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International Journal of Pharmacology
eISSN: 1812-5700
pISSN: 1811-7775

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Research Article
Deoxyelephantopin Suppresses Invasion and Migration of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Matrix Metalloproteinase-13
Xueqin Zhang and Hu Zhao
Background and Objective: Deoxyelephantopin (DET), the major constituent of Elephantopus scaber, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. However, there is no direct evidence that DET can inhibit colorectal cancer cells migration and invasion. The anticancer activity of DET was evaluated by a MTT assay. Materials and Methods: Cell apoptosis were detected by Annexin V/PI staining. Cell invasion and transwell migration assays were used to observe the effect of DET on cells invasion and migration. Results: In the present study, data showed that DET treatment reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) cells migration and invasion and DET treatment decreased the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). This is the first paper suggested DET-reduced MMP-13 expression can inhibit CRC invasion and migration. Conclusion: Therefore, the present study provides evidence that the DET reduced MMP-13 expression, leading to decrease the migration and invasion of CRC cells. This study provides a mechanistic insight into the inhibiting CRC functions of DET.
Research Article
Enhancement of Pharmaceutical and Bioactive Components of Scenedesmus obliquus Grown Using Different Concentrations of KNO3
Ragaa A. Hamouda, Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar and Ghada Wagih Abou-El-Seoud
Background and Objective: The growth rate, primary and secondary metabolites are influenced by nitrogen concentration of media. This study aimed to determine the effect of different concentrations of KNO3 as a source of nitrogen on the growth, phytochemical components, cholesterol reduction, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the green alga, Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus). Materials and Methods: Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in Kuhl’s medium and KNO3 was added with different concentrations in the medium at different concentration (0.12, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 g L–1). The effect of different five concentrations of nitrogen on protein and carbohydrates was determined. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC) of alga extracts, cholesterol reduction and antibacterial activity were evaluated. The data analyses were carried out using SPSS software version 16. Results: The results revealed that the best KNO3 concentration for algal growth and carbohydrate content is1.5 g L–1. Meanwhile, the high lipid content was obtained with KNO3 starvation. Medium containing 0.75 g L–1 of KNO3 has the highest effect on the protein production of S. obliquus. The contents of dry alga extracted with chloroform: methanol and the extracted contents were determined by GC/MS chromatogram; the major contents were 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural followed by hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid) and hexadecanoic acid and methyl ester, respectively. Conclusion: Potassium nitrate limitation caused the highest effect on the total phenol content (TPC), increased antioxidant capacity, cholesterol reduction activity and also antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Research Article
Effects of Lunar Soil Simulant on Systemic Oxidative Stress and Immune Response in Acute Rat Lung Injury
Sun Yan, Liu Jin Guo, Kong Yi Di, Hu Jia Sen and Zhang Xiao Ping
Background and Objective: Lunar dust is a kind of fine particles exists on the surface of the moon and it has become one of the most important challenges in future space missions. Lunar dust is toxic but the understanding of lunar dust toxicity is very poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute lung injury induced by lunar soil simulant and the mechanism of toxicity. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including saline control group (tracheal perfusion in a 1 mL volume), two Chinese Academy of Sciences-1(CAS-1) lunar soil simulant groups (tracheal perfusion with 7 and 0.7 mg, respectively in a 1 mL volume) and PM2.5 group (tracheal perfusion with 0.7 mg in a 1 mL volume). The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were examined and the changes of malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the lung tissue were later measured after 4 and 24 h. Results: The determination of the cytokines, immunoglobulin and the oxidative stress index in lung tissue showed that the significant immune and oxidative stress response in the respiratory system were caused by lunar soil simulant and the immune and oxidative stress response promoted each other, resulting in toxic effect on pulmonary parenchymal cells and membrane of rats. Conclusion: The overall results showed that the immune response and oxidative stress reaction induced by lunar soil simulant were significant in the respiratory system. They promote each other, so as to cause the toxic effects on the lung parenchyma cells and membrane tissues of rats.
