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International Journal of Botany
eISSN: 1811-9719
pISSN: 1811-9700

Editor-in-Chief:  Abdelfattah Badr Mohamed Badr
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Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Priming Tomato Cultivars in β-sitosterol or Gibberellic Acid Improves Tolerance for Temperature Stress
Rasha Eid Gamel, Ashraf Elsayed, Jamila Bashasha and Samia Haroun
Background and Objective: Tomato is an important vegetable crop all over the world. Extreme temperatures affect the growth, yield and quality of plant production. This study was conducted with an aim to investigate the impact of presoaking of seeds for 10 h in 10–3, 10–5 and 10–7 M β-sitosterol and 100 ppm gibberellic acid in addition to temperature on three tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill); Fayrouz, Aziza and N23-48 on growth, leaf anatomy and ultrastructure to show whether temperature can be offset by the application of β-sitosterol or gibberellin. Materials and Methods: After 28 days from sowing, plants were transferred to growth chambers at three temperature levels (10 and 45±3°C) as low and high, respectively, comparing to tomato grown at 25°C (control), after 42 days from sowing, sampling takes place. Results: The low temperature alone decreased growth parameters, leaf thickness, upper and lower epidermis while palisade and spongy layer increased. Although spongy layer increased markedly by high temperature a decreased in growth parameter, palisade layer, leaf thickness and upper and lower epidermis was detected. Sitosterol and gibberellin treatments in addition to, temperature caused a general significant increase in the determined measurements especially the number and area of leave and the thickness of cell wall epidermis. These results may provide support for the field application of sitosterol and gibberellin to alleviate the harmful effects of temperature on tomato plants. Conclusion: It is evident from the above results that, the resistance of the three cultivars of tomato plant to temperature stress (high and low) was more or less improved by priming the seeds in 100 ppm gibberellic acid or β-sitosterol specially in response to 10-5 M. Thus, these plant growth regulators could be used, as safe compounds to improve the resistance of the used tomato cultivars to temperature stress.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Temperature and Medium Affected Ecological Niche Breadth Study of some Leguminous Herbs from the Sultanate of Oman
Pankaj Sah, Fatma M. Al-Azri, Hafsa A. Al-Saidi and Abdullah A. Al-Sanjoor
Background: Conservation and restoration of Arabian arable lands warrants immediate attention from the world scientific community due to rising mean global temperature and augmented anthropogenic impact on this part of the world. Understanding the environmental factors that influence and regulate seed germination is very important for the establishment and regeneration of various plant communities in various ecosystems. Materials and Methods: The effects of temperature and medium were investigated in the germination behaviors of three different leguminous herbs in the hot and arid zone of Muscat. The experiment was designed to study seed germination behaviors with a temperature gradient (mean treatment: 25, 30, 35 and 40°C) and different media treatments. The data was statistically analyzed for Mean±Standard Error, Pearson bivariate correlation, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis (Holm-Sidak method) by SPSS ver. 20 and Sigma Plot ver. 12. Results: Trigonella foenum-graecum L., showed the best germination trend (100%) over other studied legumes (Pisum sativum L. and Glycine max L.). Levin’s standardized niche breadth analysis (BA) also confirmed the broad temperature and media tolerance ability of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. It was observed that Trigonella foenum-graecum L., is a ‘Generalist species’ with broad niche breadth (BA = 0.80). While, Glycine max (BA = 0.59) was found to be a ‘Moderately generalist species’. Whereas Pisum sativum was found to be a ‘Specialist species’ with narrow niche breadth (BA = 0.33). Conclusion: Here, it is showed that Trigonella foenum-graecum L., can survive very easily in the hot and nutrient poor environmental conditions of Sultanate of Oman. Hence, it can be used as potent nitrogen sequester species in selected areas of interest to mobilize significant amounts of nitrogen in arid agricultural ecosystems. This type of study will not only help in reclaiming the degraded arable lands but also in sustainable agriculture and future agro-forestry practice in Oman and Arabia. It is finally concluded that if the farmers are encouraged to grow this crop in various seasons then it could fix significant amount of atmospheric nitrogen in soil. This will further facilitate the farmers and a possible reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural lands will eventually help saving environment. The conservation of soil can be ensured with increased use of this species in these parts of the world. Promotion of this plant will also help in restoration of degraded arable lands of Arabia.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
