4.27 to 1.65% in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively but it is much higher than the permissible limit of 0.05%. Hence, a total of 18 combinations, comprising of three deck slopes (S1-20, S2-2.50, S3-30), three feedings (F1- 5 kg, F2- 10 kg, F3- 15 kg min-1) and two output settings (O1- 45 cm deck width, O2- 43 cm deck width) of specific gravity separator were studied with an objective of getting maximum Karnal bunt free seed per unit of time. Minimum KB infection in final product (0.04 and 0.28%), maximum final output (12.58 and 12.78 kg min-1) and KB free seed recovery per minute (12.58 and 12.75 kg) with 84.1 and 86.4% recovery efficiency has been obtained by the treatment S1F3O1 (slope of deck 20, feeding 15 kg min-1, output deck width 45 cm) in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. Mechanical processing reduced KB infection by more than 93%, depending on the intensity of infection and increased seed quality i.e., seed germination improved by 7.71% and physical purity by 2.41%.
Research Article
Published on March 31, 2015
Effect of Some Organic Acids on Seed Vigor and Health of Some Rice Cultivars
Amal A.A. EL-Mahady, M.S. Abo EL-Dahab and E.A.M. Ibrahim
The present study was conducted at Laboratory of Seed Technology Research Unit, Mansoura, Seed Technology Research Department, ARC, Egypt during 2013. Organic acids are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. The purpose of the research was to study, the effect of salicylic acid and benzoic acid and propionic acid treatment on rice seed germination, vigor and infestation with fungi. Seed samples cultivars Giza 178, Giza 177 and Sakha 106 were soaked with organic acid solutions at concentrations 10, 15, 20 mM and control were soaked in distilled water for 24 h to each treatments. Giza 178 cv. gave the highest results of seed and seedling vigor characters followed by Giza 177 cv. and Sakha 106, respectively. Seed treatment with salicylic acid 15 mM was the best treatments followed by benzoic acid 10 mM and propionic acid 15 mM recorded the highest values of seed germination, seed and seedling vigor as concentrations. SA reduced seed infestation with fungi with increasing concentrations followed by propionic acid and benzoic acid, respectively. However, increased to propionic acid concentration were negatively affected seed germination and vigor with all cultivars.
Research Article
Published on March 31, 2015
Phenotypic Fingerprints of Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 3 Strains from Tobacco and Tomato in China Assessed by Phenotype MicroArray Analysis
Yanfei Huang, Jin Wang, Maosheng Wang, Haiqian Xia, Hancheng Wang and Hongxue Lu
Ralstonia solanacearum that causing devastating disease in Solanaceae crops, is a notorious pathogen worldwide. A collection of the pathogen originating from tobacco and tomato in China was analyzed by using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray (PM) and assigned to biovar. Phenotypic fingerprints of two different original strains were also compared to explore their phenotypic diversities. All tested isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum oxidized both disaccharides and sugar alcohols and assigned to biovar 3. Using PM plates 1 to 8, 758 different assays were tested, including 190 different carbon substrates, 95 nitrogen substrates, 59 phosphorus substrates, 35 sulfur substrates, 94 biosynthetic pathways and 285 nitrogen pathways. Phenotypic fingerprints of the pathogen from tobacco and tomato were nearly the same. Ralstonia solanacearum was able to utilize 19% of tested carbon substrates, 43% of nitrogen substrates, 100% of sulfur substrates and 95% of phosphorus substrates. Most informative utilization ways for carbon substrates were organic acids and carbohydrates and for nitrogen were various amino acids. Those findings showed useful information for biology and physiology study of R. solanacearum.
Short Communication
Published on March 31, 2015
Association of Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium cladosporioides with Leaf Spot in Cissus quadrangularis and Ficus sycomorus
Zakiya A. Al-Alawi, Annette Patzelt and Abdullah M. Al-Sadi
Cissus quadrangularis and Ficus sycomorus are two important wild plants in the Arabian Peninsula and other parts of the world. Leaf spot symptoms were observed on both plants in Oman, 50 km to the north-west of the Capital area, Muscat.Incidence of leaf spot disease in C. quadrangularis and F. sycomorus was 90-100% and 20-40%, respectively. Isolations were established in potato dextrose agar and the isolated fungi were identified based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA). Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata were found associated with the two plants. Pathogenicity test showed that A. alternata was pathogenic on C. quadrangularis while C. cladosporioides was pathogenic on F. sycomorus. This is the first report of association of A. alternata with C. quadrangularis and C. cladosporioides with F. sycomorus.

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