Research Article
Fungal Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Role in Control of Fusarium Wilt of Sweet Pepper and Soil-borne Fungi in vitro
Mohamed Abdullah Al Abboud
Background and Objective: Use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against phytopathogens is a rapidly growing area due to their unique physico-chemical properties. Therefore, the present investigation reports the biosynthesis of AgNPs by Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum), a safe fungus for human and plant. Materials and Methods: The synthesized AgNPs were subjected to physical characterization using UV-Visible spectra, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scaninig electron microscopy (SEM) images. Antifungal activity of synthesized AgNPs with poisoned food technique was used against phytopathogenic fungi. Results: UV-Vis spectra with characteristic absorption peak at 415 nm. Biomolecules mediating the synthesis and stabilizing the nanobactericides was confirmed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations confirmed that AgNPs were formed with 7.8 nm. Isolation trials from sweet pepper plants showing characteristic symptoms of wilt yielded one fungal isolate which purified and identified as Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum). While two fungal species Alternaria alternata and Trichoderma harzianum were isolated from health plant (no symptoms of wilt). As the applied concentrations of the AgNPs increased, fungal colony formation decreased. AgNPS at concentrations of 20, 40 and 80 ppm inhibited the F. oxysporum growth by 12.5,12.5 and 61.11%, respectively. Concentrations at 80 ppm caused 100% growth inhibition of T. harzianum and A. alternata while concentrations at 100 ppm caused 100% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that it is possible to perform the biogenic synthesis of AgNPs that used as fungicide against pathogenic fungi.
Research Article
Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis on Oxygen and Glucose Deficiency Induced Damage in Rat’s Brain Cortex Slices
Wasim Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad, Rahmat Ali Khan, Nadia Mushtaq, Jean Paul Kamdem and Joao Batista Teixeira da Rocha
Background and Objective: Ischemia is a stern decline or absolute obstruction in blood, flowing to various parts of the body. This pathophysiological episode causes cerebral mutilation, a protuberant feature of stroke, which is the 3rd leading cause of demise after cancer and heart attack globally. The principal objective of this work was to understand the sights of neuroprotection provided by M. Officinalis against OGD-R in rat’s brain cortex slices. Materials and Methods: Mitochondrial viability assays were performed via the colorimetric 3(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. After 2 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 1 h of reperfusion, only viable slices showed the ability to trim down MTT into a purple "Formazan" product that was soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Absorbance was measured at 570 and 630 nm and the net absorbance (A570-A630) was taken as an index of cell viability. Results: The results of the present investigation demonstrated that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by re-oxygenation led to cell damage/death via an amplifying ROS/free radicals production in rat’s brain cortex slices compared with control after 2 h OGD followed by 1h reperfusion. Melissa officinalis at a concentration of 40 μg mL–1 displayed potential role in neuro-protection against OGD, followed by re-oxygenation in mitochondrial viability assays in vitro. In addition, Melissa officinalis declined or slow down the production of free radicals in the supernatant and slices homogenate of cortex at the end of 2 h OGD followed by 1 h reperfusion. Furthermore, higher concentrations of Melissa officinalis slightly showed neurotoxicity for cortex slices which might be attributed to its pro-oxidant outcome. Conclusion: The results obtained during this study offer evidence for neuroprotective properties of M. officinalis against in vitro ischemia in rat’s cortex slices. Melissa officinalis could be considered as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of neuronal cell death in Ischemia induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation of cortex slices, strengthening further investigations to define the actual component for its use in human. Furthermore, in vivo ischemic models are now in progress to confirm and better characterize its neuroprotection.
Research Article
Effects of Circadian Rhythm Hormones Melatonin and 5-Methoxytryptophol on COXs, Raf-1 and STAT3
Gokce Savtekin, Nedime Serakinci, Can Erzik, Sule Cetinel and Ahmet Ozer Sehirli
Background and Objective: Circadian rhythm hormones melatonin (MEL) and 5-Methoxytryptophol (5-MTX) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on the biological systems. The aim of this study was the investigation of Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Rapid Accelerated Fibrosarcoma-1 (Raf-1) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) inflammatory markers in the temporomandibular joint arthritis (TMJA) model) and effects of pineal hormons melatonin (MEL) and 5-Methoxytryptophol (5-MTX) on these parametres. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino (200-250 g) 40 rats of both sexes were used in this study. The arthritis model was created by intraarticularly injecting zymosan dissolved in physiological saline solution (2 mg/40 μL) into the left TMJ’S, while the sham group was created by only injecting 40 μL physiological saline solution. Intraperitoneal applications of MEL (15 min before zymosan) and 5-MTX (30 min before zymosan) were conducted for therapy. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The animals were decapitated after 6 h. COX-1, COX-2, Raf-1 and STAT-3 levels were examined with the RT-PCR technique. Articular structural damage was assessed histologically. In arthritis group, the activity of COX-2, Raf-1 and STAT3 were increased, therapy applications led to decreased these parameters. However, a significant difference was not observed in COX-1. In the histological evaluation, obvious articular degeneration and disc congestion in the arthritis group regressed with therapy. Conclusion: In this study, COX-2, Raf-1 and STAT3 have been suppressed by the therapeutic effect of MEL and 5-MTX.
