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International Journal of Pharmacology
eISSN: 1812-5700
pISSN: 1811-7775

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Research Article
1-Hydroxy-3,7,8-Trimethoxyxanthone Suppresses the Malignant Proliferation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Colon Cancer Microenvironment
Hui-qiao Zhao, Nian-hua Lu, Xu-dong Zhang, Na Liu and Ming Jing
Background and Objective: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) have been widely used to study tumor gene therapy. However, they may be induced malignant proliferation in some cancers. Therefore, how to decrease the side effects of HMSCs has been becoming a hot topic. In this study, the role of 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone (HTX) on HMSCs in colon cancer microenvironment in vitro was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Non-contact co-culture system of colon cancer cells SW480 and HMSCs was established using Transwell cell culture chambers. 20, 10, 5 μg mL1 of HTX was used to treat HMSCs in the colon cancer microenvironment. The proliferation of HMSCs in each group was tested using the MTT assay. The activity of HMSCs in each group was tested using Transwell invasion and migration assays. RT-PCR assay, Western Blot assay and ELISA assay were used to detect the expression of related genes and proteins. Results: In colon cancer microenvironment, the proliferation, invasion and migration of HMSCs significantly increased, however, supplemented with HTX isolated from Tibetan medicine Gentianopsis paludosa significantly improved the side effects. Furthermore, HTX inhibited the expression of IL-6 and the phosphorylation of STAT3 signalling pathway in HMSCs which was reduced by colon cancer microenvironment. Conclusion: All the results indicated that HTX inhibited the malignant proliferation of HMSCs in colon cancer microenvironment by inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The HTX may be a novel chemical inhibitor for gene therapy of colon cancer with HMSCs as carrier.
Research Article
Ameliorative and Synergistic Effect of Red Raspberry and Lycopene Against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acrylamide in Male Mice
Fawziah A.Al-Salmi
Background and Objective: Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical substance formed when starchy foods, such as potatoes and bread are cooked at high temperatures (above 160°C). It can be formed when foods fried and baked. The study, designed to illustrate the biochemical responses and histopathological alterations besides the genotoxicity of ACR on the liver of mice and possible protection of either Lycopene (LYC) and/or red raspberry (RR) when administrated in co-treatment. Materials and Methods: Animals were separated into eight groups into control, ACR (500 Fg kg1 day), LY (10 mg kg1/day), RR (300 mg kg1), LY combined with RR, ACR plus LY and ACR plus RR and the last group treated with ACR with a combination of LY and RR. . Treatment was I.P for 30 consecutive days. The ACR raised activities of some enzymes of liver markers and disturbed the lipid profile levels. It is obvious that hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was diminished, marker enzymes of antioxidant activities, as well as possible and increased the lipid peroxidation levels. Results: The results revealed that ACR significantly increased hepatic enzymes and marker of lipid peroxidation incomparable to control in a dose-dependent. Both LY and RR prohibited the ACR-induced liver damage as specified by enhancing all the previous parameters. Results of histopathological and electron microscope proved the biochemical feedback and the improvement of either LY and RR effect on liver toxicities that was observed. Conclusion: Co-treatment of LY and RR induced different improvement mechanisms against ACR-induced liver impairment. So, the ACR intake should be regulated and taken with either LY and/or RR when it is consumed in different food or drink to reduce its oxidative stress, histopathology and TEM of the liver.
Research Article
Counteractive Role of White Pepper Extracts for Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aflatoxin B1 in Rats
Ahmed M. S. Hussein, Karem Aly Fouda, Ahmed Noah Badr and Adel G. Abdel-Razek
Background and Objective: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a pre-carcinogenic and toxic compound which contaminates foodstuffs and edible tissues, is associated with oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. This investigation aimed to assess the counteractive role of ethanol (EWP), petroleum ether (PWP) and n-hexane (HWP) white pepper extracts for oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Concentrated white pepper extracts (WPEs) estimated for total phenolic, total flavonoids, anti-oxidant and anti-fungal activities. Otherwise, the fatty acids composition of white pepper was analyzed. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into 8 groups, negative and positive AFB1 groups and the other 6 groups were treated to evaluate the WPEs biological effects either in the AFB1 presence or absence. Results: The results elucidated that WPEs suppressed both the raising of aminotransferases enzymes (alanine and aspartate) and alkaline phosphatase and the reduction of total protein. The WPEs combat the negative impact of AFB1 on kidney functions and alleviated AFB1 mediated oxidative stress either in plasma or liver. Also, it relieved the AFB1 mediated lipid disturbance and hemoglobin reduction and exhibited antioxidant and antifungal activities. Conclusion: It was concluded that the extracts gave a counteractive role for oxidative stress which support the hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 presence.
