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Journal of Agronomy
eISSN: 1812-5417
pISSN: 1812-5379

Editor-in-Chief:  Francisco Fabian Fuentes Carmona
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Review Article
Role of Phytoecdysteroids in Insect Pest Management: A Review
Mukesh Kumar Chaubey
Phytoecdysteroids are analogues of insect moulting steroid hormone, ecdysteroid. These are found in different plant groups and provide protection by deterring insects. Phytoecdysteroids have been synthesized in at least 27 families of Pteridophyta, 10 families of Gymnospermae and 74 families of Angiospermae. Chemically, phytoecdysteroids are triterpenoids, the group of compounds that includes triterpene saponins, phytosterols and phytoecdysteroids. These are polar steroids with sugar-like solubility properties. Over 300 phytoecdysteroids analogues have been identified so far and it has been speculated that there are over 1,000 possible structures in nature. These are synthesized from mevalonic acid and cholesterol. Phytoecdysteroids occur in relatively high concentration in many plants and comprise 0.001-3% of the dry weight. These have been isolated from all parts of plants in much higher amounts than those present in insects. Thus, plants are far better sources of ecdysteroids than insects. Different plant parts contain different amounts of ecdysteroids and that ecdysteroid concentration varies with season and geographical distribution of the plant. Ecdysteroids control insect development at all stages of the life cycle. Disruption of normal ecdysteroid level severely impairs insect development. Phytoecdysteroids mimic the insect ecdysteroid by binding to its receptors and eliciting a cascade of effects in insects. Phytoecdysteroids provide protection to plants by altering the normal levels of ecdysteroid hormone in adults and larvae in insects. Therefore, phytoecdysteroids can be an excellent replacement of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management programme.
Research Article
Effect of Herbicides on the Density of Broad Leaf Weeds and their Effect on the Growth and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Hossein Mohammadi and B.S. Ismail
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different herbicides on broadleaf weed density and growth as well as the growth and yield components of wheat. It also examined the effects of weed control (by herbicides and hand weeding) on the growth and yield of wheat, the economic benefits of weed control and aspects of environmental safety. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out at the Mullah Ghulam Agriculture Research Centre, Afghanistan. Four different types of herbicides namely, methyl chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) (Agroxone® at 25 1 L ha–1), triasulfuron (Amber® at g a.i kg–1), tribenuron methyl (Express® 25 g a.i kg–1) and pyroxsulam (Merit® at 240 g a.i kg–1) were tested. The manufacturers’ recommended dosage for triasulfuron was applied at the rate of 120 L ha–1. The other three post-emergence herbicides were applied at the rate of 350 L ha–1. The herbicides were applied individually at 25 days after sowing (DAS). In another treatment, the weeds were hand weeded at 25, 50 and 75 DAS, while the control plots and were left unweeded. The data was analyzed using SPSS, one-way ANOVA and the Duncan’s test for comparison of means. Results: The results showed that the highest grain yield (2936 kg ha–1) was obtained from the hand weeded plots, where yields were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the other treatments. The lowest grain yield of wheat (1855.75 kg ha–1) was obtained from the unweeded plots. It was observed that the population density of the broad leaf weeds was lower in the hand weeded plots than that in the other treatment plots. It was observed that tribenuron methyl effectively controlled the weed density of Amaranthus bouchonii, Convolvulus arvensis, Acroptilon repense and Polygonum aviculare at 30 DAS. Conclusion: The study showed that the significantly higher hand weeding treatment followed by treatments with MCPA and triasulfuron herbicides were more effective in case of yield components of wheat and also decreased the population of broad leaf weeds.
