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Plant Pathology Journal
eISSN: 1812-5425
pISSN: 1812-5387

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Research Article
Effect of Soil Properties and Chemotherapeutants on Pokkah Boeng Disease of Sugarcane
Vipul Kumar, Vinit Pratap Singh, Brajesh Kumar, Seweta Srivastava and Bipen Kumar
Background and Objective: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a commercially important cash crop of India utilized for the production of sucrose, ethanol, biofuel and fiber-related commodities. Amongst the foliar diseases, the pokkah boeng disease is becoming the major disease of sugarcane. In view of importance of this disease in sugarcane cultivation in India, a plan has been outlined for its study on different parameters of soil properties and their management by using some chemotherapeutants. Materials and Methods: Study on the different inoculation techniques on suitable host variety of sugarcane was done by inoculating with Fusarium moniliforme under suitable temperature (25-30°C), humidity (80-85%) and rainfall (300-400 mm.) under natural conditions. Sugarcane is grown on varieties of soil from sandy loam to heavy clay but is grown best on well drained sandy loam soil. Results: Data revealed that sandy clay loam soil and ph 6.5-7.5 exhibited highest incidence of disease among all type of soils. It was also observed that the percentage pokkah boeng incidence increased with the increase in moisture content of soil. In the soil temperature study, results revealed that 24-29°C temperature was favourable for disease development but maximum disease incidence was recorded at 27.5°C. Copper oxychloride was found more effective against pathogen out of all the chemical fungicides used during the experiment. Conclusion: Sandy clay loam exhibited highest incidence of disease and copper oxychloride was found more effective fungicide against Fusarium moniliforme.
Research Article
In vitro Evaluation of Trichoderma Species Against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Causing Tomato Wilt
Jagraj Singh, Vipul kumar, Seweta Srivastava, Adesh Kumar and Vinit Partap Singh
Background and Objectives: Wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) W., is one of the most economically important disease of tomato occurring world-wide. In the present study, the mycoparasitism inhibitory affects of three Trichoderma species (T. viride, T. harzianum and T. koningi) on the growth of the causal agent of tomato Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) were investigated by dual culture under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Already identified Trichoderma species viz. Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma koningii were taken for the present experiment used to check their relative viability against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycoperisci by dual culture techniques. All the isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated for the growth pattern on five different media along with different temperature and pH range. Results: Trichoderma harzianum inhibited maximum radial growth (75.7%) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici pathogen during the experiment followed T. viride. During the same study all these Trichoderma isolates were evaluated on five different solid media for assessing growth and sporulation and the maximum radial growth of Trichoderma harzianum were found in Potato Dextrose agar whereas the lowest growth was observed in Trichoderma selective medium. Similarly, excellent growth of Trichoderma spp. was found at temperature range of 25±2°C, while 5.0-7.0 pH was found the most favourable for the growth and sporulation of Trichoderma spp. Conclusion: Out of all the three species of Trichoderma, the maximum inhibition of the test pathogen was furnished by Trichoderma harzianum. On the basis of present study the fungal bioagents, might be exploited for future plant disease management programs (DMP) to save environmental risk.
