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Journal of Agronomy
eISSN: 1812-5417
pISSN: 1812-5379

Editor-in-Chief:  Francisco Fabian Fuentes Carmona
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Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
System Productivity as Influenced by Varieties and Temporal Arrangement of Bean in Maize-climbing Bean Intercropping
Zerihun Abebe, Chala Dabala and Tadesse Birhanu
Objective: Maize-legume intercropping is one of the best practices to avert mono cropping problems and ensure sustainable and diversified production systems. In recognition of this fact, the objective of the experiment was to identify compatible maize and climbing types of common bean varieties at appropriate time of bean planting in intercropping systems. Methodology: The experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 years at Bako and Billo Boshe sites. Three maize varieties (BH661, BH546 and Gibe 2), two climbing beans (Tibe and Dandessu) and bean temporal arrangements (same, 15 and 20 days after maize planting) were arranged in factorial combinations in randomized complete block design with three replications. Result: The highest significant maize yield (9 t ha–1) was obtained when common bean was planted with BH661 simultaneously followed by 20 days after BH546 planting. Bean performance in BH546 was significantly decreased as the function of increasing from same date to 20 days after maize planting. Even though maximum bean yield could be obtained when intercropped with Gibe 2 at the same time, 31% yield reduction of the maize was observed. Maximum LER (1.53) was obtained when BH661 was planted simultaneously with beans. Positive value of agressivity index showed maize varieties, except Gibe 2 were the dominant. In contrast, climbing bean was significantly dominated by maize varieties except in simultaneous planting with Gibe 2. Conclusion: Simultaneous planting of climbing bean in BH661 maize variety is the best practices to get the highest net benefits. Alternatively, farmers could also prefer to use planting of the beans 15 days after BH546 variety of maize planted. Moreover, intercropping of bean after 20 or more days planting of Gibe 2 could be used to advise the farmers as other options where there are limited accesses to hybrid varieties.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Influence of Cropping System on Root Distribution of Annual Crops
Aos , Endah Sulistyawati and Tati Suryati Syamsudin
Background: Root distribution of annual crops is critical for agroecosystem management on sloping dry land. The objectives of this study are to examine the root interactions at intercropping system using combination of annual crops of five species (Rice, maize, peanut, red bean and cassava) and to understand their effects on root distribution and soil physical conditions (Bulk density and soil porosity). Materials and Methods: Seven combinations of annual crops ("Rice+maize", "Peanut+maize", "Red bean+maize", "Peanut+cassava", "Red bean+cassava", "Rice+cassava" and "Red bean") were observed by measuring root biomass, root length, bulk density and soil porosity. Results: Combination of "Red bean+maize" resulted in larger biomass of thin root at 0-5 cm soil layer, longer Root Length Density (RLD) of fine root at 10-15 cm soil layer, longer RLD of fine and thin root at 15-20 cm soil layer, decrease in bulk density and increase in soil porosity. The result of PCA indicates that vertical root distribution is restricted if biomass of fine root is concentrated at 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, if Root Area Ratio (RAR) of fine root is concentrated at 0-5 cm soil layer and if RAR of thin root is concentrated at 15-20 cm soil layer. Horizontal root distribution is restricted if biomass of fine root is concentrated at 10-15 cm soil layer and if biomass of thin root is concentrated at 15-20 cm soil layer. The parameters related to bulk density are RLD of thin root in soil layer 10-15 cm, RLD of fine root in soil layer 5-10 cm and RAR of thin root in soil layers 5-10 and 15-20 cm. Conclusion: The combination of "Red bean+maize" has higher ability of root penetration and it improves the physical conditions of the soil.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Changing of Morphological Characteristic and Biomass Properties in Pennisetum purpureum by Colchicine Treatment
P. Kamwean, T. Chaisan, P. Thobunluepop, C. Phumichai and M. Bredemeier
Background and Objective: Napier grass had limitation on conventional breeding program due to its self-incompatibility and sterilization effect. The fundamental goal of plant breeding program is to increase chemical composition and biomass yield of Napier grass by insure the yield per unit area and heating value for renewable energy utilization are also increased. In the experiment, the colchicine was applied to induce mutation in Napier grass cultivars in order to increase genetic variability of the varieties for good agricultural characteristics and future chemical component selection. The experiment was aimed to study the effect of colchicine treatment on the change of morphological characteristics, biomass properties and biomass yield of Pennisetum purpureum. Materials and Methods: The experiment was factorial in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 35 replications. There were four treatments accessions of Pennisetum purpureum, which were Chiang-Rai 2 (CR2), Chiang-Rai 3 (CR3), Taiwan A148 (TA148) and Tifton with five colchicine concentrations levels of 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% (w/v) which was applied in each treatments. Colchicine was treated on shoot apical meristem of stem cutting. Results: The experiment found that colchicine treatment significantly affected on plant height, leaf greenness, stem diameter and stomatal size. The CR2, CR3 and Tifton after treated with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% (w/v) of colchicine had significantly increased on plant height, leaf biomass and biomass yield. The concentration of colchicine at 0.05% (w/v) significantly increased cellulose and lignin content of Tifton and CR2, respectively. Moreover, the colchicine treatment at 0.2% (w/v) significantly decrease ash content of Tifton. Furthermore, the flow cytometric histograms on DNA content showed the different between non-treated and colchicine treated samples. The concentration of colchicine at 0.1 and 0.2% (w/v) showed similarity pattern of aneuploidy cells. The CR3 at 0.1 and 0.2% (w/v) of colchicine and TA148 at 0.2% (w/v) of colchicine increase the DNA content compared to non-treated sample (the control). Conclusion: Finally, the colchicine treatment showed the improvement on plant morphological yield and yield components in the treated samples which was almost tends to show the dominant characteristic.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Spring Wheat-field Pea Rotation with Tillage Systems and Straw Retention Improves Soil Water Utilization and Reduces Carbon Emission