Research Article
Loading of Gentamicin and Alpha Lipoic Acid on a Biodegradable Polymer for More Effective and Less Nephrotoxic Formula
Bader Mubarak Aljaeid and Mohamed Ahmed El-Moselhy
Background and Objective: Gentamicin sulphate (GN) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used for treatment of several types of infection. However, it can cause vasoconstriction, leading to serious adverse effects, such as kidney damage and inner ear problems. The aim of this study was to suppress GN nephrotoxicity and to sustain its release. Methodology: Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) were loaded with GN and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) using the solvent evaporation technique. The prepared NPs were assessed for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency percentage and GN release. Finally, an in vivo nephrotoxicity study was carried out to assess the protective effect of ALA on the kidneys of rabbits. Results: Data revealed that the prepared GN-ALA-PCL NPs were in the nano size range. GN was released more slowly than pure GN, thus sustaining its effect. Creatinine increased 1.4-fold in the pure GN group in comparison with the control group and other electrolytes (sodium, calcium and potassium) showed abnormal results for the pure GN group. There was no significant difference in creatinine and the other electrolytes between the GN-ALA-PCL NPs group and the control group. Data confirm the protective effect of ALA against GN nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Loading of GN with ALA on PCL NPs could be a successful strategy to inhibit GN nephrotoxicity and extend GN release, which enhances its safety and dose frequency profiles.
Research Article
Phytochemical Screening and Antidermatophytic Activity of Lavender Essential Oil from Saudi Arabia
Suzan Khayyat, Manal Al-Kattan and Nour Basudan
Background and Objective: Lavender is a common and popular aromatic Mediterranean herb belongs to Lamiaceae family. In Saudi Arabia, Lavender is growing in some regions such as Albaha but there is no reported data on it. Recently, Most research on plants reported that lavender have antibacterial, antifungal antimutagenic and neuroprotective activities. The aim of this research was to study phytochemical and antidermatophytic screening of lavender and its essential oil (EO) in Saudi Arabia. Also, to assess the antidermatophytic activity of lavender essential oil before and after radiation. Materials and Methods: Essential oil has been isolated from lavender [Lanvandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) Miller] harvested from Albaha region. It has been isolated by steam distillation, it was analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antidermatophytic activity of isolated compounds of plant was determined against five dermatophytes and yeast by well-cut diffusion method. Results: The results showed antidermatophytic activity of irradiated essential oil display the stronger effect against Microsporum gallinae (M. gallinae), Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum), Microsporum canis (M. canis), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton verrucosum (T. verrucosum) and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis). The inhibition of essential oil before radiation on T. mentagrophytes was higher than after radiation. Leaves and flowers extracts have a strong inhibitory effect on M. canis and M. gallinae. Conclusion: The p-value was significantly higher for essential oil after radiation, than essential oil before radiation on pathogenic fungi, then leaves and flowers extract of lavender exhibited antidermatophytic activity on M. gallinae, T. mentagrophytes and M. canis.