Research Article
Effect of Memantine Hydrochloride on Cisplatin-induced Toxicity with Special Reference to Renal Alterations in Mice
Nadia Abdulkareem Salih and Banan Khalid AL-Baggou
Background and Objective: Cisplatin is a highly nephrotoxic and widely used anti-cancer agent, used to treat various types of cancers, due to its nephrotoxicity; cisplatin use is limited, which may result from free radical damage, evidence exists that memantine reduces oxidative stress-induced damage. This study was conducted to explore the possible protective role of memantine by pre-treatment with two different therapeutic doses of orally administered memantine 5 and 10 mg kg1 as an agent to minimize the toxic side effects of cisplatin injected by 4 mg kg1 with special reference to the kidney. Materials and Methods: Seventy- five adult male BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups: G1: No treatment, G2: Cisplatin treatment, G3: Memantine treatment, G4: Pre-treatment of 5 mg kg1 memantine combined with cisplatin 4 mg kg1, G5: Pre-treatment of 10 mg kg1 memantine combined with cisplatin 4 mg kg1. Biochemical investigations of kidney function, oxidative stress markers, histopathological examination of kidney tissues and immunohistochemical staining of myeloperoxidase (MPO) mentioned tests were performed by special kits available and following the main instructions of each test provided with kits. Results: Mice were treated only with cisplatin showed significant elevation in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST); malondialdehyde (MDA); high score expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO), parallel to decline in levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) contents. Moreover, histopathological examination of kidney tissue reflected marked injury; combination treatment with memantine significantly ameliorated these parameters and showed results similar to that of the control group, indicating its renoprotective effect. Conclusion: These findings showed that pre-treatment with 5 mg kg1 memantine offered partial protection while the 10 mg kg1 of memantine showed complete protection against cisplatin-induced renal cellular damage.
Research Article
Lipid-altering Efficacy of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin Compared with Rosuvastatin in Hypercholesterolaemic Patients: A Meta-Analysis
Yongming Liu, Nan Xia, Wanying Hu and Wei Zhao
Background and Objectives: Ezetimibe/simvastatin and rosuvastatin drugs are two effective lipid-lowering therapies for hypercholesterolemic patients. However, whether the effect of ezetimibe/simvastatin is superior to rosuvastatin is is still controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy between ezetimibe/simvastatin and rosuvastatin for hypercholesterolemia treatment by a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Based on the predefined searching strategy and selection criteria, the eligible studies were selected. The quality of included study was evaluated using Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The out come assessments indexes including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterin (HDL-C), total cholesterin (Total C), triglycerides (TG) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) were analyzed. In addition, the sub-group analysis was performed for comparing the efficacy of two groups with different dosages and sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: Totally, six studies were collected in the present study. The quality of the included studies were relatively high. Ezetimibe/simvastatin might result in greater LDL-C, Total C, TG and Apo B reductions than rosuvastatin for hypercholesterolemia. In addition, compared with 10 mg/day rosuvastatin, 10/20 mg/day ezetimibe/simvastatin had a better clinical efficacy in lipid-lowering of LDL-C, Total C, TG and Apo B. Moreover, no obvious changes of lipid-altering were observed between the rosuvastatin 40 mg/day and ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg/day. Conclusion: Ezetimibe/simvastatin was recommended to administrate hypercholesterolemia for providing greater reductions of LDL-C, Total C, TG and Apo B than rosuvastatin. Ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20 mg/day had a better clinical efficacy than rosuvastatin 10 mg/day, while ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg/day had the same lipid-lowering than rosuvastatin 40 mg/day.