Research Article
Mycorrhiza and Seed Priming Effect to improve the Balance of Sodium and Potassium and Some Changes in Antioxidants in the Leaves of Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Soil Salinity
Javad Soltani Kazemi, Mohammad Ali Aboutalebian, Javad Hamzei and Moosa Meskarbashee
Background and Objective: In order to improve the growth and resistence maize (Zea mays L.) under soil salinity, application of seed priming and mycorrhiza that can be beneficial for a better alternative, once it increases the production of some antioxidants, the balance of sodium and potassium, reduces the absorb of sodium in plant and increase the emergence rate and emergence percentage in plants under soil salinity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seed priming and mycorrhiza on improving the balance of sodium and potassium and some changes in antioxidants in the leaves of maize under soil salinity. Materials and Methods: This combined analysis experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design as factorial with three replications in both year and place of saline and non-saline on hybrid corn NS640. The tertiary factor was inoculation and non-inoculation with mycorrhiza years places (Glomus mossea), the fourth factor was priming with NaCl solution, salicylic acid, tap water and non-prime (control). The proper solutions concentration and priming duration were determined in separate experiments. Two-way analysis of variance was done using the PROC GLM procedure of the SAS. Results: The results showed inoculation with mycorrhiza and seed priming treatments in comparison to non-inoculation and non-prime the enzymes catalase and peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, soluble proteins and potassium increased in leaves in both places and maximum of these characteristics were obtained by seed priming with salicylic acid and inoculation with mycorrhiza especially in saline soil. The sodium amount in inoculation with mycorrhiza and prime with salicylic acid, than non-prime and non-inoculation in both places was decreased specially in saline environment. Colonization percentage and rate of emergence has been increased in inoculation with mycorrhiza and prime with salicylic acid in both environments, specially in non-saline environment. Conclusion: Maize seed priming with salicylic acid and inoculation with mycorrhiza play an important role in the plant response to salt stress.
Research Article
Influence of Flag Leaf Traits on Forage Yield Components and Their Ash Contents in Barley Landraces (Hordeum vulgare L.) of South Algeria
Hafida Rahal-Bouziane, Fatiha Bradai, Farida Alane and Samia Yahiaoui
Background and Objective: Variability, morphological traits and correlations can be advantageous for breeding programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of flag leaf traits on yield components and their ash content at the soft dough stage and to estimate the variability among genotypes. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out on 11 barley landraces under sub-humid conditions using a randomized design for morphological and agronomic traits and AFNOR method for ash content. One-way ANOVA was used for analysis of variance, Pearson’s coefficients for correlations and principal component analysis for multivariate statistical assessment. Results: Principal component analysis showed that 5 components absorbed 87.43% of variation. The greater variation among the genotypes was explained mostly by traits of flag leaf, spike and total dry matter yield. Principal correlations showed that the flag leaf area was positively correlated with the spike weight per square meter which had positive correlation with flag leaf length, positive and high correlation with the spike dry weight. Spike fresh weight correlated positively with spike ash content. This last was correlated negatively with ash content of stems and leaves, it was also negatively but highly correlated with flag leaf inclination angle. Heading had a high negative correlation with the spike dry matter content. It was negatively correlated with ash content of stems and leaves but positively with spike ash content. Total dry yield was negatively correlated with flag leaf fresh weight but positively highly correlated with the flag leaf dry matter content. Conclusion: A strong diversity was found in the germplasm revealed by very highly significant differences for the majority of the traits studied and particularly for traits of flag leaf, forage yield and spikes. This variability and some links between the flag leaf traits and yield components can help to improve biomass production and ash quality of barley forage.
Research Article
Decreasing of Paddy, Corn and Soybean Production Due to Climate Change in Indonesia
Ruminta , Handoko and Tati Nurmala
Background and Objective: Climate change influence crops through its effects on the growing, development and yield. Research on climate change risk in staple food crops has been implemented in South Sumatra, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to assess level of climate change risk in staple food crops production (paddy, corn and soybean). Materials and Methods: This study used data of temperature, rainfall, sea level rise, hythergraph, irrigation, production of staple food crops and farmer’s socio-economic. Methods of this study were descriptive explanatory that using risks-vulnerability conceptual framework and risks were a function hazard and vulnerability. Results: The results of this study indicate that staple food crops were vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, indicated by hazards such as decreasing production of paddy, corn and soybean due to air temperature increase and rainfall change. Some areas of South Sumatra experienced the high risk of decreasing production of staple food crops. Generally, South Sumatera had decreasing wetland of paddy, upland paddy, corn and soybean production, respectively with an average 9.44, 22.00, 10.7 and 10.10% per year. Conclusion: South Sumatera Indonesia experienced the high risk of decreasing production of staple food crops due to climate change and had potency to disrupt food security in Indonesia.
