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International Journal of Botany
eISSN: 1811-9719
pISSN: 1811-9700

Editor-in-Chief:  Abdelfattah Badr Mohamed Badr
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Research Article
Using Ringing Branches Technique and Natural Lipids to Enhance Quality and Storability of Florida Prince Peach Fruits During Cold Storage
Mohamed Tarabih and Eman EL-Eryan
Background: In Egypt, Florida prince peach an early harvest cultivar that adapt to local environmental conditions and potential for exportation. Color is variable as the global maturity indicator in peaches. Materials and Methods: In this respect, influence of ringing main branches technique at the beginning of coloring (4 weeks before harvest) with pre-harvest application of lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) 2 weeks before harvest on quality and storability of Florida prince peach fruits were investigated during two successive seasons 2016 and 2017. The fruits were stored 30 days at 0°C±1 with 90-95% RH and fruit quality was evaluated at harvest and during cold storage. Results: At harvest, all treatments were more effective to increase fruit firmness, total soluble solids, total sugars content, color hue angle (h°) compared to the control in both seasons. While, produced a lower total acidity, total phenols, the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Results showed that by increasing the storage periods weight loss, decay, total soluble solids and total sugars content, the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase significantly increased. Whereas, fruit firmness, total acidity, color hue angle (h°) and total phenols significantly decreased. The best results obtained by sprayed LPE at 150 mg L–1 with ringing main branches after 30 days of cold storage which decreased fruits weight loss, decay, delayed the changes in total acidity, total phenols, activity of peroxidase and activity of polyphenol oxidase. Moreover, the same treatment produced a higher value of total soluble solids, total sugars and color hue angle (h°) compared with all treated fruits or the untreated ones. Conclusion: The study suggested that these treatments might be a promising candidate as to maintain peach quality and extending post-harvest life especially after cold storage.
Research Article
Genetic Fidelity Testing of Soybean Plants under Allelopathic Stress of Eucalyptus Ground Leaves Through RAPD and ISSR Markers
Hala Mohamed Abdelmigid and Maissa Mohamed Morsi
Background and Objectives: In agroforestry system (e.g., Eucalyptus forestry), plant-plant chemical interactions can have a strong impact on the biodiversity and dynamics of these ecosystems. The objective of the study was to evaluate the genetic stability of crop plants under allelopathic stress of tree litter. PCR based analysis system (RAPD and ISSR) was employed to determine molecular markers associated with allelopathic tolerance in Glycine max. Materials and Methods: Pot experiment was conducted with soybean seeds using mixture of soil and Eucalyptus ground leaves (EUGL) in a percentage of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, (w/w). Leaves were harvested after 3 weeks for DNA extraction and further PCR assays. Genetic fidelity testing was assessed by calculations of genome template stability index (GTS). Results: Collectively, 18 new DNA markers were detected by both RAPD and ISSR analysis, in EUGL exposed plants. The RAPD and ISSR profiles verified a general tendency of decrease in GTS values with exposure to EUGL in a dose-dependent manner. A drastic decrease in GTS was more pronounced by RAPD markers, compared to ISSR. Low estimated GTS values for EUGL plants reflect their high genetic instability. Conclusion: The RAPD seven markers and ISSR 11markers was proved as reliable molecular markers for allelopathy tolerance in Glycine max and could be used in breeding programs. Moreover, lowest estimated GTS values for EUGL plants reflect their high genetic instability.
Research Article
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Constituents of Cichorium intybus L. Aerial Parts
Riyam Sabeeh Jasim
Background and Objective: Cichorium intybus Linn. (C. intybus L.) has been known in traditional medicine since ancient times, therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potentiality of aqueous and methanol extracts of aerial parts of C. intybus L. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins were assessed as the Mean±SD of three readings in the extracts of the aerial parts of C. intybus L. The extracts were examined for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Results: The methanol extract was found to possess a comparatively higher values of total phenolic, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins than aqueous extract except saponins which seem higher in aqueous than methanol extract. The methanol extract exhibited a relatively high antioxidant activity as it showed comparatively low values of IC50 for 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition than ascorbic acid (standard) and the aqueous extract. Both extracts were screened for their antimicrobial activity against 11 pathogenic microbial strains and showed significant inhibition zones. The methanol extract showed broader antimicrobial spectrum than the aqueous extract. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the aerial parts extracts of C. intybus L. have good phytochemical composition, good antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potentiality.