Stephen Yeboah, Shirley Lamptey, Renzhi Zhang and LingLing Li
Background and Objective: Soil tillage and crop rotation are used to increase crop production and resource use efficiency worldwide. This study aimed to quantify soil respiration (Rs), Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and grain yield in spring wheat-field pea rotation in a rain-fed semi-arid environment. Methodology: The tillage practices included; conventional tillage with straw removed (T), no-till with straw removed (NT), no-till with straw retention on the soil surface (NTS) and conventional tillage with straw incorporated (TS), administered in a randomized block design with three replicates. Soil respiration was monitored in the 2016 cropping season using LI-8100 system (LI-COR, USA). Results: Grain yield and WUE in spring wheat were approximately 26.43 and 37.86% higher, respectively in NTS compared with T. In a less magnitude, TS also significantly increased grain yield and water use efficiency by ≈15.96 and 26.82%, respectively, compared with T and NT treatments. In field pea plots, NTS and NT increased grain yield and WUE by ≈35.60 and 26.35% compared with T treatments. The NTS had carbon emission of 436.05 kg ha–1 in spring wheat and 288.45 kg ha–1 in field pea, representing 31.89 and 25.88% less carbon emitted than T treatment during the growing season. The NT decreased carbon emission, but the effect was lesser relative to NTS. Conclusion: The findings of the present study show that spring wheat-field pea rotation with tillage removal coupled with straw retention can be used to increase grain production and reduce carbon emission in semi-arid areas.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Evaluation of Released and Local Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varieties for Growth Performance
Seifu Fetena and Betewulign Eshetu
Objectives: Five potato varieties during the autumn and seven potato varieties during the winter season were evaluated for their vegetative growth performance under rain fed condition of the 2015/16 crop calendar with the objective of evaluating the performance and adaptability of improved and local varieties of Irish potato in Chencha district Gamo-Gofa zone Ethiopia. Methodology: The experimental field was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four blocks and three replications. Treatments include five improved and two local varieties (Jalene, Gudenie, Belete, Degemegn,Tolcha, Father and Susallu). Results: The statistical findings demonstrated that plant height and number of shoots were significantly influenced during autumn season of growth while during the winter cropping season, plant height and number of leaves per plant was significantly influenced by cultivars. Belete variety had the highest plant height and shoot numbers whereas; Local variety-1 (Father) had the lowest plant height and shoot number among the other varieties. Statistically significant differences were recorded among the varieties in leaf number during the winter season. The maximum number of leaves was recorded in Degemegn variety followed by Belete variety whereas; the least number of leaves was recorded in Gudene in the winter season. Tolcha variety had the least number of leaves per plant in the autumn cropping season. Conclusion: Finally, it is conclude that the study evidently demonstrated the effect of varietal difference on the growth potential of potato varieties. The growth performance of the Irish potato varieties brought from Holeta Research Center was promising.
Short Communication
Published on December 15, 2016
Effects of Salinity on Warm-season Turfgrass Species Collected in a Mediterranean Environment
Lovelli Stella, Potenza Giovanna, Viggiani Roberto, Valerio Maria, Castronuovo Donato, Fascetti Simonetta, Perniola Michele, Marchione Vito and Candido Vincenzo
Background and Objective: The demand for salt-tolerant turfgrass is becoming more pressing. In Italy, many turfgrass species have been introduced from foreign countries, but they have shown a low adaptability to the prevailing Mediterranean climatic conditions. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salinity on warm-season turfgrass species collected in a Mediterranean environment and exposed to salinity in hydroponic culture. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in Italy in a temperature-controlled glasshouse, where samples of 25 different macrotherm specimens of Cynodon dactylon and four commercial cultivars (Transcontinental, Yukon, Panama and Seaspray) in rectangular plastic pots were exposed to saline conditions. Plants were subjected to one level of salt stress corresponding to 150 mM NaCl from the addition of NaCl. Results: Conditions of salinity were shown to have a depressing effect on all of the measured parameters: The leaf area, dry weight, dry weight of roots and root/shoot ratio. Salinity conditions resulted in a great increase in the leaf concentration of sodium and chlorine, but the ability of the plants to limit the accumulation of sodium ions in the leaf tissue varied enormously between the different compared accessions. Conclusion: The data produced in this study demonstrate a fair amount of variability in response to salinity in terms of growth among the studied ecotypes. We have identified three accessions from the turfgrass material collected in the Mediterranean area that appear to be relatively less salt-sensitive.

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