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Journal of Agronomy
eISSN: 1812-5417
pISSN: 1812-5379

Editor-in-Chief:  Francisco Fabian Fuentes Carmona
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Research Article
Spacing Arrangements and Environmental Factors Influence Biomass Production of Sweet Sorghum Cultivars Grown in Semi-arid Regions
Tatiana Maria da Silva, Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira, Weslley Costa Silva, Bruno França da Trindade Lessa and Lamartine Soares Bezerra de Oliveira
Background and Objective: High biomass production of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] may be obtained by using cultivars adapted to a determined environment and by adopting the most appropriated spacing arrangement. The aim of this study was to evaluated the effects of different spatial arrangements on the biomass productivity of two sweet sorghum varieties in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Materials and Methods: Two agricultural cycles (2015 and 2016) were carried out under rainfed conditions. The varieties used were BRS 506 and SF 15 and spacing between the rows (50, 60, 70 and 80 cm) and between plants (8, 12 and 16 cm) were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications and a triple factorial scheme. The fresh and dry matter of the leaves, panicle and stalk were evaluated. Dry matter mass was determined by summing the mass of the dry matter of all the parts. Results: The values obtained with the BRS 506 variety in the first cycle were higher than those observed in the SF 15 variety. Results showed that the BRS 506 variety had the highest growth under appropriated rainfall conditions (1st cycle), while the SF 15 showed a small improvement in growth during the second cycle, which was characterized by a long and severe drought. In this context, the observed superiority for BRS 506 from one cycle to the next was 233.4%. The closer spacings between the rows and between plants provided higher average biomass due to the greater amount of material per area. Conclusion: The BRS 506 variety is recommended for biomass production in the semiarid at a planting density of 250,000 plants ha1.
Research Article
Effect of Water logging Duration on Growth Phases of Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Grafted on Eggplant Rootstock
Evy Latifah, Eko Widaryanto, Moch Dawam Maghfoer and Ariffin
Background and Objective: Small eggplants called Gelatik as an alternative substitute for tomato rootstocks are local eggplants that are widely available and can be easily obtained by conventional farmers. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of water logging durations on various growth phases of tomatoes grafted on local eggplants. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted between February and December 2017. The design used was Randomized Block Design (RCBD) consisting of two factors and three replications. Factor I was the grafting of Cervo variety tomatoes onto different rootstocks and Factor II was the water logging pressure at different growth phases. Results: Gelatik rootstocks (BL) treated with B2V, B2B, B2H and B4V resulted insignificant differences in leaf area, plant height and weight of fruit from that of EG 203 line rootstock. EG 203 line (BEG) resulted in significantly higher than Gelatik (BL) rootstock in terms of proline level during fruiting phase (B2H, B4H). Biplot analysis showed the positive correlation between water logging tolerance score and the content of proline. Conclusion: The local eggplant rootstocks (Gelatik) which were water logged for up to 2 days did not show any significant difference from the recommended eggplants. Therefore, the EG 203 line can be planted under a substituted condition of sandy soil and rainy season condition.
Research Article
Weeds Diversity of Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with Different farming System in Purwakarta Regency Indonesia
Denny Kurniadie, Maulydina Irda, Uum Umiyati, Dedi Widayat, Sudarjat and Ceppy Nasahi
Background and Objective: Lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for most of Indonesian. Weed an important constraints in increasing rice production in Indonesia that has to be overcome. Weeds reduce the crop yield due to compete with light absorption, oxygen, CO2, space and nutrients. This study aimed to find out the weeds diversity in organic and conventional rice farming system in Purwakarta Regency west Java Indonesia. Materials and Methods: The materials used in this research were land map and questionnaire. The tools used in this research were squared meter (1.0×1.0 m), gauge, scissors, plastic bag, label paper, analytical scales and dryer oven. The method used was qualitative method (weed survey by giving questionnaires to farmers) and quantitative method by using vegetation analysis. This research was conducted from December, 2017 to February, 2018. Results: The vegetation analysis showed that weed diversity on conventional farming system consist of 3 species of grasses, 1 species of sedges and 5 species of broad leaf, whereas in organic farming system consist 2 species of grasses, 1 species of sedges and 4 species of broad leaf. Weeds with the highest SDR (Summed Dominance Ratio) value in both conventional and organic farming system is Fimbristylis miliacea. Conclusions: Weed population in conventional and organic farming system was different. This study can be useful to determine an effective and efficient post emergent wed management strategy for the following season.