Research Article
Genotypic Variation Affects the Efficiency of the Genetic Transformation Process in Balanites aegyptiaca
Ibrahim Abdullah Alaraidh
Background and Objective: Balanites aegyptiaca, belonging to family Zygophyllaceae, is multipurpose tree considered highly drought-tolerant but salt-sensitive and cultivated in several arid and tropical regions in North and west Africa and West Asia. The plant parts contain several secondary metabolites and there is a high oil content in the kernels already used in biodiesel production. This study was aimed at investigating effect of the genotypic variation in B. aegyptiaca plants (collected from different geographical locations, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Halayeb, Egypt) on the efficiency of the genetic transformation process for both ERD10 and nptII genes. Materials and Methods: Two B. aegyptiaca genotypes collected from two different geographical regions with different ecological conditions (Halayeb, Egypt and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) were used in this study. The genetic transformation was performed using Agrobacterium tumefacienss train GV3101 harboring the binary vector pBinAR containing ERD10 (Early Responsive to Dehydration 10) and nptII genes, to produce salt-tolerant B. aegyptiaca plants. Results: The results showed that each genotype collected from the different geographical locations after transformation exhibited significant differences in the number of leaves per regenerated explant and shoot length, where by nodal explants from Halayeb, Egypt exhibited the highest values. Conclusion: Current findings emphasize the impact of the genotypic variation (geographical location) of the used plant on the efficiency of the genetic transformation process.
Research Article
Genetic-relatedness of Tuba Plants from Peninsular Malaysia and Quantitative Analysis of their Rotenone
Norhayu Asib and Dzolkhifli Omar
Background and Objective: Tuba plants is a small flowering shrub originating in the humid rainforest of Malaysia. Tuba plants is known to contain the chemical rotenone, which is have an insecticidal properties. The objectives of this study were conducted to identify the Tuba plants and quantify their rotenone contents. Materials and Methods: Nine tuba plants of different local names were collected from various locations in Peninsular Malaysia. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) marker of 9 Tuba plant accessions were used to identify the species. Results: Both methods were equally adequate for Tuba plants species identification. Four different species were obtained from nine accessions and they were Derris elliptica, Paraderris elliptica, Fordia splendidissima and Paraderris piscatoria. These species are the new record in Peninsular Malaysia. All accessions contained rotenone with the concentration varying from 0.25-1.02 μg mL1. The highest rotenone content, 1.02 μg mL1 was from D. elliptica (Tuba merah). This indicated that the two techniques (RAPD and ITS) are equally appropriate for the analysis of genetic diversity in Tuba plants. Conclusion: The study will provide information for the conservation of Tuba plants and further improvement of rotenone contents.
Research Article
Non-enzymatic Anti-oxidants Potential in Enhancing Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Tolerance to Oxidative Stress
Yasmin Marzouk Ragab Abdellatif and Mariam Thabet Sawy Ibrahim
Background and Objectives: In scope of roselle plant salinity tolerance, saline water irrigation is a principle cause of reduction in biomass and productivity. This study aimed to investigate the influence of three different non-enzymatic anti-oxidant protectants, i.e., ascorbic acid (AsA), citric acid and thiamin, applied as foliar spray, in ameliorating the adverse effects of salinity on Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. Dark Red Calyces exposed to 0 and 75 mM NaCl. Materials and Methods: Pot experiment was conducted at the open field of the Experimental Farm of Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Qalyubia, Egypt, during the two successive seasons of 2016 and 2017. Growth parameters, yield components, leaf relative water content, membrane stability index and malondialdehyde and the activities of some anti-oxidants were determined. Results: Salt stress markedly decreased plant fresh and dry biomasses, leaf area, leaf fresh biomass, number of fruits, fruits dry biomass and calyces dry biomass/plant beside the loss of color in dry calyces while shoot length, root length and number of leaves relatively unaffected by exposure to salinity. Salinity also alleviated the anti-oxidant defense system in term of total soluble phenols, flavonoids, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and phenyl alanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities and proline as osmoregulator. Exogenously applied AsA, citric acid and thiamin improved both growth and production in roselle plants under the two different concentrations of salinity; 0 and 75 mM NaCl. This improvement was found to be associated with increasing leaf relative water content, membrane stability index, total soluble phenols, flavonoids, proline, GSH concentrations in leaves and anthocyanins in dry calyces. On contrast, significant reduction was showed in malondialdehyde concentration when plants treated with foliar applications in compared with unsprayed plants and altered the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and PAL anti-oxidant enzymes due to balancing of the cell homeostasis under salt oxidative stress. Conclusion: The results of this study proved that AsA, citric acid and thiamin had antioxidant potential to improve roselle plant tolerance against salt stress.

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