Research Article
Potential Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastroprotective Effect of Grape Seed Extract in Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats
Hanan AbdulSalam Jambi and Hala Abd El-Rahman Hassan Khattab
Background and Objective: Gastric ulcer is usually accompanied by an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines and the gastroprotective agents that save the lining of the stomach, the most important of which are antioxidants. This study aimed to explore the potential protective action of grape seed extract (GSE) against indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcer and to compare the results with a standard antiulcer drug, pantozol (Panto). Furthermore, the underlying mechanism will be explored focusing on the oxidative stress and inflammation. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by a single oral dose of IND (30 mg kg1). Rats were pretreated with Panto (20 mg kg1), GSE (100 mg kg1) or both Panto+GSE once daily for 14 days before ulcer induction. Results: Gross evaluation of gastric mucosal lesions showed that Panto, GSE and Panto+GSE pretreatment reduced gastric lesions induced by IND. In addition, pretreatment with Panto, GSE and Panto+GSE before ulcer induction diminished ulceration of surface epithelium and maintained the normal histological structure of gastric mucosa. Ulcer index (UI), total gastric acidity and pH were significantly reduced in rats pretreated with Panto, GSE and Panto+GSE group. Pretreatment with GSE, Panto and GSE+Panto significantly decreased gastric mucosal oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA), serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6) compared with IND group. In these groups, a remarkable increase in the gastric tissues content of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 was also detected. Co-pretreatment with GSE+Panto showed a better ulcer healing capacity and compared favorably well with Panto results. Conclusion: These results concluded a gastroprotective effect of GSE against IND-induced gastric ulcer. This could be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Furthermore, a combination of GSE and Panto provoked a better healing effect compared to GSE alone and Panto alone.
Research Article
Impact of Safflower Petals and Moringa Leaves Extracts in Experimental Hyper and Hypothyroidism in Rats
Doha A. Mohamed, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, Rasha S. Mohamed and Hend A. Essa
Background and Objective: Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are the most common disorders of thyroid function. The current study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of safflower petals and moringa leaves crude ethanol extracts against thyroid dysfunctions (hyper and hypothyroidism). Materials and Methods: Forty-two rats were divided into 7 groups, control normal, hyperthyroidism control, hyper-safflower, hyper-moringa, hypothyroidism control, hypo-safflower and hypo-moringa. L-Thyroxine (0.3 mg kg1 b.wt.) and carbimazole (10 mg kg1 b.wt.) were orally administrated for 3 weeks as hyperthyroid and hypothyroid inducer, respectively. Blood hemoglobin, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), glucose, catalase activity, lipid profile as well as liver and kidney functions were assessed. Histological examination of thyroid gland was carried out. Results: The results revealed that hyper and hypothyroidism mediated decrease and increase in TSH values, respectively. Oral administrations of either safflower petals extract or moringa leaves extract improve plasma levels of TSH. Oxidative stress and disturbance in plasma glucose, lipid profile as well as liver and kidney functions were occurred in conjunction with thyroid dysfunctions especially hypothyroidism. Administration of safflower petals extract or moringa leaves extract alleviates the reduction in catalase activity, hyperglycemia and disturbance in lipid profile as well as liver and kidney functions accompanied with thyroid dysfunctions especially hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The studied extracts have prophylactic potential against thyroid dysfunctions and the subsequent oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and changes in lipid profile. Crude ethanol extract of safflower petals was promising as prophylactic agents in hyper and hypothyroidism as observed by improving plasma levels of TSH, lipid profile and histopathological changes.
Research Article
N-Acetyltransferase Activity Assay and Inhibitory Compounds Screening by Using Living Human Hepatoma HepaRG Cell Model
Hong-Yan Qin, Jia-Xin Kou, Zhi Rao, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Xiao-Hua Wang, Li-Ping Bai and Yu-Hui Wei
Background and Objective: N-acetyltransferases (NATs) were phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, NATs activity was associated with certain adverse drug reactions. This study aimed to establish a method for NAT1 and NAT2 activity assay by using living human hepatoma HepaRG cells and tried to apply the established method for preliminary screening of the potential inhibitors of NAT1 and NAT2. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry and western-blot techniques were used to evaluate the expression of NAT1 and NAT2 in HepaRG cells. Non-cytotoxic concentration of the specific substrates of NAT1 and NAT2, i.e., 4-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid were incubated with HepaRG cells for 8 h, the culture medium was collected and determined by LC-MS/MS to evaluate the activity of NAT1 and NAT2. The effects of 4-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid on NAT1 and NAT2 expression in HepaRG cells were also tested by western-blot and the reported NAT inhibitors were also used here to evaluate the sensitivity of the established method for NAT activity assay. Results: The results showed that NAT1 and NAT2 were expressed in HepaRG cells and NAT1 and NAT2 activity could be evaluated by quantifying the acetylated metabolites of their specific substrate 4-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid, respectively. NAT activity detected by using living HepaRG cells was in parallel with that from traditional method for NAT activity assay, i.e., reactions using cells lysate. NAT activity assay by using living HepaRG cells was suitable for high-throughput screening of the potential inhibitors of NAT1 and NAT2, indicating the validity of the established method for NAT activity assay. Conclusion: The present study established a low-costing and stable method for screening of compounds with NAT1 and NAT2 inhibitory properties, which was helpful for new drug discovery and development.
