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Plant Pathology Journal
eISSN: 1812-5425
pISSN: 1812-5387

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Research Article
Published on April 16, 2019
Morphometric Variation of Phytophthora palmivora Causing Black Pod Rot Disease on Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Indonesia
Masanto , Arif Wibowo, Siti Subandiyah and Koji Kageyama
Background and Objective: Black pod rot disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of factors contributing in decrease of cocoa production in Indonesia. This research was conducted to study the variation of P. palmivora causing black pod rot disease in Indonesia based on morphological characteristics and sexual reproduction. Materials and Methods: Pathogen was isolated from cocoa pods showing black rot symptoms in Indonesia for morphological and sexual characterization as well as molecular confirmation. Quantitative data of sporangial and sexual features were recorded and arranged in multivariate as well as calculated using phonetic method with hierarchical cluster. Those characters were clustered through average linkage and reconfirmed with principal component analysis (PCA) and dendrogram using NTsys 2.10e program. Results: Fifty-five isolates of pathogenic agents had been successfully collected from 38 regencies (23 provinces) in Indonesia. They had various sporangial shape, i.e., distorted, ellipsoid, globose, obpyriform and ovoid as well as and spherical chlamydospores. These features were recognized as the characteristics of Phytophthora palmivora. Molecular analysis confirmed that all isolates were positively detected with multiplex PCR using species-specific primers. Sexual reproduction was characterized with the formation of amphigynous antheridia as well as spherical oogonia and oospores in which A2 type occurred more frequently thanA1 type. Conclusion: Those isolates were classified into 8 clusters which were independent with geographical area and mating types.
Research Article
Published on May 28, 2019
Evaluation of Resistance of Cotton Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt Disease by Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Molecular Techniques
Shoaib Rashad Mahmoud, Eman Amin Osman and Maryan Makram Youssef
Background and Objective: In Egypt, cotton plant (Gossypium barbadense L.) is considered the first important economic crop. Fusarium wilt of cotton is a serious fungal disease responsible for significant losses throughout the world. The objectives of this study were to evaluate 10 cotton genotypes according to their resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium wilt and to explore the possibility of using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR), Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) technique and their combined analysis to differentiate between reactions of cotton genotypes to Fusarium wilt disease. Materials and Methods: The genotypes divided into two distinct groups. The first group included the susceptible genotypes 10/2017, 13/2017, 29/2017, 31/2017 and 46/2017 where the disease incidence ranged from 83.33-93.33%, while the second group included the resistant genotypes 130/2017, 143/2017, 152/2017, 155/2017 and 163/2017 where the disease incidence ranged from 0-13.33%. DNA was extracted from genotypes leaves and subjected to ISSR by using five primers and SCoT by using five primers. Results: Five primers of ISSR pooled together. The resulting cluster was unable to differentiate between resistant and susceptible genotypes, while the pooled results of the five primers used in SCoT analysis were able to differentiate between genotypes based on their reactions to the disease. The combined analysis using ISSR and SCoT markers succeeded in placing the resistant cotton genotypes in a distinct group unrelated to the group of susceptible genotypes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that high level of polymorphism for ISSR and SCoT techniques suggesting their effectiveness for assessing genetic diversity, characterization and identification of reactions to cotton Fusarium wilt disease.
Research Article
Published on June 03, 2019
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Decreases Sclerotinia Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Ouattara Brahima, Abo Kouabenan, Tuo Seydou, Bolou Bi Bolou Antoine, Cherif Mamadou and Kone Daouda
Background and Objective: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) domestic production is largely below requirements in Côte d'Ivoire because of numerous abiotic and biotic constraints, especially sclerotinia caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. The present study was initiated to test the antifungal activity of a complex consisting of propagules of 6 different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on S. rolfsii. Materials and Methods: Inoculations with S. rolfsii sclerotia were performed. Green house tomato plants of the 45 day old Lindo F1 variety were transplanted into pots of 297 cm3 volume. The impact of inoculation was assessed at planting and at the end of the experiment on plant height growth, collar diameter, number of functional leaves and number of flowers. Results: The results revealed that the mycorrhization of nursery plants with the CMAs used has antifungal action on S. rolfsii. Mycorrhization had a beneficial effect on growth, especially in the early phase, when mycorrhizal plants appeared to be better developed than non-mycorrhizal plants. The incidence of dry rot in non-mycorrhizal plants is 2.5 times higher than the incidence of mycorrhizal plants. Conclusion: Mycorrhization may be advisable for growers in tomato growing areas where sclerotinia is more prevalent as an alternative to the over use of synthetic fungicides.
