Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

International Journal of Pharmacology
eISSN: 1812-5700
pISSN: 1811-7775

Editor-in-Chief:  Majid Y. Moridani
Current Issue
Guide for Authors
Editorial Board
Research Article
Date Extract Prevent Hypogonadism In Rat Suffering From Liver Damage Induced By Carbon Tetrachloride
Abdeldayem Zakaria, Aida El-Sayed Bayad, Sherief Mohamed Abdel-Raheem, Marwa Farouk Ali, Khalid Ahmed Al-Busadah, Ibrahim Fahd Albokhadaim, Mohammed Hamad Al-Nazawi and Abdullah Yousif Al-Taher
Background: There is a relationship between hypogonadism and liver cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis. Date palm are widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of different diseases including, liver troubles. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of date flesh or pit aqueous extract in prevention of hypogonadism resulted from liver damage. In addition, to determine the most effective extract and the exact time of its application. Materials and Methods: Sixty rats were divided into 6 equal groups. Control treated daily orally and intraperitoneally with distilled water and olive oil respectively. Group 2: injected on the days 1, 2 and 3 of the treatment period I/P with CCl4. Groups 3 and 5: (Pretreatment date flesh or date pit groups) were administrated aqueous extract of date flesh or pit orally and treated with CCl4 on day 30, 31 and 32 of the treatment period. Group 4 and 6: (Post treatment date-flesh or date-pit group) were administrated aqueous extract of date flesh or date-pit orally and treated with CCl4 on the days 1, 2 and 3 of the treatment period. The experimental period was 60 days. The data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance procedures and Duncan's test. Results: Rat treated with CCl4 showed significant p<0.01 decrease in final body (g), reproductive organs (index weight), liver (index weight) and kidney weights (gm), serum testosterone, gonadotrophins, testicular zinc and testosterone, semen characteristics, total protein, albumin, glucose, antioxidative enzymes and showed significant p<0.01 increase in serum estrogen, prolactin and testicular cholesterol, sperm abnormalities, urea, creatinine, lipid profile, bilirubin, liver enzymes and malondialdehyde. Treatment with date flesh or date pit extracts before or after CCl4 treatment caused reverse to these results. Conclusion: Pre and post oral treatment with the aqueous extracts of date pits or flesh at the same time with CCl4 has hepatoprotective effect, which in turn prevent hypogonadism due to liver damage.
Research Article
Ginger Nanoparticles Modulate the Apoptotic Activity in Male Rats Exposed to Dioxin-Induced Cancer Initiation
Suzan Bakr Abdu, Faiza Abdu and Wagdy Khalil Bassaly Khalil
Background and Objective: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) has been known to exhibit various biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic actions. Nanoparticles of natural compounds believed to have high percentage of flavonoids which present a biological capability for treatment of several diseases including cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic activity as protective action of ginger nanoparticles (GNPs) against the 2,3,7,8-Tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced initiation of colon cancer in male rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were allocated in nine groups treated with single oral injection/week with TCDD (0.2, 1, 5 and 20 μg kg–1 5 mL–1 corn oil) for one month. GNPs (50 mg kg–1 b.wt.,/everyday) were given to the rats after termination of TCDD injection (at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis) for 2 months. The antioxidant status of treated rats was determined by measuring of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) using standard kits. The expression of several apoptotic related genes Bcl-2, Bax and p53 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Apoptotic alterations in colon cells were determined morphologically by fluorescent microscope. All obtained data were analyzed using the General Linear Models (GLM) technique. Results: Levels of the antioxidant activity of SOD, CAT, GPx and GST were decreased in TCDD-rats. However, GNPs supplementation significantly enhanced p<0.05 the levels of these antioxidants in TCDD-rats. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p53 genes in TCDD-rats was significantly up-regulated. However, GNPs decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p53 genes in TCDD-GNPs rats. Additionally, the necrotic/apoptotic rate was low in TCDD+GNPs groups, while, high necrotic/apoptotic rate was estimated in TCDD groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that GNPs supplementation inhibits the initiation of colon cancer due to enhancement of the antioxidant activity.