Research Article
Hepatorenal Protective Effects of Some Plant Extracts on Experimental Diabetes in Male Rats
Daklallah Ahmad Almalki and Sameera Abdullah Alghamdi
Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a main worldwide health problem predisposing to noteworthy enhanced mortality. Currently, the therapeutic factors of DM associated with side effects, resistance, toxicity and high cost, so the use of medicinal plants for DM treatment is recommended.The present study investigated the possible therapeutic effects of the extracts of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves and Opunita ficus-indica stems on hepatorenal injury in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in experimental animals by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 70 mg kg1. The experimental animals were divided into 8 groups. The experimental rats of group 1 were served as normal control. Rats of group 2 were served as diabetic control rats. Diabetic rats of groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with the extracts of O. oleaster, J. procera and O. ficus-indica, respectively at a dose of 400 mg kg1 b.wt.,/day for 5 weeks. Non diabetic rats of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera and O. ficus-indica respectively. At the end of the experiment, the blood, liver and kidney samples were collected from all groups for biochemical and histopathological examinations. Results: The levels of serum glucose, malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were significantly enhanced, while the levels of serum glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly declined in diabetic control rats of group 2. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney in diabetic control rats showed severe changes. Supplementation of the studied plant extracts alleviated the hyperglycemic status, biochemical parameters of hepatorenal markers, oxidative stress indicators and histopathological changes of liver and kidney. Conclusion: These findings confirm that the hepatorenal protective effects of these extracts strongly related to the suppression of oxidative stress associated with DM. Moreover, the present study suggested that these extracts were safe and promising therapeutic factors for DM and its complications.
Research Article
Protective Effect of L-cysteine Against Sodium Valproate-induced Oxidant Injury in Testis of Rats
Fawziah A. Al-Salmi, Rasha Al-Eisa, Reham Z. Hamza, Howayda E. Khaled and Nahla S. El-Shenawy
Background and Objective: Sodium Valproate (SV) is a medicine that is used to treat epilepsy and to prevent headache. In this study, L-cysteine (LC) was used to decrease the stress and biochemical variations induced by SV treatment. The present study investigated the defensive actions of LC vs, SV that induced testicular impairment. Materials and Methods: The rats were split into six groups (n = 10) as following: 1st control animals were saline-treated, 2nd and 3rd groups were administrated two doses of SV (100 and 500 mg kg1 b.wt.) presenting low and high doses, respectively, 4th group was treated with 100 mg kg1 of LC, in addition 5th and 6th groups were treated with SV-LD+LC and SV-HD+LC, respectively. The experiment was run for 30 successive days. Weights of the testis, serum testosterone, testicular oxidative/anti-oxidant capacity and histopathological damage scores of testis were recorded. Results: The SV group had significantly increased the tissue oxidative stress markers and significantly declined all antioxidant enzymes activities as compared to the control group. When the animals treated with combination of LC and any dose of SV, levels of oxidative parameters significantly declined, as well as the anti-oxidant significantly elevated compared to the SV-LD and SV-HD groups. The Johnsen's testicular score values showed improvement when LC was co-treated with the SV. Conclusion: Current results indicated that LC had partial protective effects against SV-induced testis damage at the biochemical and histopathological levels that could be due to the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity.
