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Journal of Agronomy
eISSN: 1812-5417
pISSN: 1812-5379

Editor-in-Chief:  Francisco Fabian Fuentes Carmona
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Research Article
Tillage Methods and Poultry Manure Application Effects on the Growth and Yield of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Calabar, Nigeria
Aniefiok Effiong Uko, Emmanuel Bassey Effa and Isong Abraham Isong
Background and Objective: Developing suitable tillage practices and sustainable soil fertility options are important components of any soil management programme aimed at the enhancement of the production and productivity of food crops which is a challenge in Nigeria and most countries of Sub Saharan Africa. A field study was therefore; conducted to investigate the effects of traditional tillage methods and poultry manure application on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Calabar. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was conducted at the University of Calabar, Teaching and Research Farm during the 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. Three tillage methods (ridge, flat tilled and flat untilled) and four rates of poultry manure consisting of (0, 5, 10, 15 t ha–1) were used in the study. The treatment combinations were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results: Flat tilled soil was comparatively better compared to the other tillage methods with respect to plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, days to 50% flowering, length of pod, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, pod and seed yield in tonnes per hectare. Poultry manure at the rate of 15 t ha–1 produced superior plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area index, days to 50% flowering, 100-seed weight, length of pod, number of pods and number of seeds per pod. Conclusion: Flat tilled soil amended with PM at 15 t ha–1 recorded the best growth and yield of groundnut.
Research Article
Effect of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars, Row Spacing and Weed Control Methods on Root Growth
El Sayed Hasan Mohamed Fayed, Saber Abdel Hamed El Sayed Mowafy, Mohamed Elbakry Saleh and Fares Soliman Mohamed Gomaa Salama
Background and Objective: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most needed cereal crop in Egypt and due to the wide gap between wheat production and consumption, it was necessary to discover how to maximize wheat productivity in newly cultivated sandy soil as a way of horizontal expansion. Sandy soil suffers essentially from water stress and weed plants invasion, so this study aimed to compare among three wheat cultivars and three row spacing patterns which could provide a better distribution of plants roots at field to for a better uptake of water and minerals minimize the competition between plants, also the study aimed to compare five different weed control methods to decide the best alternative one. Materials and Methods: Two field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University in the winter seasons of 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 in new cultivated sandy soil using three Egyptian cultivars and three row spacings (10, 15 and 20 cm) and five different control methods (check, hand weeding, narrow leaf herbicide, broad leaf herbicide, both narrow and broad leaf herbicide). Results: The results showed significant differences between wheat cultivars in most of root parameters at different soil depths and layers at various growth stages. Also, studied root parameters showed significant variations between row spacing of wheat in favor of 20 cm row spacing. Root parameters significantly varied due to weed control methods. The response of root number density, root length density, root surface area and root dry weight of wheat differed due to weed control methods, soil depths and layers as well as at different wheat growth stages. On the other hand, roots growth rate was significantly affected by cultivars, row spacing and weed control methods. Simple correlation coefficient between wheat grain yield and root growth parameters was not significant but root number was significant with other root growth parameters. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that root growth is affected by many of agriculture managements, like row spacing and methods of weed control stated that wheat varieties significantly differed in root patterns and the variation in soil moisture may cause this.
Research Article
Seeds Enhancement Technique as Tool to Improve Rice Germination and Seedling Establishment in High soil Temperature Stress
Mgaya Athumani Maumba, Pitipong Thobunluepop, Tanee Sreewongchai, Ed Sarobol, Damrongvudhi Onwimol and Nantawan Sarobol
Background and Objective: Rapid germination is very important for better plant growth and development under stress condition. The increase in soil and water temperature reduces seed germination ability, germination speed and hence resulting into poor seedling vigor and plat growth. This study was conducted to investigate to what extent the seed enhancement technique helped to improve the rice seed germination and seedling establishments on the effect of high soil temperature stress. Methodology: Four rice seeds varieties were primed with PEG 6000, hydropriming and non-primed seeds were used as a control. After priming, germination test under soil temperature stress of 36°C (room-control), 40, 43 and 46°C was performed in greenhouse condition to evaluate the stress effect on germination and seedling quality. Results: The results showed highly significant difference on maximum germination (max G, %), mean germination time (MGT%), time to attained 50% germination (T50%), germination energy (GE), shoot and root growth and development at different soil temperature stress between primed and non-primed seeds. Conclusion: Primed seed promote rapid germination as well as shoot and root growth under high soil temperature (40-43°C). However, growth and development were ceased at above 43°C. Furthermore, high soil temperature and priming techniques promoted root and shoot growth than to non-primed seeds.