Research Article
Synergism Between Nigella sativa Seeds Extract and Synthetic Antibiotics Against Mec A Gene Positive Human Strains of Staphylococcus aureus
Bushra Uzair, Abdul Hameed, Sidrah Nazir, Barkat Ali Khan, Fehmida Fasim, Samiullah Khan and Farid Menaa
Background and Objective: Synergistic combinations of various antimicrobial agents have been introduced as extra successful strategies to combat multidrug resistant (MDR) infections. This study was undertaken to evaluate MDR profiling of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens of two public hospitals of twin Pakistani cities as well as to explore in vitro antibacterial potential of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds) extract against Mec A gene positive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods: The MDR strains were then screened for positive Mec A gene by PCR and sequencing. A total of 500 bacterial strains were subjected to antimicrobial and Nigella sativa seeds susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration assays. The data were evaluated as Mean±Standard deviation of five independent experiments. The results were analyzed using t-test with SPSS version 16.0. Results: Methanolic extracts of Nigella sativa seeds showed maximum activity against Mec A gene positive Staphylococcus aureus alone and in combination with the penicillin antibiotic Augmentin® plus the second-generation Cephamycin, Cephalosporins, Mefoxin® (Cefoxitin). The anti-MRSA activity was reduced when methanolic extracts of Nigella sativa seeds were used in combination with the pain reliever and the fever reducer paracetamol (acetaminophen). Eventually, it has been observed that the anti-staphylococcal activity of Nigella sativa led to changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating that the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as likely a target of action. Conclusion: This study provides new insights about synergistic antimicrobial and Nigella sativa crude extract activities against MDR Staphylococcus aureus strains.
Research Article
Cytotoxicity of n-Butanol Extracts of Streptomyces Against Human Breast Cancer Cells
Maher Obeidat
Background and Objectives: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most frequent cancer among women. This study was conducted to investigate the anticancer activities of n-butanol extracts prepared from Streptomyces isolated from soils in Jordan against breast cancer MCF7 cells. Materials and Methods: After isolation and identification of Streptomyces isolates by conventional methods, n-butanol extracts were prepared from Streptomyces cultures. Hemolytic activity of extracts was determined. The cytotoxic effect of non-hemolytic extracts on normal MCF10A cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The in vitro and in vivo selective cytotoxicity of extracts against breast cancer was estimated. The mechanism of action of extracts that exhibited in vivo cytotoxicity was determined. Isolates that gave in vivo cytotoxicity were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing. The IC50 values of extracts were determined by non-linear regression analysis. For tumor volume inhibition ratio, one-way ANOVA was applied for statistical evaluation of data and significant differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The white aerial mycelia and the production of Rectus-Flexibilis (RF) sporophores as well as soluble pigments were the most common among Streptomyces isolates that screened from soil samples. The non-hemolytic n-butanol crude extracts of Streptomyces isolates (48 isolates) were screened for their cytotoxicity against normal breast MCF10A cells. Results indicated that out of the 23 non-toxic extracts on MCF10A cells, extracts of 9 isolates showed selective in vitro cytotoxicity against breast cancer MCF7 cells with IC50 values ranged from 0.68-1.64 mg mL–1. It was found that in vivo inhibition of breast cancer tumor in experimental animals was significantly increased, at α = 0.05, after treatment with extracts of 3 Streptomyces isolates (S7, S17 and S61). The DNA laddering (apoptosis feature) was observed in MCF7 cells treated with extracts of isolates S7 and S61. Analysis of 16S-23S rRNA gene sequence revealed that those 3 isolates have maximal identity to the genus Streptomyces. Conclusion: The result of the current study suggests that n-butanol extracts of 3 Streptomyces isolates have selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer MCF7 cells and 2 of the extracts induce apoptotic property in MCF7 cells.
Research Article
Protective Effect of Theaflavin-3-digallate on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation Injury in Macrophage Cells
Yanting Wu, Fujun Jin, Junwei Liu, Danlin Zheng, Yiliang Wang, Feiyan Wu, Yexuan Zhu and Yifei Wang
Background and Objective: Inflammation is a defensive response against a multitude of harmful stimuli and stress conditions such as tissue injury and is one of the most common pathological processes of human diseases. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play important roles during the inflammatory state. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive effects of theaflavin-3-digallate on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in U937 and RAW 264.7 cells. Materials and Methods: The U937 and RAW 264.7 cells were treated with 100 ng mL–1 LPS in the presence of theaflavin-3-digallate (6.25-50 μM). The qRT-PCR assay was used to test the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-treated Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA)-primed U937 and murine RAW 264.7 cells and Western blot assays were used to identify potential mechanism of anti- inflammatory potential of the theaflavin-3-digallate. Significance between groups data were analyzed by Graph Pad Prism 5.0, using Student’s t-test, One-way ANOVA. Results: The present study has clearly shown that theaflavin-3-digallate markedly decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, western blot analyses demonstrated that theaflavin-3-digallate also blocked phosphorylation of IκB from cytosolic fraction and reduced LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that theaflavin-3-digallate might abolish inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and PMA-primed U937 cells via NF-κB pathway.