Research Article
Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Fungi and Humic Acid in Controlling Root and Crown Rot of Strawberry
Eman Yehia Khafagi, Sozan Eid El-Abeid, Maali Shaker Soliman, Shereen El-Sayed Mohamed El-Nahas and Yosra Ahmed
Background and Objective: Strawberry plants are threatened by root and crown rot diseases during nursery stage and under field conditions leading to substantial losses in production. This investigation aimed to control root and crown rot of strawberry plants in nursery and field using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and humic acid as alternative means to fungicides. The experiments were carried out for two seasons in naturally infested nursery and field in Al-Qalyubia governorate, Egypt. Methodology: Humic acid and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) (a mixture of Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Rhizophagus diaphanous and R. intraradices), singly and in combination were used to control root and crown rot in nursery and field. The effect of treatments on disease severity and different growth parameters was investigated in addition to the effect of treatments on sugar content, phenols and firmness of the fruits. Occupation of roots by AMF was also examined in the different treatments. Results: The AMF and humic acid significantly reduced the disease severity in both nursery and field. The combined treatment of AMF and humic acid in the nursery did not improve their efficiency in reducing disease severity compared to the single treatments with either one, while in the field the combined treatment of AMF and humic acid improved their efficiency in reducing disease severity compared to single treatments. However, results revealed that the root occupation with AMF was reduced by adding humic acid to treatments. The dual effect of humic acid and AMF was clear in increasing both early, total yield and healthy seedlings production in the nursery. The AMF was the most effective treatment in increasing sugar content of the fruits. Data also revealed the lack of correlation between disease severity and each of total and free phenols. Conclusion: The AMF and humic acid can be recommended for controlling root and crown rot of strawberry plants in nursery and field. The use of these two treatments in disease control during nursery stage led to the production of healthy and vigorous seedlings to be used commercially in the fields.
Research Article
Inheritance of Resistance of Three Sorghum Lines to Pathotypes of Colletotrichum sublineola, Causal Agent of Anthracnose
Louis K. Prom, Hugo Cuevas, Ramasamy Perumal, Thomas Isakeit and Clint Magill
Background and Objective: Anthracnose incited by Colletotrichum sublineola is the most important foliar disease of sorghum worldwide. The hyper-variable nature of the pathogen requires continual evaluations of sorghum germplasm to identify sources with different resistance genes. Thus, this research was undertaken to determine the inheritance of two Sudanese lines PI570726 and PI569979 to pathotype 30 and BT×378 (Redlan) to pathotypes 30 (P30) and 35 (P35) of the anthracnose pathogen. Materials and Methods: Crosses between these three sorghum lines and a susceptible parent PI609251 were performed and the resulting F2 populations were evaluated in greenhouse. Seeds were planted in 1-gallon cans and 30 d post planting, plants were inoculated with the anthracnose pathotypes. Individual plants from each cross were scored based on a scale of 1-5, where 1 = No symptoms or chlorotic flecks on leaves; 2 = Hypersensitive reaction; 3, 4 and 5= Infected leaf lesions with acervuli formation. Results: Chi-square test for the F2 populations of BT×378×PI609251 against P30 and P35, segregated in the expected Mendelian ratio 3 (resistant): 1(susceptible) fashion, indicating that resistance in BT×378 to P30 and P35 of C. sublineola obtained from the USA is governed by a single dominant gene. Segregation analysis for the PI569979×PI609251 and PI570726×PI609251 F2 populations revealed 1:3 ratio of resistance to susceptible, indicating that resistance in PI569979 and PI570726 to P30 was conditioned by a recessive trait. Conclusion: Resistance in the sorghum line BT×378 was shown to be dominant and will therefore be more desirable for use in breeding for anthracnose resistance, especially in sorghum hybrid production.
Research Article
Mycoflora Analysis and Other Measured Parameters of Sorghum Seeds Collected from Puerto Rico and Mexico
Louis Kajac Prom, Hugo Cuevas, Thomas Isakeit, Ramasamy Perumal and Saradha Erathaimuthu
Background and Objective: Grain mold is one of the major biotic constraints to sorghum production worldwide. This disease complex is associated with many genera of fungi, including mycotoxigenic Fusarium species. Yield losses can be high, especially when susceptible lines are planted in areas with wet conditions later in the growing season. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fungal genera/species contaminating sorghum seeds, grain mold severity, seed weight and germination rate. Materials and Methods: During the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons, 62 sorghum lines were collected from Puerto Rico and Mexico. Panicles from these locations were threshed and the seed samples were put in separate paper bags and stored at 7°C in a refrigerator in the laboratory. Seed samples were evaluated for grain mold severity, seed mycoflora, seed weight and germination rate. Results: In Isabela, Puerto Rico, Fusarium thapsinum was the dominant fungal species isolated from sorghum grain, followed by Aspergillus spp. and F. semitectum in 2016 and 2017, F. semitectum was the most frequently isolated fungal species. In Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, FIESC (Fusarium incarnatum, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti and F. semitectum Complex) were the dominant species isolated from sorghum seed samples. Among the sorghum lines evaluated for grain mold severity, KS-963 collected from Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, exhibited a moderate resistance response to grain mold, while the other sorghum lines were either moderately susceptible or susceptible. Across locations, KS-835 exhibited the highest seed weight (4.7 g) while PI534152 exhibited the lowest seed weight (1.0 g). Germination rates ranged from 100-0% among the sorghum lines surveyed. Conclusion: While F. thapsinum, F. nygamy and C. lunata are considered the most common grain molding species, the frequency of recovery of these three fungal species in some sorghum growing regions, including locations surveyed in this study, may be low. Thus, in grain mold resistance studies, selecting the most dominant fungal species in a sorghum growing region and using them as inocula in either the field or greenhouse is more practical and beneficial.