Research Article
Published on July 19, 2019
Unraveling the Optimal Culture Condition for the Antifungal Activity and IAA Production of Phylloplane Serratia plymuthica
Siti Nur Aisyah, Jefri Maldoni, Irma Sulastri, Weni Suryati, Yuli Marlisa, Lissa Herliana, Lily Syukriani, Renfiyeni Renfiyeni and Jamsari Jamsari
Background and Objective: Assessment of the plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a bacteria in vitro required the adjustment of appropriate culture condition. This study was aimed to optimize the culture condition required to stimulate two PGP traits (antifungal activity and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production) of phylloplane Serratia plymuthica strain UBCF_13. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of UBCF_13 antifungal activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. glycine was conducted under various modifications (pH and addition of exogenous carbons, Nitrogens as well as metals). This strain IAA production was optimized under various culture durations and L-tryptophan (Trp) concentrations. The resulted IAA were then inoculated to several plant’s seed to evaluate its effect on plant root and shoot growth. Data were analyzed statistically and the significance was further assessed using Duncan’s new multiple range test with a p<0.05. Results: Application of 50 μL cells-free supernatants (CFS) exhibited the highest fungal suppression under pH 5 (23.02%), (NH4)2 SO4 addition (28.25%) and CaCl2 addition (27.14%). The highest IAA concentration (116.09 μg mL1) was obtained from the 48 h culture containing 0.2% L-Trp. The IAA-containing CFS of UBCF_13 stimulated longer growth in root and shoot of Solanaceous plants (chili, tomato and eggplant). Conclusion: Antifungal activity of UBCF_13 was predicted to be dependent on acidic condition and the availability of inorganic nitrogen as well as calcium, while its IAA could be produced in short time with the low amount of Trp.
Research Article
Published on July 19, 2019
Antibacterial Activity of Rhizophora apiculata Leaf Extract for the Management of Rice Bacterial Blight Disease
Vengadeshkumar Lakshmanan, Meera Thangaraj, Balabaskar Ponnusamy, Sanjaygandhi Santhirakasan, Rajamohan Kannan, Udhayakumar Regunathan and Sudhasha Selvaraj
Background and Objectives: Bacterial blight of rice is a serious disease and causes yield loss up to 70% wherever rice is grown. So the current study was aimed to examine the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of Rhizophora apiculata leaf extract for the management of bacterial leaf blight of paddy and identifies the bioactive compounds present in it through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: The in vitro efficacy of R. apiculata was assessed following agar well method. A pot culture study was conducted to evaluate the bio efficacy and phytotoxicity effect of R. apiculata leaf extract for the management of leaf blight of paddy. The bio-active compounds present in R. apiculata leaf extract were identified by GC-MS analysis. Results: The study revealed that the methanol extract of R. apiculata at 15% concentration significantly inhibited the growth of Xoo under in vitro, reduced the percent disease index of rice bacterial blight disease and enhanced the biometrics of rice in pot trial without any phytotoxicity symptoms. The phytochemical analysis of R. apiculata by GC-MS revealed the presence of methyl 4-O-methyl-d-arabinopyranoside and 1,6,10,14-Hexadecatetraen-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E) as the most prevailing compounds. Conclusion: So it was concluded that the aqueous extract of R. apiculata at 15% concentration significantly inhibited the growth of Xoo under in vitro, reduced rice bacterial blight disease and enhanced the biometrics of rice in pot trial without any phytotoxicity symptoms.

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