Research Article
Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on the Growth and the Characteristics of Rice Varieties in Rainfed Lowland Rice Cultivation
Achmad Fatchul Aziez, Didik Indradewa, Ongko Cahyono and Sapto Priyadi
Background and Objective: Growth response of various rice varieties showed a different result to the application of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) in rainfed lowland rice field. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate of rice varieties applied with the treatment of VAM in rainfed lowland rice field. Materials and Methods: The research design was Randomized Completely Block Design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was rice varieties (IR64, Mentikwangi, Pepe, Mekongga, Way Apo Buru, Inpari, Situbagendit and Mamberamo). The second factor was the application of VAM (without VAM and with VAM). The research was conducted in the rice field in Demangan, Sambi, Boyolali, Central Java, Indonesia with 113 m above sea level. Results: The results indicated that the VAM applications can increase the leaf area index of IR64, Mentikwangi, Pepe, Way apoburu, Inpari and Mamberamo variety; leaf area duration of IR64, Pepe, way Apoburu and Inpari variety; crop growth rate of all varieties except mekongga and mamberamo; net assimilation rate of IR64, Pepe and Inpari variety and relative growth rate of Mekongga variety. A significantly positive correlation was obtained between the leaf area index to the leaf area duration, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate. Conclusion: The application of VAM to various of rice varieties in rainfed lowland rice field can increase the leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate. There was a significance and positive correlation between the leaf area index to the leaf area duration, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate.
Research Article
Cowpea Stover Yield, Seed Mass and Soil pH under Different Management Practices and Environmental Conditions
Erick Sebetha
Background and Objective: Cowpea production is affected by crop rotation and this indicates the N contribution in cereal-legume rotation. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of cropping system, location, planting season and nitrogen fertilization on cowpea stover yield, seed mass and soil pH. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of three cropping systems (Maize-cowpea rotation, monocropping cowpea and intercropped cowpea), three locations (Potchefstroom, Taung and Rustenburg) and two rates of nitrogen fertilizers applied in kg ha1 at each site (0 and 20 at Potchefstroom, 0 and 17 at Rustenburg, 0 and 23 at Taung). A factorial experiment randomized in complete block design with three replications was conducted during 2011/12 and 2012/13 planting seasons. The measured parameters were plant population at harvest, stover yield, seed mass and soil pH (KCl). Results: Cowpea harvested at Potchefstroom and Taung had significantly higher stover yield of 1319.4 and 1784.9 kg ha1, respectively than cowpea harvested at Rustenburg. Seeds harvested from intercropped system had significantly higher mass of 15.35 g than seeds harvested from mono-cropped and rotational systems. The interactions of location and planting season had significant effect on plant population and stover yield during harvesting. Soil collected at Taung had pH of 6.47 (slightly acidic) compared to soil collected at Potchefstroom and Rustenburg. Conclusion: Application of nitrogen fertilizer has no influence on the production of cowpea. Location with higher percentage of clay experienced reduction in soil pH.
Research Article
Lasiodiplodia theobromae Fungus Causing Stem Canker Disease on Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Indonesia
Tri Rapani Febbiyanti, Suryo Wiyono, Sudirman Yahya and Widodo
Background and Objectives: Stem canker diseases of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a new disease and as so far not reported yet in Indonesia. Now-a-days the occurrence of this disease is increasing by time. The objectives of this study were: (1) To determine the causative agent of stem canker and (2) To characterize the morphology and molecular properties of the pathogen. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Sembawa Research Laboratory, Rubber Research Center, South Sumatera and mycology Laboratory, IPB Plant Protection Department, from January, 2014-January, 2016. This research was conducted in three stages, namely, 1: Morphological identification based on the form of colonies and conidia as a reference used Barnet and Hunter identification keys and confirmed with previous studies, 2: Molecular identification using ITS 4 and ITS5 primers and sequence analysis using the BLAST program at www.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov website and 3: Pathogenicity test using Koch’s postulate. Results: The result showed that morphology observation and molecular identification indicated that pathogen causing stem canker disease on rubber was Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The result of pathogenicity test showed that there was similarity of symptoms that arise between artificial inoculation and natural symptoms in the field. Another similarity that was also seen was the appearance of the fruiting body on the infected part. Conclusion: Lasiodiplodia theobromae was a pathogen causing stem canker disease on rubber tree, proven by morphology, molecular identification and Koch's postulates.
Mini Review
Dryland Farming and the Agronomic Management of Crops in Arid Environments
Lovelli Stella
Farming plays and will continue to play a pre-dominant role in food production and the sustainability of the world's population. Objective of this mini review was to describe the dry land farming and its importance and also to outline the future growth prospects of this type of agriculture. Dryland management practices over time have undergone continuous evolution and in this mini-review it is synthetically explained. They are essential and over time they have become more active but alone are not sufficient to promote increased crop production in arid environments. The conventional approach which involves in establishing drought tolerant cultivars through breeding has not yet been able to solve the problem. The world of scientific research to increase production in drought environments in recent years is moving in two up-and-coming areas: (1) The use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and (2) The use of water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP), both of these opportunities in these last year seem to give great chances for success.

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