Research Article
Ameliorating Effect of Vitamin C Against Potassium Dichromate Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats
Noura Al Jameil, Hajera Tabassum, Sabiha Fatima, Mir Naiman Ali, Humaira Rizwana and Farah Aziz Khan
Background and Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is an environmental contaminant widely recognized as a carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen toward humans and animals. The objective was to study the toxicity induce by K2Cr2O7 and to evaluate the possible ameliorating effect of vitamin-C on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) induced oxidative stress and generation of inflammatory response in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of five animals each: Group I-N received single i.p., injection of normal saline and served as normal control group; group II (K2Cr2O7)-K group was subjected to a single i.p., injection of potassium dichromate (15 mg kg–1) to induce toxicity; while the group III (K2Cr2O7+Vitamin C)-CK group was pretreated with single i.p., injection of vitamin-C (250 mg kg–1), 6 h prior to administration of potassium dichromate. The group IV (Vitamin-C only)-C group received single i.p., injection of vitamin-C in saline (250 mg kg–1). The body weight of each animal was recorded before and after completion of the respective treatment. Oxidative stress markers like MDA, glutathione levels and serum interleukins (IL-10, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18 and TNF-α) were determined in all of rats studied. Comparison between the groups was performed by one way ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was performed to study the correlation between interleukins in K and CK group. Results: The K2Cr2O7 administration increased serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α levels significantly (p<0.001) compared to saline treated control group. The levels of MDA and glutathione were altered significantly (p<0.001) in dichromate treated group compared to the control. These changes were reversed significantly (p<0.001) in animals receiving a pretreatment of vitamin-C. Conclusion: It is concluded that potassium dichromate is known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation in rats and the toxicity is reversed by the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory property of vitamin-C.
Research Article
Phytochemical Screening and Assessment of Pharmacological Properties of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Root Methanolic Extract
Latif Ullah Khan, Rahmat Ali Khan, Samiullah Khan, Syeda Asma Bano, Fehmida Fasim and Bushra Uzair
Background and Objective: Various parts of medicinal plants have been used to treat specific disorder from ancient times. Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) is a customary folklore medicine, used in the treatment of liver disorders, fevers, dysentery, diarrhea, stomach problems and other disorders. The present study was carried out in order to assess the antioxidant activity, to evaluate the antifungal properties of the plant’s root and to observe anticancer potential of methanolic extract of Swertia chirayita root. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis and different chemical tests for the screening and identification of bioactive chemical constituents in Swertia chirayita methanolic root extract (SCME) were carried out using the standard procedures. The plants were purchased from local herbal market. In vitro determination of antioxidant properties of SCME were conducted using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, Beta-carotene bleaching assay, total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method, azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Anticancer activity of SCME was determined according to the protocol of brine shrimp lethality test. Antifungal potential was determined by measuring zone of inhibition on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates. The different concentrations of SCME used were 3.0, 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 mg mL–1. The data were evaluated as Mean±Standard Deviations of 5 independent experimental responses. The results were analyzed using t-test for independent samples with SPSS version 16.0. Results: Phytochemical analysis of SCME showed that phlobatannins, tannins, saponins and terpenoids were present. The SCME exhibited strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner for in all six models. The SCME at dose of 3 mg mL–1 caused 100% death rate of brine shrimp after 72 h. The SCME showed potent activity against Aspergillus flavus (87%) followed by Aspergillus niger (88%) while the highest activity was shown against Aspergillus fumigatus (92%). Conclusion: The SCME exhibited strong antioxidant, antifungal and cytotoxic potential. Purification of different bioactive compounds should be carried out and in vivo studies are required for further verification.