Research Article
Bacoside a Attenuates Nephrotoxicity and Acute Kidney Injury in Male Albino Rats Induced by Cisplatin
Gong Xiao, Ling Peng, Yumeng Liu and Xiangcheng Xiao
Background and Objective: Bacoside A (B-A) is the major component of Bacopa monniera which is a popular folk medicine used to treat ulcer, rheumatism and neurological disorders. The present study was aimed to investigate the renoprotective property of B-A against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male rats were purchased and equally divided into four groups. Control rats received only saline, cisplatin (CISP) group rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with cisplatin (7 mg kg1) on the 5th day. Whereas, rats received 10 or 20 mg kg1 of B-A orally for 10 days after CISP induction and served as treatment group (B-A 10 or 20). Results: Rats treated with B-A (10 or 20) for 10 days resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of renal markers [creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN)], lipid peroxidation product, inflammatory markers [Interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), Interleukin six (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit) and apoptotic markers (Caspase-3/9) on comparison with CISP group. Whereas, supplementation with B-A substantially improved (p<0.01) the antioxidant activities [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH)]. Moreover, the histopathological changes in renal tissue were reverted to normal upon treatment with B-A. Conclusion: Both B-A 10 and 20 showed potent renoprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Never the less, B-A 20 displayed superior renoprotective activity than B-A 10.
Research Article
Hepatic Gene Expression, Antioxidant Enzymes and Anti-diabetic Effect of Nigella sativa in Diabetic Rats
Thnaian Althnaian, Ibrahim Albokhadaim and Sabry M. El-Bahr
Background and Objectives: Role of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa) in enhancing gene expressions of catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in diabetic rats has not investigated so far. Furthermore, sensitive technique is required to confirm its overexpression to superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of black seed on gene expression of CAT, GST and Bcl-2 and also examine its expression to SOD, GPX and IGF-1 by high sensitive RT-PCR in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Eight non-diabetic albino rats assigned as control (group I). Sixteen rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg kg1 b.wt.). Diabetic rats divided into group II and group III (eight rats in each). Rats in group II were untreated diabetic group while rats of group III were diabetic and treated with Black-cumin seed (2 g kg1 b.wt.) for 6 weeks. Results: Diabetes increased blood glucose level than control while black seed reduced the higher blood glucose in diabetic rats significantly. Except for IGF-1, diabetes induced significant increases in gene expressions of Bcl2, CAT, SOD, GPX and GST compare to control. Black seed increased expression of Bcl2, CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and IGF-1 genes compare to both control and diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion: The current study observed that the Nigella sativa showed overexpression to CAT, GST and Bcl2 genes and also to SOD, GPX and IGF-1 by higher quantitative PCR in STZ diabetic rats.
Research Article
Awareness of Folic Acid Intake for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects among Women in Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
Mervat Ahmed AbdRabou
Background and Objectives: Folic Acid (FA) supplementation reduces the risk of Neural Tube Defects (NTDs). This study aimed to determine the awareness of FA’s ability to prevent NTDs among women of childbearing age in the Aljouf region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: From May-July, 2017 in Sakaka, Saudi Arabia, a sample of 400 non-pregnant women aged 19-45 years old completed surveys on FA and its impact before and during pregnancy. Results: In total, 89.3% of the women had heard of FA, 74.8% knew that FA could prevent NTDs, 81.5% had used FA previously, 50.3% were currently taking FA and 3.3% had experienced miscarriages and given birth to children with NTDs. Only 5.5% of the subjects reported knowing that FA should be taken prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy. Participants aged 26-35 years old had significantly greater FA awareness and knowledge compared to the other age groups. The data revealed a significant positive correlation between education level and FA awareness and knowledge. Women with lower gravidity had significantly less FA awareness and knowledge. Women who planned to become pregnant were significantly more likely to be taking FA supplements. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals, public health officials and the media need to increase efforts to spread awareness of the importance and timing of FA supplementation toward reducing the risk of NTDs.
