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Plant Pathology Journal
eISSN: 1812-5425
pISSN: 1812-5387

Editor-in-Chief:  Mohamed Abdul Rahman Elwakil
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Research Article
Control of Gray Mold Disease of Tomato by Postharvest Application of Organic Acids and Salts
Fayza Tahiri Alaoui, Latifa Askarne, Hassan Boubaker, El Hassane Boudyach and Abdellah Ait Ben Aoumar
Background and Objective: Tomato is the major fruit crop produced and exported in Morocco. This commodity is faced to many threats. The most important tomato diseases caused commercially significant losses, in Morocco and worldwide, is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. This study was aimed to find out an alternative to synthetic fungicides used in the control of the polyphagous devastating fungus ‘Botrytis cinerea’ using common food additives. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven organic acids and salts considered as common food additives were tested in vitro against this pathogen using the agar dilution method. Compounds with the best antifungal activity, selected after one-way analysis of variance, were tested in vivo on artificially inoculated tomato fruit. Results: At 0.02 M, EDTA, copper sulfate and sodium metabisulfite completely inhibited the mycelial growth and sporulation of B. cinerea. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were recorded in sodium metabisulfite treatment. The conidia germination was inhibited by ammonium molybdate and sodium metabisulfite treatments at only 10 mM. The nine most active chemicals in the in vitro trials were tested in vivo on tomato fruit. The incidence and the severity of gray mold were significantly reduced by EDTA, potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium metabisulfite and sodium salicylate compared to 100% (incidence and the severity) in the control. Conclusion: The results of the current study suggest that these salts are potentially useful as postharvest GRAS compounds to control B. cinerea on tomato fruit.
Research Article
Distribution and Incidence of Cassava Anthracnose in Côte D’ivoire and Pathogenic Characteristics of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz Manihotis Isolates
YEO Foungnigue Edwige, EHUI Kouadio Jean Nestor, AMARI Ler-N`Ogn Dade Georges Elisee, N`Guetta Assanvo Simon-Pierre and KONE Daouda
Background and Objective: Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz manihotis is one of the major constraints of cassava production in the world. However, in Côte d’Ivoire, there is little work on the evolution of this disease, which could make it possible to envisage an effective strategy to fight against its spread. This study aims to establish the distribution and the incidence of anthracnose in Côte d’Ivoire on the one hand and to determine the morphological and pathogenic characteristics of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz manihotis isolates on the other hand. Materials and Methods: Assessments of the disease followed through two surveys, in 2014 and 2015, in all the agro-ecological zones on the different varieties of cassava cultivated. The isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz manihotis were analyzed morphologically and their pathogenic activity was evaluated after inoculation to cassava plants under controlled conditions. The data collected were analyzed using Statistica software version 7.1 and then by using ANOVA (one-way). Results: The infection has reached epidemic levels with a national average incidence of 39.44% resulting from an infestation rate of 72% in all the fields visited. The analysis of certain morphological characteristics showed the existence of a phenotypic diversity in the strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz manihotis. The pathogenic activity of these isolates, under controlled conditions, also revealed heterogeneity of aggressiveness on cassava varieties. The improved variety (Bocou 1) appeared sensitive as the traditional variety (Yacé) with an average sensitivity score of 27.5. Conclusion: Cassava anthracnose was found in all seven agro-ecological zones of Côte d’Ivoire with variable incidence from one plot to another. In addition, the isolates of C. gleosporioides Penz manihotis were different in appearance, color and growth of their mycelium and in their aggressiveness on cassava varieties. Results of this study required to find effective methods of fight against this disease.