Research Article
Biological Activity of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria brevis Extracts as a Source of Nutraceutical and Bio-preservative Agents
Diaa Attia Marrez, Yousef Yasseen Sultan and Mohamed Abo-Elabbas Embaby
Background and Objective: Recently nutraceutical and bio-preservative agents from algae, as a natural source have received a great attention. The study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal activities and the cytotoxicity, of both Oscillatoria brevis extracts and their fractions. Materials and Methods: Different extracts of O. brevis were examined for their activities against different types of food pathogens and mycotoxigenic fungi. In vitro cytotoxicity assay against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2), colon cancer cell line (HCT116) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7) was monitored. Experimental results were expressed as Mean±Standard Error for three replicates using SAS 6.03. Results: Diethyl ether crude extract (DEE) and diethyl ether fraction No. 4 (F4) inhibited the growth of all tested bacterial and fungal species, where the inhibition zone ranged from 10.2 to 32 mm and from 7 to 10 mm, respectively. Regarding to the in vitro cytotoxicity, DEE exhibited high activity against HCT116 and MCF7 cell lines, with IC50 values of 22.0 and 39.7 μg mL–1, respectively. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity of F4 against MCF7 cell lines was doubled with an IC50 value of 20.6 μg mg–1. The GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 10 compounds in the F4, most of them have been reported as bioactive agent against different pathogenic bacterial and fungal strain. The detected cytotoxicity was attributed to the presence of phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1- dimethylethyl)-, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester and quercetin. Conclusion: It is concluded that diethyl ether extract of O. brevis had high antimicrobial activity against common food pathogens. It had also anticancer activity especially against breast cancer cell lines.
Research Article
Effect of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes on Ruminal Fermentation and Gas Production by RUSITEC, in vitro Abomasum and Ileum Digestibility
Mohamed Abdalla Elsiddig Mohamed, Cao Yangchun, Bello Musa Bodinga, Zheng Lixin, Yang Zekun, Liu Lihui, Junhu Yao, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi and Li Wen
Background and Objective: Numerous in vitro studies have showed that exogenous fibrolytic enzyme can enhance fiber degradation of roughage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes (EFE) product applied to a total mixed ration on ruminal fermentation, gas production and nutrient digestion in vitro whole digestive tract. Materials and Methods: The total mixed ration contained 55% concentrates, 22.5% corn silage and 22.5% alfalfa hay on a dry matter basis. The EFE multi enzyme feed additive powder produced from Ruminococcus flavefaciens was used in this study. Four levels of the EFE (0.0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 g) were used E0, E2, E4 and E6, respectively, these levels of EFE were added directly into 20 g of diet in nylon bags and incubated in the RUSITEC for 48 h in vitro fermentation. Statistical analyses of continuous data were performed by use of SAS with repeated measures or Tukey’s test.Results: Results of the rumen experiment showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in pH-values, dry matter, organic matter digestibility, crude protein digestibility, gas production, CH4 and total volatile fatty acids production among all treatments in RUSITEC by using different EFE levels. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fiber and NH3-N concentrations were increased (p<0.05) with increasing EFE levels. The in vitro abomasum digestibility and total volatile fatty acids were unchanged (p>0.05). NH3-N concentrations were also increased (p<0.05) with increasing EFE levels. Moreover, in the in vitro abomasum experiment, the neutral detergent fibre digestibility and acid detergent fiber digestibility was increased (p<0.05) with increasing EFE levels. Conclusion: The results indicate that using high doses of EFE (VTR®) containing Ruminococcus flavefaciens in TMR (45:55) could improve the neutral detergent fibre digestibility and acid detergent fiber digestibility in rumen and small intestine.