Research Article
Interleukin-6 Expression in Serum, Gastric Juice and Gastric Mucosa of Helicobacter pylori Positive Gastric Cancer Patients
Yanglong Chen, Yanling Li, Ying Lu and YuTing Ke
Background and Objective: Helicobacter pylori infection is positively correlated with an increased frequency of gastric carcinoma. To investigate whether the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a suitable molecular marker in the early diagnosis of gastric cancer in patients with concomitant H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 patients were enrolled in this study and divided into the following groups: Gastric cancer group (n = 90), precancerous lesion group (n = 54) and a control group (n = 33). These patients were further subdivided into H. pylori-negative gastric cancer (n = 13), H. pylori-negative precancerous lesions (n = 9), H. pylori- negative control (n = 27), H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n = 77), H. pylori-positive precancerous lesions (n = 45) and H. pylori- positive control (n = 6) groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the expression levels of IL-6 in serum and gastric fluid. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expression of IL-6 in gastric mucosa biopsy samples. Results: The levels of IL-6 in serum samples from gastric cancer patients, regardless of H. pylori infection status, were significantly higher than those in other groups (p<0.05). The serum levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa cancer patients than in H. pylori-negative patients diagnosed with the same cancer condition and in the control group (p<0.05). The levels of IL-6 in the gastric mucosa of patients with precancerous lesions were lower than those in patients with gastric cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: Both IL-6 and H. pylori infection contributed to the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. IL-6 and H. pylori may contribute to this process synergistically or alternatively, H. pylori may specifically promote the elevated expression of IL-6. In summary, it is believed that the detection of serum IL-6 levels in patients with gastric cancer has important clinical significance in the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.
Research Article
Potential Effect of Grape Seeds Extract Against Monosodium Glutamate Induced Infertility in Rats
Eman Abdulqader Al-Shahari and Attalla Farag El-kott
Background and Objective: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is an ordinarily utilized nourishment added substance and there is developing worry that this may play a critical role in the spermatogenesis dysfunction and may be lead to male infertility. The study was completed to explore the conceivable defensive impact of grape seeds extract (GSE) on testis toxicity induced by the flavor promoters, monosodium glutamate (MSG) in male rats. Materials and Methods: The investigation proceeded for about two months and the animal comprised of 80 male Wistar rats which were appropriated similarly among four groups. Testis weight, spermatozoa count, viability, live spermatozoa (%), sperm abnormalities (%), sex hormones, anti-oxidants enzymes, oxidative stress marker and testis histopathological investigations were recorded. All data was analyzed by one-way (ANOVA) at p<0.05. Results: The MSG treated rats caused significant diminish in testes weights and spermatozoa numbers, testosterone and Luteinizing (LH) but improvements in animals co-treated with GSE where significant incremented was reported. A significant (p<0.05) increment in plasma anti-oxidants (CAT and SOD) activities and a decrease in MDA level were observed with MSG+GSE compared with that MSG alone. Several changes were shown in the testis with epididymis in histological investigations. The testes seen indicated the decline of spermatogenic cells and distorted sertoli cells. The cell nuclei were seen pyknotic in leydig cells and the interstitial tissue showed up with various vacuoles and hemorrhage. Co-administration of GSE to MSG-treated rats improved the histopathological alterations induced by MSG in testis and increased the spermatozoa numbers. Conclusion: The results have clearly shown that GSE performs a very important defensive role during spermatogenesis and has the ability to act as a chemo-suppressive factor against MSG effects.
Research Article
Is Urinary Calprotectin a Useful Tool to Detect the Therapeutic Control of Type II Diabetes?
Hussam Aly Sayed Murad, Tawfik Mohammed Ali Ghabrah, Marwan Abdulrahman Mohammed Bakarman, Misbahuddin Mohammed Rafeeq and Samy Saleh Eid
Background and Objective: The use of plasma calprotectin; a protein mainly expressed in neutrophils; as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in type 2 diabetic patients is still controversial. Being a non-invasive test, this study was designed to detect if urinary calprotectin could be used to differentiate between treated-controlled and treated-uncontrolled type II diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Based on levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 200 adult diabetic patients on regular anti-diabetic treatment were equally divided into four groups: controlled non-obese (controlled diabetics with no obesity) and controlled obese (controlled diabetics with obesity), uncontrolled non-obese (uncontrolled diabetics with no obesity) and uncontrolled obese (uncontrolled diabetics with obesity) in addition to a healthy control group (non-diabetic subjects with no obesity). The exclusion criteria included renal diseases, use of medications other than anti-diabetics, infection, use of antibiotics two weeks before the study, major comorbidities, pregnancy and lactation. Urine samples were collected for assay of calprotectin. Results: The level of urinary calprotectin did not differ significantly in all groups. Also Pearson correlation and the regression analysis showed non-significant correlations between urine calprotectin and FBS, PPBS or HbA1c in all groups. Conclusion: Urinary calprotectin levels did not differ significantly between controlled and uncontrolled patients with type 2 diabetes whether obese or not indicating that it cannot be used to differentiate between treated-controlled and treated-uncontrolled patients with type II diabetes.

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