Research Article
Synergistic Antioxidant Capacity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Lycopene Against Aging Hepatotoxicity Induced by D-galactose in Male Rats
Rasha A. Al-Eisa
Background and Objective: Ageing is frequently accompanied by the occurrence of several diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and disturbance of vital organs like liver, the combination between some compounds with antioxidant properties are considered a new hope for treatment of aging consequences, so this paper aimed to evaluate the synergistic effect between chitosan nanoparticles and lycopene in ameliorating liver functions and alleviate hepatotoxicity and oxygen free radicals which are a reactive species that are permanently liberated in living cells and increased greatly in aging and causes health disturbances. This study aimed to synthesis chitosan nanoparticles (CHNPs), to determine their characteristics and to estimate the synergistic role of CHNPs incorporation with lycopene (Ly) against oxidative stress of aging and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 9 groups (10 rats/group) as follow: Control group, D-galactose group(100 mg kg–1), CHNPs either (low dose) or (high dose) (140 or 280 mg kg–1), Ly group (20 mg kg–1), CHNPs either low dose or high dose with Ly and D-gal plus Ly and/or CHNPs with Low and high dose treated groups. The CHNPs were characterized by TEM, Zeta potential and size distribution of particles. At the end of the experiment, some biochemical parameters were measured as lipid profile, tumor marker TNF-α and IL-6, markers of inflammation and tissue damage LDH and CRP with histological, comet assay and TEM examination of liver tissues. Results: Chitosan showed size distribution (pdi) 0.370 nm. D-galactose induced hepatic biochemical alterations and cellular changes. CHNPs in two doses either low or high dose alone or combined with Ly significantly elicited remarkable amelioration in liver enzymes biomarkers, improved lipid profile, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6, enhanced antioxidant enzymes as SOD, CAT and GPx with decreasing marker of lipid peroxidation and proved by structural alterations in TEM, histological and comet assay of liver tissues. Conclusion: It could be proved that CHNPs and Ly could synergistically afforded protection against liver injury and oxidative stress as a result of aging. Consequently, CHNPs was an effective agent in the drug delivery in liver diseases medications. CHNP-s and Ly enhanced liver enzymes and improved their antioxidant capacities in liver.
Research Article
Effect of Epidural Anesthesia on the Immune Function of Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Xiaohong Yuan, Pisheng Qu, Jun Fang, Shunv Cai and Shuang Fu
Background and Objective: Epidural anesthesia is reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption, facilitates pain control and ameliorates surgical stress. Propofol and sevoflurane have also made changes in immune responses. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-operational epidural sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on cellular immunity of patients following lung cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: Total 246 patients with lung cancer who had planned for thoracotomy subjected to randomize (1:1 ratio) and divided into two groups of 123 patients each. Anesthesia was maintained by sevoflurane at 2 μg mL–1 alveolar concentration (group I) or a continuous infusion of propofol at 2-4 μg mL–1 steady-state plasma concentrations (group II). The killing activity of natural killer T-cells, western blot, T-helper cells assay, phagocytosis assay and cell proliferation assay had been evaluated. Wilcoxon test/Tukey’s post hoc tests were performed between pre-operational and post-operative data at 95% of confidence interval. Results: Sevoflurane (p = 0.6217) had no effect and propofol (p<0.0001, q = 10.835) had depressed CD 4+/CD 8+ ratio. Sevoflurane (p<0.0001, q = 40.473) had decreased but propofol (p = 0.058) had no effect on interferon-γ; Interleukin-4 ratio. Sevoflurane had decreased and propofol had boosted the counts of T-cells, T-helper cells and killing activity natural killer T-cells. Unlike, sevoflurane, propofol had increased interleukin-5 counts. Propofol and sevoflurane both had a significant cell proliferation and phagocytosis effects. Conclusion: Type of anesthetic used modulates the immunity of patients undergoing lung cancer resection.
Research Article
Effects of Some Adsorbents on the Pre-purification of Taxol (Anticancer Drug) from Hazelnut Nutshells
Sibel Bayil Oguzkan, Seref Karadeniz, Bora Karagul, Ayse Uzun, Elif Sine Aksoy, Ozen Ozensoy Guler, Umit Cakir and Halil Ibrahim Ugras
Background and Objective: The most important pharmaceutically active substance in plant-derived chemotherapy drugs is paclitaxel. Taxane compounds such as paclitaxel, cephalomannine, baccatin III and 10-Deacetylbaccatin III are found in hazelnut shells of Turkey’s Black Sea region. This study aimed to determine the most effective adsorbent on the purity and efficiency of these taxane compounds from nutshells. Materials and Methods: The adsorbent effect on the purification of taxane compounds from hazelnut shells was studied using different adsorbent materials. For this purpose, extracts were obtained from samples of hazelnut shells collected, dried and ground into solvents. The resulting extract was concentrated into a stock solution. Samples taken from the stock solution were separately treated with seven different adsorbent materials and then filtered and analyzed with HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Results: The HPLC analysis of taxane compounds determined on taxane, both the purification and whether or not the substance was lost, by measuring the efficiency at the same time. Graphene-oxide was found to be the adsorbent with the highest positive effect on the purification of paclitaxel in hazelnut nutshells in all cases. Graphene-oxide also had the least loss in terms of paclitaxel yield efficiency in hazelnut nutshells. Conclusion: The effects of adsorbent treatment increased both the purity and efficiency of taxane compounds and was, thus, a useful pre-purification method for shells obtained from Turkish hazelnuts. This shell waste material may prove to be a good alternative source of taxol as an anticancer drug.