Research Article
A Novel Tissue Engineering Technique of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Yong Qi, Hongtao Sun and Yueguang Fan
Background and Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different types of tissues have the ability to self-renew and have the potential of differentiation into countable and uncountable progenitor. The objective of the study was to develop tissue engineering technique with maximum yield and measurement the power of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Materials and Methods: The 1.8 g patient–1 human synovial membrane were collected from each patient during the time of the arthroscopic surgical procedure. Each aliquot was divided into three aliquots each containing 0.6 g of the synovial membrane and minced. The first, second and the third aliquot were treated as digestion in 0.1% collagenase IV solution followed by filtration, only filtration and no treatment. Each aliquot of all groups was further subdivided into subgroups of 5 mL each for further process. The subgroups were subjected to in vitro quantitative measures of cells using the automatic cell counter plate, osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic differentiation and cell proliferation assay. The one-way ANOVA/the Turkey’s post hoc test was performed to show statistical significance between results at 95% of confidence level. Results: The density was measured as group 1< group 2< group 3. The cell viability was found more than 85% in all groups. There were significant differences for yields, DNA content, osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic differentiation and cell proliferation between subgroups 1 and 2 (p<0.05 for all), between subgroups 1 and 3 (p<0.05 for all). There were insignificant differences for these parameters between subgroups 2 and 3 (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion: The study provided simple and effective tissue engineering technique for isolation of stem cells from the synovial membrane with the 8-fold higher percentage yields than the technique of isolation of cells by filtering.
Research Article
Protective Effect of Mesna on Intestinal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury by Nitric Oxide and Arginase in an Experimental Rat Model
Sanal Filiz, Ulucam Enis, Inan Mustafa, Cerkezkayabekir Aysegul and Bakar Elvan
Background and Objective: An ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of small intestine is a serious and common condition that is a result of the blockage of the Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) because of significant clinical problems. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant mesna on the intestinal nitric oxide (NO) levels and arginase activity in the I/R injury at biochemical and immunohistochemical levels and to determine the tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level as a marker of oxidative damage. Methodology: In the study, 10-12 week-old male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The animals were grouped as group A-Sham-control group, group B-Intestinal I/R group and group C-mesna (n = 7). The I/R were performed by binding and opening the SMA after 120 min. In the mesna group, mesna (150 mg kg–1, ip) was given immediately after opening the SMA. Following surgical procedures, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were shown in the tissue. The levels of NO and MDA and the activity of arginase were measured. The levels of MDA and the NO, arginase activity, immunoreactivity of iNOS and eNOS were compared to the control group. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19 and descriptive statistics were expressed as arithmetic Mean±Standard deviation. Results: It was observed that the values were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the I/R group and decreased in the mesna group (p<0.05). Mesna has demonstrated its significant therapeutic effects on biochemical parameters in the I/R process by decreasing the NO level, equilibrating the iNOS and eNOS expressions and decreasing the arginase activity. Conclusion: It has been observed that mesna was helpful against the intestinal I/R injury because of its antioxidant properties considering the biochemical parameters. Mesna has demonstrated its significant therapeutic effects on biochemical parameters in the I/R process by decreasing the NO level, equilibrating the iNOS and eNOS expressions and decreasing the arginase activity.
Research Article
Gastroprotective Effects of Dregea sinensis Hemsl. (Daibaijie) Against Aspirin-induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats
Imran Suheryani, Yujuan Li, Rongji Dai, Xiujie Liu, Shoaib Anwer, Song Juan and Yulin Deng
Background and Objective: Daibaijie (DBJ) is Chinese name of Dregea sinensis Hemsl. Traditionally it is used for treatment of various diseases. The objective of study was to determine the gastroprotective effect of DBJ against aspirin-induced gastric ulcers. Methodology: In this research 60 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups. Water was provided to normal and negative groups, omeprazole (20 mg kg–1) to positive group and DBJ extract (1, 2 and 3 g kg–1) to low, middle and high dose groups, respectively as pre-treatment. After 1 h of pre-treatment, aspirin (250 mg kg–1) were administered to all groups except normal group. Above scheduled treatments were provided continuously for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, rats were sacrificed. The pH plus acidity, Gastric Wall Mucus (GWM), ulcer index, histological assessment, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and protein concentration were examined. Moreover, all the data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by student’s t-test to compare different groups. Results: The DBJ showed a dose-dependent (60.11-84.34%) protection, while omeprazole showed (82.74%) protection. In addition, DBJ also considerably increased (p<0.01) the pH and reduced the acidity of gastric contents. Gastric levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GSH-Px were markedly enhanced while MDA level and MPO activity significantly reduced (p<0.001) by DBJ. Furthermore, DBJ also increased the PGE2 level and mucus production. Conclusion: It is concluded from results, that DBJ extract has great potential to prevent stomach ulcers. The gastroprotective effect might be associated to increase in PGE2 to produce mucus and inhibition of neutrophil infiltration due to decrease in MPO activity.