A Novel Histological Approach for Identification of Alkaloid Bearing Plants
Sayyada Khatoon
Background and Objective: Alkaloids are only secondary metabolites which participate in plant metabolism and also translocated from one part to another. About 153 families have never been explored for alkaloids and no significant transport channel is reported so far for alkaloid movement from one cell to another after their production in the plant species. The major aim of this study is to sharpen the mind for the histological peculiarities of alkaloid bearing plants and to consider them adequately in forthcoming investigations on translocation of alkaloids. Materials and Methods: More than 100 plants/parts were studied histologically and histochemically, to differentiate the alkaloid and non-alkaloid bearing plants. The transverse/longitudinal sections were taken for all the samples using standard methods. These sections were screened for the presence/absence of alkaloids. Results: Anatomical studies of different plant parts viz., root, rhizome, stem, bark, leaf, petiole, fruit and seed were conducted. A constant histological feature i.e., pits on the cell wall and in the cell lumen of the tissues other than tracheary elements was noticed in all types of alkaloid viz., tropane, pyridine-piperdine, quinoline, isoquinoline, lupine, indole, steroidal alkaloids, alkaloidal amines and purine bases bearing plants/parts. Conclusion: The presence of alkaloids as secondary metabolite in any plant species can be detected by the microscopic structure i.e., cell wall pitting and pits in cell lumen due to plasmodesmata, other than tracheary elements, because this structure was observed in all alkaloid bearing plants only. Secondly, it may also help to locate the translocation of this diverse secondary metabolite. This novel histological finding may be applied to identify the new source of alkaloid from the unexplored plant families and may open new vistas for the chemical and biological point of view. The hypothesis of the finding is that the presence of plasmodesmata and pits in the cells even in sclereids/stone cells can provide a channel for the translocation of these secondary metabolites after their synthesis in the particular plant part. Further, physiological research is required to confirm all the activities related to the chemical and physical processes associated with this hypothesis.
Research Article
Published on December 15, 2016
Nitrotoxins in 13 Species of Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) Trees in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Mitra Noori, Mahdi Talebi and Mehrnoosh Kalantar
Background and Objective: Nitrotoxins or nitroglycosides are aliphatic nitro compounds, which were detected in some legumes (Papilionoideae). They are important due to mammalian toxicities, attraction of pollinators or seed disperses and repulsion or inhibition of herbivores and microorganisms. Legumes nitrotoxins studies have importance from the phytochemistry, chemotaxonomy, domestic nutrition, ecological adaptations and chemodiversity aspects. In this study nitrotoxins of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd., Bauhinia purpurea L., Cassia aphylla Cav. and Prosopis stephaniana Kunth species were reported for the first time that is important for their chemotaxonomy, toxicity and pollination. Materials and Methods: Thirty populations of 13 legume species were collected and identified from various parts of Iran. Their dried leaves analyzed for presence of aliphatic nitro compounds. The qualitative test and quantitative determination for aliphatic nitrotoxins were done using the developed Cooke and modified Williams-Parker methods. Recording the absorption spectrum between 400 and 800 nm was done using Cecill 4400 UV-visible double beam scanning spectrophotometer. Results: Nitrotoxins were detected in 5 species (Acacia farnesiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Cassia aphylla, Prosopis stephaniana and Robinia pseudoacacia) at concentrations ranging from 9-25 NO2 mg g–1 plant. Other examined plant species lacked any nitrotoxins. Conclusion: Nitro compounds studies can show plant chemodiversity throughout the Papilionoideae as chemotaxonomic, toxicity and pollination character.

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