Research Article
Physico-chemical Properties of Soil and Pods (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cocoa Agroforestry Systems
Hortensia Brito-Vega, Jose Manuel Salaya-Dominguez, Edmundo Gomez-Mendez, Armando Gomez-Vazquez and Jesus Bernardo Antele-Gomez
Objective: This study aimed to characterise the physico-chemical properties of soils and the biochemistry of cocoa pods in cocoa agroforestry systems, that may be beneficial for community of cocoa associations under agroforestry systems in the tropical, Tabasco, Mexico. Methodology: Granulometric, biochemical and physical analysis showed that the cocoa agroforestry plantations of the municipal districts of Cunduacán, Cardenas Comalcalco have clayey soils, pH was moderately acidic to neutral and it had high levels of organic matter and total nitrogen content: 9-10 and 0.15-0.21%, respectively. Data were analyzed by linear model and one-way (ANOVA) using SAS. Results: The average nutritional content of cocoa pods from cocoa agroforestry systems was as follows, total carbon (94.34%), Zn (50.26%), nitrogen (1.33%), potassium (1.78%), calcium (0.42%), magnesium (0.32%), ash (93.20%) and protein (8.3%). The electrical conductivity was influenced by various physico-chemical properties of the soil, such as soil texture, organic matter content, soil moisture, cation exchange capacity, salinity, pH, Ca and Mg. The physico-chemical properties and high nutritional content of the soils used in these agroforestry systems were suitable for the sustainable production of cocoa. Conclusion: It was concluded that results may vary depending on the natural balance between the vegetation habitat and the biochemical, biological, physical and chemical properties of the soil.
Research Article
Physiological Characters of the Local and Improved Cultivars of Rice under Organic Culture
Achmad Fatchul Aziez, Didik Indradewa, Prapto Yudono and Eko Hanudin
Background and Objective: Local and improved varieties of rice have different physiological characteristics under organic cultivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological characteristics of local and improved cultivars grown under organic cultivation of rice. Methodology The design used was completely randomized factorial with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was the kind of cultivation, i.e. organic cultivation and conventional cultivation and the second factor was the kind of cultivars of rice comprising: 5 different cultivars which consisted of Mentikwangi, Pandanwangi and Cianjur as local cultivars and IR64 and Cisedane as improved cultivars. The research was conducted at the greenhouse of the experiment station of Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta Indonesia situated at 113 m above sea level. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance of CRD and SAS. Results: The results indicated that physical and chemical properties of soil under organic and conventional system were good, except total nitrogen (N) was low. N weight of leaf of cv Cianjur, the greenness of leaves and stomatal conductivity of rice organically grown were lower than those of conventional cultivation, however the CO2 of leaf cells and the rate of photosynthesis were not different. There were no differences between the greenness of leaves, the CO2 of leaf cells, the rate of photosynthesis of the local varieties compared to those of in the improved varieties. The stomatal conductivity of cv. Mentikwangi a local variety was greater than other varieties. Conclusion: The results of study showed that there is a change of physiological characters of rice varieties when cultivated organically. Not much difference is observed in physiological characters between local and improved varieties.