Research Article
Innovative Food Supplement of Functional Seeds Mixture Improved Bone Mineral Density in Menopausal Egyptian Women
Moetazza M. Alshafei, Seham S. Kassem, Manal M. Ramadan, Emtenan M. Hanafi, Maha M. Saber, Lobna M. Saber and Aliaa Elgendy
Background and Objective: Postmenopausal women frequently have osteoporosis due to deficient estrogen secretion. Phytoesteroids are natural alternatives, of plant origin, can play the role of estrogen substitute in menopause. This study was planned as a trial to formulate a novel safe seeds mixture that supplement important functional nutrients to minimize bone mineral deterioration due to menopause in Egyptian women. Methodology: Mixed dietary supplement was formulated from seeds mixture, grounded to be given to patients on yoghurt. Methanolic and water extract were prepared and analyzed using HPLC, to stand on the present bioactive compounds. Analysis for total isoflavons, polyphenols and antioxidant power were done. Twenty nine postmenopausal women, proved to have bone fragility, supplemented by vitamin D and calcium for at least 2 months, were enrolled in the study. Patients were given 40 g of the seeds mixture twice daily for 3 months. The patients were examined by DEXA (dual energy X-ray densitometry) before and after supplementation. Serum minerals, oxidative marker (MDA) and liver and kidney functions were performed. Serum human procollagen 1 N terminal peptide (P1NT) and osteocalcin bone formation markers were estimated. All data were expressed as Mean±Standard Deviation, differences between groups were detected using t-test. The p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Analysis of seed mixture showed high antioxidant capacity, high total isoflavons and polyphenols which are beneficial for bone health. Patient showed significant elevation of T score (p<0.01), P1NT, osteocalcin, zinc, magnesium and decreased MDA after supplementation. Conclusion: It is concluded that the seed mixture showed valuable effect in improving bone mass density of patients. It has no side effect on organ function. It can be considered as a novel supplement for bone health for post menopausal women having bone fragility.
Research Article
Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Extracts and Fractions from Agave cupreata
Diana Teresa Salazar-Pineda, Natividad Castro-Alarcon, Ma. Elena Moreno-Godinez, Maria del Pilar Nicasio-Torres, Juanita Perez-Hernandez and Patricia Alvarez-Fitz
Background and Objective: In Mexico, Agave cupreata is used in traditional medicine to treatment of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts and fractions obtained from Agave cupreata leaves. Methodology: The A. cupreata leaves were extracted by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: hexane, dichloromethane and acetone. The fractions of dichloromethane extract were obtained by open column chromatography on silica gel and elution system hexane-acetone 7:3. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the double dilution agar and microtiter broth dilution methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using TPA-induced mouse ear edema and λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model. One way ANOVA was used to evaluate the statistical differences. Results: The MIC of extracts of hexane and dichloromethane were 16 mg mL–1 against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and all clinical isolates tested; for the acetone extract only Staphylococcus simulans was susceptible (MIC of 16 mg mL–1). Of the fractions obtained from the dichloromethane extract, the F-34 was the most active against all bacteria tested (MIC of 2-16 mg mL–1). As for the anti-inflammatory activity, the dichloromethane and acetone extracts present an inhibitory effect on the formation of edemas of 64.29% (ED50 = 107.55 mg kg–1 b.wt.) and 48.82%, respectively when inflammation was induced with carrageenan and being induced by TPA it was 62.47% (ED50 = 1.21 mg per ear) and 40.82%. Conclusion: The extracts of hexane and dichloromethane from A. cupreata leaves exhibited antibacterial activity, for both sensitive strains and clinical isolates methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus; in addition, it could be an important source of compounds with anti-inflammatory action.
Research Article
Zerumbone with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex as a Potential Treatment for Gastritis
Ping Li and Xiaoyu Shu
Background and Objective: Acute and chronic gastritis both possess dyspeptic symptoms. The objective of present study was to explore the effect of zerumbone on the acute or chronic gastritis. Materials and Methods: The study was divided into three different groups of 220 patients each. Zerumbone with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin the inclusion complex was prepared by the freeze-drying method. All patients of vehicle group, treatment group and control group were injected with 2 mL Water For Injection (WFI), 2 mL solution containing 20 μM doses of zerumbone and 0.15 g ranitidine capsule taken orally, respectively for 20 days. All patients were analyzed by gastric endoscopic examination. The biopsies of gastric tissue were made to perform the histopathological study and urea breath tests. The one-way ANOVA/the Dunnett’s multiple comparison tests were used for significant difference of scores at 95% level of confidence. Results: Zerumbone treatment was prevented epigastric pain, nausea, anorexia, vomiting and inflammation of gastric mucosa after 20 days of treatment (p≤0.05 for all parameters). Numbers of patients with infection of Helicobacter pylori were 22 and 2 (p≤0.05) for before and after zerumbone treatment. Conclusion: Zerumbone treatment was quite effective and safe in acute and chronic gastritis with or without Helicobacter pylori infection Clin.