Research Article
Effect of Cefazolin Prophylaxis on Postoperative Infections for Implants Removal Surgery of Ankle
Yujin Dong, Shenglong Li, Lianchun Xu and Tiehui Zhang
Background and Objective: There is not sufficient proof for the potential advantageous effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the surgical site infection rates during removal of orthopedic implants but a high rate of the surgical site infection rates are reported for implant removal surgeries than internal fixation and/or open reduction of fractures. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cefazolin prophylaxis on the surgical site infection. Materials and Methods: Total 298 patients with implants removal surgeries had subjected to randomize into two groups of 149 each. Patients had received bolus 1 g of cefazolin (CN group) or normal saline (NS group) before surgeries. The incidences of deep and superficial surgical site infection, health-related quality of life, functional outcome, visual analog scale, clinical and bacteriological assessments within 1 month after surgery were evaluated. Mann-Whitney test following Turkey post hoc tests were used for the surgical site infection at 95% of confidence level. Results: CN and NS groups had reported 19 (13%) and 21 (14%) superficial surgical site infection and 2 (1%) and 8 (5%) deep surgical site infection within 1 month, respectively. Both groups did not show a significant improvement in health-related quality of life, functional outcome and pain during 1 month. There were 12 (67%) microorganisms’ species found sensitive and 6 (33%) found not sensitive to cefazolin in bacteriological assessments. Conclusion: Single dose of 1 g of cefazolin prophylaxis reduced numbers of patients with the surgical site infection.
Research Article
Anti-depressant Activity of Standardized Macrotyloma uniflorum Extract in Experimental Models of Depression in Rats
Yonglin Zhu, Xiaoxiao Li, Weiqin Yang, He Jia, Chunling Liu, Yash Prashar and Souravh Bais
Background and Objective: Macrotyloma uniflorum (MU) is claimed to be used in treatment of depression traditionally, in ayurveda, siddha and unani medicine. Also, the role of MU has potential source in curing depression is still unexplored. The present study was designed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Macrotyloma uniflorum (EEMU) in experimental models of depression in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, phytochemical screening, including Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was performed to confirm the presence of isoflavone, daidzein, genisteins in standardized EEMU. The EEMU was screened at two doses (200 and 400 mg kg–1/p.o), based on acute toxicity study in rats. Each dose of EEMU was given to rats twice a day. Antidepressant activity was accessed by force swim test, tail suspension test and potentiation of nor-epinephrine toxicity. The duration of study was 1 week for all four groups. Antioxidants parameters like Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARs), Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and nitrite/nitrate level were also accessed in brain homogenate to check the oxidative defence of EEMU extract. Results: The extract showed the presence of daidzein, genistein in EEMU. Further, study indicates that EEMU at doses (200 mg kg–1/p.o.) and (400 mg kg–1/p.o.) increase the mobility levels in rats as compared to control group. The treatment of rat with EEMU at a dose of (400 mg kg–1/p.o.) produced significant decrease in the levels of TBARs, nitrite/nitrate contents and increases the level of GSH that revealed the antioxidant nature of the extract. Conclusion: The antidepressant activity of EEMU due to its antioxidant and tyrosine kinase inhibiting nature.