Research Article
Integrated Soil Management Effects on Physiological Response, Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of the Maize Crop
Bakht Munir, Pitipong Thobunluep, Ed Sarobol and Nantawan Sarobol
Background and Objective: Food scarcity is one of the numerous challenges, encountered by the globe. Improvement in food production is highly demanded to overcome this issue. To increase maize production, soil fertility and productivity is required to be enhanced. The current study was designed to use integrated organic and inorganic fertilizers and polymers to improve soil conditions and increase the production of maize crop under the control conditions. Materials and Methods: Nine different treatments, i.e., T1 (Soil+Nitrogen), T2 (Soil+Potassium), T3 (Soil+Phosphorus), T4 (Soil+NPK), T5 (Soil+Compost), T6 (Soil+Polymer), T7 (Soil+(NPK+Compost), T8 (Soil+(NPK+Polymer) and T9 (control soil) were studied. Results: Results depicted that the highest production of maize crop in terms of harvest index (HI, 0.68%) and seed weight (109.64 g per cob) was found in T8 than all the other treatments. Similarly the physiological parameters such as Plant height, LAI, CGR, NAR were found significantly higher in T8 at all growth stages (20, 40, 60 and 90 DAS). Additionally, the crop water use efficiency was also improved by T8 treatment (22.7 kg h1 mm1). Conclusion: The study indicated that implementation of super absorbed polymer mixed with NPK fertilizer could play a better role to improve the soil condition and increase the productivity of maize. This may be due to its better of water holding capacity for longer period of time which could be beneficial for drought affected areas.
Research Article
Evaluation the Adaptability of Different Corn Cultivars under Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages
Paul Hategekimana, Pitipong Thobunluepop, Ed Saorobol and Nantawan Sarobol
Background and Objective: Drought stress severely affects corn growth and development during its whole life cycle by altering cell division and leading to changes in plant morphology, reducing anthesis-silking interval and consequently results in poor yield. The aim of this research was to evaluate the adaptability of corn cultivars under various drought stress conditions at different growth stages. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in green house condition during April to September 2017 at the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Kasetsart University (KU). Four corn cultivars (SW4452, NS-3, NT6248 and NT7328) were tested under factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD). There were three blocks where drought stress was executed in block wise. The block one executed at vegetative stage (30DAP), block two at flowering stage (60DAP) and block three at grain formation stage (76DAP).Drought stress adaptability of those cultivars at seedling stage was tested under growth chamber where germination data were collected on 21 days after germination. The physiological, morphological, roots properties and crop yield data were collected. Results: The result on maximum germination and T50 percentage showed highly statistical significant different at p<0.05 level for NT7328 and NT6248, respectively. The number of roots, root length, roots fresh and dry weight and root-shoots ratio was significantly different for Ns-3. Furthermore, the yield production (t h1) according to the period imposed to drought stress were 4.06, 3.69 and 2.85 t h1 for vegetative, flowering and grain formation stage. However high yield value within cultivars were 3.7, 3.4 and 2.6 and 4.2 t h1 for SW4452, NS-3, NT6248 and NT7328, respectively. Conclusion: Finally the result showed high drought adaptability to NT7328 and SW4452 while NT6248 cultivars was seems to be vulnerable to drought stress.
Research Article
Genetic Variability of M2 Population Obtained from Colchicine Mutation in Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Damanhuri and Afifuddin Latif Adiredjo
Background and Objective: Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is becoming popular for development of functional foods. However, black rice generally has a long plant life and low productivity. To obtain superior varieties, improvement of phenotype and genotype is necessary. Variety improvement programs require genetic diversity as a basic material in breeding activities. One way to increase variability on black rice is mutation breeding by colchicine. This research aimed to study about genetic variability of M2 population induced colchicine of local genotype black rice from Ungaran. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in Batu city, East Java from March to August 2017. The data were collected using single plant method and analyzed using student t-test at 5% level. Planting materials were U-K0, U-K250-67, U-K250-68, U-K500-79, U-K500-83, U-K750-5, U-K750-41 local genotypes Ungaran population M2 results of colchicine induction. Results: The population of M2 from the colchicine mutation had low to rather high category of Genotype Coefficient of Variability (GCV) in all the character of quantitative observation. Most of the population had high value of heritability on all quantitative characters. Selected plants from this population based on quantitative character and cytological observation were U-K250-67-8, U-K250-67-129, U-K250-68-4, U-K250-68-103, U-K500-79-6, U-K500-79-144, U-K500-83-9, U-K500-83-43, U-K500-83-58, U-K750-5-8, and U-K750-41-4. Conclusion: M2 population of black rice had low to rather high genetic variability. Observation on cytological characters showed that there were 11 plants that had more number of chromosomes than control.
Case Study
Calibration of the AquaCrop Model in Special Coffee (Coffea arabica) Crops in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia
Adriana Lorena Vega Molina, Vanessa Paola Pertuz Peralta, Adith Bismarck Pérez Orozco, María Isabel Ortiz Iglesias and Enrique González Guerrero
Background and Objective: This study proposed the application of the AquaCrop model in special coffee crops. Till now, no studies were found on the application of this model in this specific crop, which is the main contribution of this research study. In this way, the study aims to present the calibration of the variables related to type of crop, soil characteristics and management of special coffee agriculture in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia. Materials and Methods: The theoretical bases considered for the present study focus on the different calibration methodologies of the AquaCrop model in different types of crops. The methodology used is based on the proposal of estimation, measurement, calculation and collection of the respective data of the model. Specifically, the project analyzed databases of climate, soil, crops and management practices. The researchers used the statistical techniques of ordinary least squares and the completion coefficient to perform the fit of the model. Results: The results of the calibration of AquaCrop for coffee (Coffea arabica) special have a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.71 which indicates that the model is acceptable. In addition, it established a forecast of productivity with specific agroclimatic conditions. According to the calibrated model, the average temperature is the variable with the highest incidence in coffee productivity. Conclusion: The results presented in this paper contribute to the application of the AquaCrop model in coffee crops in different regions.

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