Research Article
Alogliptin, DPP4 Inhibitor, Improved Cognitive and Depressive Function in Obese ApoE-/- Mice with Modification of BDNF in Hippocampus
Masayuki Mori, Wentao He, Yasuhiro Kawasaki, Nobuo Kato, Yuji Kasamaki and Tsugiyasu Kanda
Background and Objective: Obesity has been associated with cognitive deficits and even dementia. The purpose of this study was to identify the beneficial effects of anti-diabetic agent, alogliptin benzoate (ALG), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to cognition deficits, anti-depressive state and metabolic abnormality. Materials and Methods: Three months oral administration of ALG (30 mg kg–1/day) were performed in ApoE-/- mice with high-fat diet (HFA, n = 15). The non-treated mice with high-fat diet (HFD, n = 15) became obese. Mice were fed from the age of 8 weeks until 20 weeks. As a control, non-exercised mice without high-fat diet (NOR, n = 15) were prepared. Morris water maze test as spatial learning and novel object recognition test as recognition memory were performed. Forced swimming test as depressive state was also performed. Histopathological analysis was performed in the hippocampus and the liver of three groups. Comparisons among groups were performed using two-way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s least significant difference analysis (p<0.05). Results: Mice in HFD showed cognition deficits, depressive condition and metabolic abnormality. The ALG treatment did not reduce the body weight compared with untreated mice with high-fat diet. The liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in HFA compared with HFD. The circulating levels of liver enzyme and lipids were significantly (p<0.05) lower in HFA compared with HFD. Both of Morris water maze test and novel object recognition test were significantly (p<0.05) recovered in HFA compared with HFD. The forced swimming test was also better in HFA compared with HFD. The ALG treatment significantly (p<0.05) induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and reduced calcineurin 1 regulator (RCAN1) mRNA in hippocampus. Histopathological analysis showed reduced pyknotic neurons of the hippocampus and steatosis of the liver by the ALG treatment. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ALG treatment could attenuate cognitive deficit and depressive function in the association with metabolic advantages, through the protection of pyknotic neurons in the hippocampus and steatosis in the liver.
Research Article
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficacy of Acokanthera oblongifolia Hochst. (Apocynaceae)
Wilfred Otang-Mbeng and Anthony Jide Afolayan
Background and Objective: Acokanthera oblongifolia is an evergreen medicinal shrub used for snakebites, itches, wounds and internal worms and the relief of itchy conditions and other skin disorders by the Mpondo and Xhosa tribes in South Africa. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the plant extracts against selected pathogens that cause human skin disorders and evaluation of the antioxidant capability for validation of folk uses of the plant. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against selected bacteria and fungi. The data were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) among treatment means. Results: The highest antibacterial activity (inhibition zone diameter >19 mm) was obtained with the acetone extract against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogens and Bacillus subtilis; by the ethanol extract against B. cereus. None of the extracts was active against the tested fungi, apart from the acetone extract which showed strong inhibitory activity against Candida glabrata. The ethanol extract showed a higher ABTS scavenging than those of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations lower than 0.15 mg mL–1. Conclusion: The in vitro antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. oblongifolia against the tested pathogens has provide scientific evidence to justify the ethnomedicinal use of A. oblongofolia against skin disorders in the study area and also indicate that the plant is a potential source for the development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.
