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International Journal of Botany
eISSN: 1811-9719
pISSN: 1811-9700

Editor-in-Chief:  Abdelfattah Badr Mohamed Badr
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Research Article
Ecological and Ethnobotanical Facet of ‘Kelapa Hutan’ (Pandanus Spp.) and Perspectives Towards its Existence and Benefit
Krisma Lekitoo, Hans Fence Zakeus Peday, Novita Panambe and Reinardus Liborius Cabuy
Background and Objective: Pandanus species are spread across the tropical New Guinea Forest and have long been extracted for food. In this study, the ecological and ethnobotanical aspects of Pandanus spp. were investigated. The objectives of the study were to highlight types of edible Pandanus spp. through their taxonomical characteristics, ecological distribution and fruit properties and to describe how traditional communities manage their existence and traditional values by way of ethnobotany and conservation. Methodology: To identify the potency and distribution of the edible Pandanus, continuous strip-sampling was applied to the sampling plots with an intensity of 5%. Temperature and humidity were measured directly under trees. The edible Pandanus specimens were identified by key experts and identification books. The thermogravimetric and Kjeldahl methods were implemented to identify nutrient contents. A semi-structural interview was implemented, which included questions on the management of Pandanus fruit and its social status among communities. Pearson’s correlation analysis was implemented to identify any relationship between temperature, humidity and fruit productivity. This analysis was performed using R statistical program. Results: Two edible Pandanus species were identified based on each characteristic: Pandanus brosimos Merr. and Perry dan Pandanus julianettii Mart. both exhibited similarities, despite variations in the taste and color of the fruit and the hardness of the rind. Ecological conditions were favorable for both type of edible Pandanus. The soil had a maximum solum layer up to 30 cm depth, with an ideal mean temperature of 21.95°C and average of humidity of 85%. However, Pearson’s correlation between temperature and fruit productivity as well as humidity and fruit productivity were negative with p-values of 0.159 and 0.225, respectively. The fruit was high in nutrients especially fat and vitamin C. Due to their significance and contribution, both types of edible Pandanus have been developed in private gardens in local communities. The fruit has been used in cultural and ceremonial events among the communities in the high-land of Papua, Indonesia. Conclusion: This study revealed that edible Pandanus species contribute significantly towards local communities in the high-land of Indonesian New Guinea.
Research Article
Dry Matter Production, Biomass Partitioning and Seed Setting Efficiencies in Early- and Late-rainy Season Cowpea in the Rainforest Agroecology of South-West Nigeria
S.O. Agele, I.K. Oyewusi, O.P. Aiyelari and I.B. Famuwagun
Background and Objective: The prevailing environmental factors of the early- and late-rainy seasons are critical factors in the processes of yield determination in cowpea. It is hypothesized that crop growth rate (B), dry matter partitioning to pods/seeds (P) and seed setting efficiency of cowpea are affected by the prevailing weather of the growing seasons. These were quantitatively described among cowpea varieties sown as early- and late-rainy season crops using a simple physiological model. Materials and Methods: Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the responses of growth and yield of cowpea varieties to the prevailing soil and weather conditions of the early- and late-rainy seasons between 2014 and 2015 at in a rainforest zone of South West Nigeria. The parameters of the physiological model were evaluated using data obtained from field evaluation of cowpea varieties. Regression coefficient (R2) were worked out among cowpea growth and yield components and accumulated seasonal rainfall, minimum temperatures, growing degree days (GDD) and vapour pressure deficits (VPD). Results: Significant differences were obtained among cowpea varieties for crop growth rates (CGR), dry matter partitioning coefficient (P), minimum assimilate required per seed (MAR), seed setting efficiency (Ef ) and harvest index (HI). Dry matter partitioning coefficient was best for IT98K-573-2-1 compared with other varieties. Although, the duration of the reproductive growth phase (ReGRc) was shorter in the late season, dry matter partitioning, seed set efficiency (EF), pod and seed yields were significantly better for late season cowpea. The regression equations showed that about 40% of yield components in late season cowpea can be explained by cumulative seasonal rainfall, growing degree days, minimum temperatures and atmospheric dryness (VPD). Conclusion: Findings can find use to fine tune crop growth models for the prediction of crop productivity and weather dependent production risks of the sowing seasons in the humid tropics. It is concluded that the weather conditions of the early- and late-rainy seasons are critical factors in the processes of determination of growth and yield characters of cowpea.
Research Article
Discrimination of Two Biotypes of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss. (Rutaceae) by Morphology, SDS-PAGE and RAPD
Ream Ibrahim Marzouk, Salama Mohamed El-Darier and Kholod Ali Khattab
Background and Objective: Haplophyllum tuberculatum is a valuable medicinal species with wide distribution in Mediterranean coastal desert of Egypt. It was characterized by high level of intraspecific morphological and biochemical variability. The objective of study was to assess the species status diversity for its coordinated conservation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven Operation Taxonomic Units (OTU’s) from nine populations were collected along the Mediterranean coastal desert of Egypt. Eighty seven macro and micro morphological characters, besides 114 molecular attributes from both seed storage proteins and RAPD were evaluated. The agglomerative cluster analysis conducted and the dissimilarity matrix analyzed through three sorting methods, average linkage UPGMA, single linkage and Ward's. Results: The OTU's from 19-21 of Abo-Tamr village were discriminated from the other populations due to a large distance between the inflorescence and the first leaf, united sepals and united stamens at base. The studied samples achieved 8 common bands and both El-Karma (OTU's 7-9) and El-Gophera villages were distinguished by the absence of both polymorphism and the band at 77 KDa. The discrete DNA products per primer ranged from 12-19 bands, the percentage of polymorphism from 24-31% and fingerprinting bands from 1-4. Conclusion: Two biotypes of H. tuberculatum can be distinguished, OTU’s from 19-21 of Abo-Tamr and the other ecotypes. The determination of the rank of these biotypes needs the study of the morphologically similar H. blanche to confirm the presence of the two species.

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