Research Article
Phenolic Acids and Biological Activities of Coleus forskohlii and Plectranthus barbatus as Traditional Medicinal Plants
Magdah Ganash and Sultan Qanash
Background and Objective: Importance of traditional medicines cannot be over emphasized, as they are not only widely used in Saudi Arabia but worldwide. This study was designed to determine phenolic acids contents, antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of traditional medicinal plants Coleus forskohlii (C. forskohlii ) and Plectranthus barbatus (P. barbatus) in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acids were detected by HPLC, antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging system. Antitumor activity performed on HCT-116 cell line by antioxidant enzymes catalase, polyhenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymes were estimated in plant extracts. Poisoned food technique and disc diffusion method for antifungal and antibacterial assay were used respectively. Results: The HPLC analysis of the Coleus forskolii and Plactranthus barbatus extracts indicated the presence of different types of phenolic acids. Ferulic acid and gallic acids were detected in highest concentrations among the other phenolic acid, where the concentration of ferulic acid in C. forskolii and P. barbatus was 27.55 and 23.26 μg g–1, respectively, while gallic acid concentration in C. forskolii and P. barbatus was 25.42 and 22.58 μg g–1, respectively. Coleus forskolii and P. barbatus species have different antioxidant enzymes which include catalase, polyhenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymes. The IC50 value of the antioxidant activity of C. forskolii was lower than in P. barbatus. Coleus forskolii and P. barbatus have promising effect in tumor activities that appeared in its ability in inhibiting cell proliferation of HCT-116 cell line. Coleus forskohlii but not P. barbatus has antibacterial activities against S. aureus, E. coli and S. typhi while weak antifungal activity was observed with using C. forskohlii and P. barbatus extracts. Conclusion: Plectranthus barbatus has potential antioxident activity then C. forskohli whereas, C. forskohli has antimicrobial properties which are not shown by other plant so, current comparative results support the folk use of this medicinal plants.
Research Article
Salvianolic Acid B Administration Attenuate Bone Loss in Ovariectomy Induced Rat Model
Yuanyuan Liu and Haili Shen
Background and Objective: Osteoporosis is a chronic progressive skeletal disorder characterized by low Bone Mass Density (BMD) and bone quality. This study was aimed to access the anti-osteoporotic effects of salvianolic acid B (SAB-B) against ovariectomy-induced in rat model. Materials and Methods: Forty female (n = 40) rats were randomly chosen and divided into four groups as sham-operated control (underwent bilateral laparotomy; sham group, n=10), whereas rats underwent laparotomy followed by bilateral ovariectomy (ovariectomy model group; OVX, n= 10). Whereas, OVX underwent rats were orally supplemented with either 20 or 40 mg kg–1 of SAB-B (OVX+20 or 40 mg kg–1 SAB-B group; n= 10) for 12 weeks after 4 weeks of OVX. Statistical difference between the experimental groups were analyzed by student t-test using SPSS software at p<0.05. Results: Treatment with SAB-B (20 or 40 mg kg–1), substantially increased the body weight than OVX rats. A pronounced elevation in the levels of Bone Mineral Density/Content (BMD/BMC) and body weight were observed in SAB-B treated group as compared to OVX group. Bone markers like deoxypyridinoline, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as well as inflammatory markers like IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α concentrations were significantly abolished after 12 weeks of administration with SAB-A in OVX rats. Furthermore, the bone biomechanical stability was notably improved upon supplementation with SAB-B. Conclusion: Both SAB-B 20 and 40 mg kg–1 treatment exhibit potent anti-osteoporotic activity, nevertheless SAB-B 40 showed superior anti-osteoporotic activity than SAB-B 20. Therefore, SAB-B would be recommended for treating post-menopausal osteoporosis with other standard drugs.
Research Article
Alteration of Cellular and Humoral Immunity by the Blockage of P2y11 Gene Attenuates on the Rheumatoid Arthritis
Hui Peng, Xiaoqiang Zhuang, Yu Bai, Xu Fang, Hui Huang and Shenglin Lu
Background and Objective: P2Y11 is a sub type of purinergic receptors that altered the function of immune cells. Present study evaluates the beneficial effect of P2Y11 receptor blockage on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methodology: Arthritis was induced by the intraplantar injecting the mixture of complete freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and type II collagen in left hind paw. P2Y11 receptor was blocked by P2Y11 receptor antagonist (NF340). All the animals were separated in to five groups like control group, negative group (Rheumatoid arthritis group), NF340 0.3, 10 and 30 μM/day injected intrathecally for the period of 21 days. Development of RA was estimated by arthritic score, paw swelling and paw withdrawal latency. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the synovial fluid, anti-type II collagen antibodies in serum and proliferation of T-cell was estimated in RA rats. Results: Data of the study reveals that treatment with NF340 attenuates the development of RA. There was significant (p<0.01) decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines in NF340 treated group compared to negative control group. Moreover treatment with NF340 significantly reduced anti-type II collagen antibodies and increase in the proliferation of T-cells compared to negative control group. Conclusion: Present investigation proves that gene expression of P2Y11 receptor blocked by NF340 attenuates the RA by ameliorating the cellular and humoral immunity.