Research Article
Development of Rice Yellow Mottle Disease Depending on Topographic Positions of the Lowland in Côte D’Ivoire
Guinagui N`doua Bertrand, Sorho Fatogoma and Koné Brahima
Background and Objective: The development of rice cultivation in Côte d'Ivoire is based on the naturally more productive flooded system. The objective of this study was to examine the development of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) according to topographic positions. Materials and Methods: The rice varieties Nerica L19, Orylux 6 and Wita 9 were used during this work. The development of rice yellow mottle rice was assessed according to a stratified random sampling per topographic position with two factors. RT-PCR enabled detection of RYMV in the collected rice leaf samples. Results: The results revealed a downstream disease development gradient with an incidence of 63.33% compared to the upstream one which was 36.85% at the longitudinal position of the lowland. The interaction between the positions of the lowland indicated incidences of 64.00 and 62.67%, respectively in Downstream/Middle and Downstream/Border. The study also found a positive correlation of 93.6% between the depth of runoff and the incidence of the disease. Conclusion: One of the means for controlling RYMV might be based on a good leveling and drainage during crop cycles in the rainy season.
Short Communication
Potential of Leaf Decoctions in Germinability Improvement and Protection Against Fungal Pathogens on Abelmoschus esculentus
Oghenerobor B. Akpor and Olarewaju M. Oluba
Background and Objective: Accomplishing fast and uniform seedling development is strategic for crop vigour because delayed germination regularly open seedlings to unfavorable ecological conditions and soil-borne diseases. This study was aimed at assessing the germinability enhancement and protective potentials of leaf decoctions of four selected plants (Chromolaena odorata, CO; Nauclea latifolia, NL, Ipomoea asavifolia, IP and Moringa oleifera, MO) in comparison to hydrogen peroxide (HP), normal saline suspended cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and water (control) against selected fungal pathogens (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium and Aspergillus niger) on Abelmoschus esculentus (okra). Materials and Methods: Surface sterilized seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus were soaked in the fungal pathogens for 1 h before being steeped in a given concentration of the respective decoctions for another 1 h and then planted on wet blotter for 7 days while monitoring the germination parameters. Results: The highest germination rates of 64.23 and 64.29% were observed when the seeds were primed with 5-fold dilution of CO and IP, respectively. However, germination was highest (64.28%) at 2-fold and 5-fold dilutions when primed with MO while HP-primed seed gave the germination rate was 92.86%. For seeds primed with the PA, germination rate of 71.42% was observed in the undiluted and 5-fold dilutions. The optimum soaking time was observed to be between 3 and 6 h, when the seeds were primed with the different decoctions. Following pre-treatment of the seeds with the fungal pathogens prior to priming with the different osmotica, germination rate reduced to 50%. This is significant compared to no growth observed in infected seeds without priming. Conclusion: Priming with decoctions of CO, IP and MO as well as HP and PA significantly improve germinability and confer protection against fungal infection. Thus, scale-up to field trials using CO, IP and MO decoctions, as well as HP and PA as bio-fungicide prior to planting for protection of okra seeds, seems justified as a sustainable alternative to the use of chemical fungicides.

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