Research Article
Relationship Between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Patients
Archana Iyer, Susan Lanham-New, Sawsan Khoja, Maryam Al-Ghamdi and Huda Al Doghaither
Background and Objective: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is considered as an autoimmune disease, in which both environmental and genetic factors are involved. Vitamin D (Vit D) is a vital hormone that plays an important role in immune system homeostasis, acting through vitamin D receptor (VDR). Gene polymorphisms in VDR were shown to be associated with immune diseases. The aim of this study was to look for a possible association between T1DM and the polymorphisms in VDR gene at the sites namely TaqI, BsmI and ApaI. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 T1DM patients (F = 25, M = 25) were studied. Patients and 50 age matched controls were genotyped for BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP assay. Statistical analyses were performed using MegStat® version 9.0 computer program. Differences in distribution of the genotypes were compared using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results: The results of the present study clearly showed for the first time, that there is an association between VDR gene polymorphisms and T1DM at the BsmI site in Saudi diabetic patients. Conclusion: This study could help us to establish the role of VDR gene in occurrence of T1DM. This would help us to develop a pharmacogenomic approach towards treatment of diabetes in relation to serum vit D levels.
Research Article
Exenatide Attenuation of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities and Blood Pressure Changes Induced by Doxorubicin in Rats
Nancy Safwat Younis, Anas Al Ahmed, Noufah Al Mulhim, Azizah Ali AlGarni and Emeka Promise Madu
Background and Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic anti-neoplastic drug. The DOX clinical use is limited due to the occurrence of accumulative dose-related cardiotoxicity. The objective of study was to investigate the exenatide effects on cardiac rhythm abnormalities and BP changes induced by DOX. Methodology: Male Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study and were distributed into four groups of six animals per group. Groups 1 represented the control, while group 2 were the exenatide group. In group 3, DOX was given alone, while group 4 received a combination of exenatide and DOX. Mode of administration was by intraperitoneally (DOX 3 mg kg–1/every other day and exenatide 10 μg kg–1 day–1) for 2 weeks. The DOX induced changes were assessed by recording changes in QT and QRS interval in electrocardiogram (ECG), Heart Rate (HR), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Systolic Arterial Pressure (SAP) and Diastolic Arterial Pressure (DAP). Graph pad prism software was used for statistical analysis, employing Student’s t-test, one way ANOVA then Dunnet Post-hoc test. Results: The DOX augmented QTc, QRS interval, deceased heart rate and increased SAP, DAP and MAP. Treatment with exenatide significantly (p<0.05) decreased QTc, QRS interval thus, reversing the changes observed in ECG. Moreover treatment with exenatide ameliorated HR abnormalities induced by DOX in reducing SAP but rather caused an increase in DAP. Conclusion: These results suggested that exenatide has the potential of mitigating cardiac rhythm changes induced by the treatment with DOX.
Research Article
Antioxidant Activities and Potential Impacts to Reduce Aflatoxins Utilizing Jojoba and Jatropha Oils and Extracts
Ahmed Noah Badr, Mohamed Gamal Shehata and Adel Gabr Abdel-Razek
Background and Objective: Jojoba as well as jatropha contains many active ingredients that have important roles to give them antioxidant efficiency, furthermore; fatty acids composition give a substantial function as antimicrobial properties. Thus, it may enhance the resistance to pathogenic microbes and toxins. This study aimed to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of jojoba and jatropha materials. Materials and Methods: Jojoba and jatropha oils fatty acid composition were analyzed, total phenolic and flavonoid was determined and the antioxidant activities were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against some pathogens by agar well and disk diffusion method. The oil and pomace extract of jojoba and jatropha were tested for antifungal activities against four toxigenic fungi. Inhibitory activity of materials against aflatoxins production was evaluated using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Statically analysis using one way ANOVA was done using SPSS v.16. Results: The major fatty acids were mono-unsaturated fatty acids, 97.4% for jojoba and 42.2% for jatropha, while palmitic acid and stearic acid being the major saturated fatty acids in jatropha oil. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were ranged from 12.5-996.5 mg of GAE g–1 and 5.92-180.83 mg of catechol g–1, respectively. Reducing ratio of aflatoxins were vary between 43.8-26.6% for aflatoxin B1, 38.61-14.5% for aflatoxin B2, 33.2-14.6% for aflatoxin G1 and 34.3-9.4% for aflatoxin G2, while for total aflatoxins were between 38.7-18.75%. Conclusion: Jojoba oil was more effective and more antimicrobial than jatropha oil, the pomace extract shows more efficacy for jatropha than jojoba and they have variable effect against pathogens and aflatoxins.

Frequently Asked Questions    |    Privacy Policy    |    Terms & Conditions    |    Contact Us