Research Article
Neuroprotective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid Through MAO-B Inhibition in Aluminium Chloride Induced Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type in Rats
Kangtao , Yangqian and Souravh Bais
Background and Objective: Recent studies have revealed that monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with a promotable extension of life span. It modulates nitric oxide (NO), which contribute to cognitive function in AD. The present study investigated the potential of protocatechuic acid (PCA) as MAO-B inhibitor and its effect on release of MAO, TNF-α, acetylcholine esterase enzyme, in cognitive dysfunctions associated with experimental dementia in rats. Materials and Methods: Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) was administered at a dose of 175 mg kg–1 per oral (p.o) for a period of 25 days in rats and then divided into different groups, i.e. standard group, negative control and two groups of PCA, (at a dose of 10 and 20 mg kg–1, p.o.), where these groups treated and observed until the 35th day of experimental trial. Morris water mazes (MWM), photoactometer test were performed on 5th, 16th, 26th and 36th day to access learning, memory and ambulatory movements. Later, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of Glutathion (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitrite, catalase. Brain acetylcholine esterase activity and MAO-A, MAO-B were also estimated. The brain levels of TNF-α was measured as marker of inflammation. Results: AlCl3 produced a marked decline in MWM performance and ambulatory movements’ of animals, reflecting impairment of memory and learning. PCA treatment significantly modulates AlCl3 induced memory deficits, biochemical and pathological alterations. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the memory restorative ability of PCA may be attributed due to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential.
Research Article
Hepatic Upregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Following Methyl Methacrylate Administration in the Rat
N.S. Erekat, A.A. Al-Jarrah, A.M. Shotar and Z.A. Al-Hourani
Background and Objective: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) have been implicated in hepato-toxicity. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been shown to cause diverse health effects on the liver. Thus, the aim of this study was to illustrate the impact of MMA administration on the hepatic expression of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB. Material and Methods: Twenty sprague-dawley female rats were randomly selected and subsequently divided into two equal groups: control group and experimental group. Methyl methacrylate (120 mg kg–1) was orally administered daily 5 days/week for 4 weeks in the experimental group. After that, liver samples were evaluated by immuno histochemistry to examine the expression of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB in the two groups of animals. Results: Hepatocytes displayed ballooning degeneration following the oral administration of MMA. Concomitantly, the hepatic expression of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB were significantly increased in the experimental rats compared with those in the control rats (p<0.01). Conclusion: Thus, the present data indicate a correlation of ballooning degeneration of the hepatocytes with the hepatic TNF-α up regulation and NF-κB activation, potentially promoting the adverse health effects of MMA on the liver.
Case Study
A Fatal Case Report of Ceftriaxone-induced Hemolytic Anemia and Literature Review in Pediatrics
Jinmiao Lu, Qin Li, Xiaoxia Li and Zhiping Li
Background and Objective: Ceftriaxone is a frequently used antibiotic in children. This paper is to raise awareness of the challenges in managing ceftriaxone-induced hemolytic anemia and requesting more successful and useful predicting tools in its detection and prevention in pharmacogenomics field. Methodology: An adversary case report of a 5 years old boy who died from ceftriaxone-induced hemolytic anemia within 12 h in children’s hospital though all resuscitation attempt made. Results: Soon after intravenously ceftriaxone, the patient developed acute reaction to ceftriaxone presented with cold and pallor skin with shallow breath etc. Therefore, ceftriaxone infusion was stopped immediately and the patient was moved to emergency room (ER) for resuscitation from hematology outpatient clinic. Until his heart rhythm returned to normal and stabilized, he was then transferred to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Further, the patient developed bradycardia, reduced blood pressure, unconsciousness, under-responsiveness and oliguria. Additionally, his urine was turned from pale yellow to dark red. Urinalysis determined occult blood and trace protein existence. The hemoglobin level was 9.2 g L–1. Coomb’s test came back strong positive accompany with positive anti-C3d antibody. Hemolytic crisis was suspected. Unsuccessfully, the patient died from hemolytic shock, although all emergent resuscitation attempts were made. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone induced autoimmune hemolytic is extremely rare but could be severe as life-threatening condition stressed in pediatric. Its treatment is clinical challenging with poor outcome. Therefore, prevention is the key compared to treatment.

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