Research Article
The Use of Paclobutrazol and Shading Net on Growth and Yield of Potato ‘Medians’ Tuber of G2 in Medium Land of Indonesia
Jajang Sauman Hamdani, Anne Nuraini and Syariful Mubarok
Background and Objective: One problem in introducing potato cultivation in medium land of Indonesia is high temperature which causes low yield of the potato tuber. High temperature improves shoot growth but reduces the formation and development of tuber. To reduce high temperature and inhibit shoot growth, therefore new strategy must be conducted to resolve this problem such as by the application shading net and paclobutrazol during potato cultivation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction effect between shading net and paclobutrazol on growth and yield of potato ‘medians’ tuber of G2 in medium land of Indonesia. Methodology: Randomized block design was used in this study with two factors, consisted of three levels of shading net density (0, 30 and 40%) and 4 levels of paclobutrazol concentration (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg L–1). All parameters were tested by two-ways of analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Fisher test followed by Duncan’s multiple range test at the 5% significance level. Results: The result showed that no significant interaction between shading net density and paclobutrazol concentration at all observed parameters. Shading net 30% increased plant height, leaf area index, tuber number, tuber weight and percentage of tuber for seed size that was significantly higher than without and 45% shading net. Moreover, paclobutrazol suppressed plant height and leaf area but it increased chlorophyll content, tuber number and tuber weight/plant and percentage of tuber for seed size. Conclusion: Paclobutrazol suppressed plant height and leaf area, however it increased leaves chlorophyll content, tuber number and tuber weight/plant. The highest tuber number and percentage of class tuber for seed size were obtained from plant with 50 mg L–1 of paclobutrazol application.
Research Article
Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Upland Rice in the Humid Tropics of Southwest Ethiopia in Response to Split Nitrogen Application
Merkebu Getachew and Amsalu Nebiyu
Background and Objective: Synchronizing timing of N-fertilizer application with rice crop nitrogen (N) demand is an important factor in determining soil N availability, crop N content and uptake capacity and yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effect of variations in N timing and splitting on grain yield, grain N content and N uptake and use efficiency in upland rice varieties on nitisols under rain-fed conditions of Jimma. Materials and Methods: A 2 years field experiment in rain-fed acidic soil was designed to study the effect of timing and splitting of nitrogen on N use efficiency of three improved rice varieties (Gumara, Ediget and NERICA-4) at Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. A single rate of 64 kg N ha–1 was splitted in different growth stages of the crop in various proportions between sowing, active tillering and panicle initiation. The experiment was designed in randomized complete block with 3 replications. Results: Significant grain yield increases were achieved with split applications of N fertilizer when N was top dressed during active tillering and panicle initiation stages compared to all the remaining N-timing treatments. Nitrogen uptake efficiency was greatest with split application of N when N was top dressed at active tillering stage. Soil N concentration was significantly higher when N was applied at tillering stage compared to other applications. Conclusion: Application of N fertilizer to rice preferably as top dressing between active tillering and panicle initiation is a strategy to be recommended from the standpoint of both the environment and of farmer returns.
Short Communication
Management Control of Synedrellopsis grisebachii by Herbicides with Adjuvant
Sousa Heitor Franco, Timossi Paulo Cesar and Turquino Robson Bonini
Objective: This study aimed to improve and show an alternative control of Cinderella weed Synedrellopsis grisebachii (S. grisebachii), because it is a troublesome in a non-till system and in perennial crops in Brazil. Methodology: Field trial was conducted in Brazil Midwest, set in a randomized complete block with three replication. The herbicides treatments were the application of Roundup Transorb, DMA and Volcane, also the combination of heat+dash and gramocil+agral. For treatments application, used C02 backpack, four DG11002 nozzles in 0.5 m spaced apart, with spray volume of 200 L ha–1. Fisher (LSD) test was used for mean comparison with (p<0.05). Percentage of control was analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Results: Cinderella weed was affected significantly by all herbicide treatments at 5, 10, 15, 35 and 45 days after application. Heat (70 g a.i. ha–1)+dash controlled 100% while Roundup Transorb, DMA and Volcane did not reach 30% at 5 days after application. The DMA showed the best result for controlling 100% at 60 days after application, also heat (70 g a.i. ha–1) +dash and volcane had an effective control for showing low percentage of resprout, 7 and 5%, while Roundup showed the highest resprout 37%. Conclusion: Cinderella has a natural resistance to glyphosate and application of DMA is the best herbicide to control.

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