Research Article
Parasitical Fungi in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Orchard of Cote d`Ivoire
Silue Nakpalo, Soro Sibirina, Kone Tchoa, Abo Kouabenan, Kone Mongomake and Kone Daouda
Background and Objective: Cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an important fruit tree mainly culture for the edible nuts providing substantial income to farmers in northern and central regions of Côte d’Ivoire. However, the productivity is threatened by the strategies development and extension of diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to identify pathogens involved in cashew diseases. Materials and Methods: Leaf, shoot tip, twig, flower and fruit samples were collected in the most important cashew-growing areas of Côte d’Ivoire. Sections of 4-6 mm diameter from the periphery of lesions where surface sterilized in 70% ethanol and then in 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by abundant rinsing in sterile distilled water. After removing excess of water, fragments were placed on PDA medium. Symptoms associated with the pathogens in the field were described. To test the pathogenicity of isolates obtained, leaves of twenty eight days seedlings were sprayed with a spore concentration of 106 mL–1 used as inoculum for each isolate. Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA 1) with Statistica version 7.1 software. Results: The results revealed that the different pathogenic diseases of cashew in Côte d’Ivoire are caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (63.45%), Pestalotia heterocornis (30.35%), Lasiodiplodia theobromae (1.66%) and other unidentified pathogens. Pathogenicity of isolates was verified by the implementation of Koch’s postulate. Conclusion: This study confirmed the presence of pathogenic fungi on cashew and the fact that some of these fungi can induce symptoms reducing leaf photosynthetic area and the production capacity. Based on pathogenic characterization of fungi, strategies need to be developed in order to identify fungi species and integrated disease management approaches.
Research Article
Effectiveness and Mechanism of Endophytic Bacillus in Suppressing Wilt Intensity of Banana Seedling Inoculated by Blood Disease Bacterium
Hadiwiyono and Salim Widono
Background and Objective: The main constraint faced by the banana farmers in Indonesia is bacterial wilt caused by Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB). Biological control of the disease using endophytic Bacillus is promising to develop. This study aimed at reporting the experimental study of the effectiveness and mechanism of some endophytic Bacillus of banana in suppressing wilt intensity of banana seedling artificially inoculated by BDB. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in greenhouse, using 10 isolates of endophytic Bacillus of banana and banana seedlings produced by tissue culture acclimated for 3 months. A unit of treatment consisted of three banana seedlings arranged by completely randomized design with three replications. Each seedling was planted on 1 kg of soil media infested by endophytic Bacillus and BDB at 108 CFU g–1. The pathogen inoculation was done on day 7 after Bacillus infestation. Some capability analyses of the isolates of producing growth regulator, enzymatic and chemical compounds were also done in vitro for supporting the study of antagonistic mechanism. Results: The results showed that some isolates of the endophytic Bacillus significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the infection rate and wilt intensity. The Bacillus reduced disease intensity by 51.44-24.07%. The antagonistic isolates reduced infection rate from 0.36 to 0.03-0.09 unit day–1. The significance was also showed by the Area Under the Disease Progres Curve (AUDPC) variable. The isolates produced Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and grown positively on chitin and pectin medium. The volatile and nonvolatile compounds produced by the isolates inhibited growth of the pathogen significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: Some isolates of endophytic Bacillus are promising as biological control agents of bacterial wilt of banana caused by BDB as they reduce wilt intensity effectively and they produce IAA, chitinase, pectinase, volatile and nonvolatile compound that are presumably involved in the antagonism mechanism.
Short Communication
Novel Approach for Identification of Potato Seed Lots Suspected to be Effected by Dickeya
Steven B. Johnson
Background and Objective: Dickeya spp. was first reported as a potato pathogen from the Netherlands in the early 1970’s. Dickeya epidemics can initiate from very low inoculum levels, spread quickly and aggressively can be latent in plant material and may be multiply in subsequent generations. The objective of this study was to identify seed lots with high potential for losses owing to Dickeya when planted. Materials and Methods: Descriptive statistics were collected from emergence data from 2010-2015 potato seed winter grow-out tests. From this, an algorithm was developed to identify seed lots that exhibited poor emergence. One-tailed t-test created a conservative comparison value for identifying seed lots. Results: These seed lots with poor emergence have high potential for Dickeya contamination. Additionally, seed lots that precursed these high potential lots were identified with the algorithm. The algorithm was applied to 2017 emergence data from winter grow-out tests. Candidate potato seed lots were identified for removal from the Maine potato seed system using the algorithm applied to emergence data from post-harvest grow-out tests in 2015, with some of the data used to generate it. The algorithm was applied to 2017 emergence data from winter grow-out tests and identified seed lots to be purged. The application of the algorithm allows potato seed growers to identify seed lots that should not be planted, either on their or anyone else’s farm. This proactive approach has the potential to reduce the stand losses owing to Dickeya. Conclusion: This study presented a method to identify potato seed lots that have a high potential for Dickeya losses before they were planted. This proactive approach is highly beneficial to potato growers as no method exists to do so.

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