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Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

International Journal of Pharmacology
eISSN: 1812-5700
pISSN: 1811-7775

Editor-in-Chief:  Majid Y. Moridani
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Review Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Role of NF-κB on Neurons after Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion
Jing Zhou, Min Li, Wei-Feng Jin, Xiao-Hong Li and Yu-Yan Zhang
The transcription factor NF-κB which is involved in inflammation and cell survival is a critical regulator of hundreds of genes. It has been demonstrated that there is a connection between NF-κB and cerebral ischemia reperfusion. The activation of NF-κB in ischemia can be triggered by reactive oxygen species and several inflammatory mediators and is closely related to the release of IκB. Moreover, the NF-κB subunits of RelA and p50 are mainly responsible for the pernicious effect after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Recently, the role of NF-κB on neurons has been widely investigated and the major studies have shed light on the pro- and anti-apoptotic function for NF-κB. Whether NF-κB promotes or inhibits apoptosis appears to depend on the stimulus, specific cell type and duration. Here, the available research for the role of NF-κB on neurons after cerebral ischemia reperfusion is reviewed.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Antitumor Ability of Berberine Accompanied by Modulation of Gut Microbiome in Sarcoma-180 Tumor-bearing Mice
Yanhong Yang, Zili Lei, Li Huang, Fei Yang, Na Zhang, Jian Yuan, Kundong Li, Juan Chen and Jufeng Zhang
Background and Objective: Berberine (BBR) is an alkaloid with many pharmaceutical activities. The BBR inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis in many cancer cell lines. In current study, the objective was to evaluate the effects of BBR on tumor in vivo and its potential role in modulation of gut microbiome. Materials and Methods: The effects of BBR on the cell cycle and apoptosis of Sarcoma-180 (S-180) cell line were checked by flow cytometry. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry staining were used to check the effects of BBR on the S-180 tumor tissues based on S-180 tumor-bearing mice model. The effects of BBR on the gut microbiome of S-180 tumor-bearing mice were studied by 16S rDNA gene analysis. Results: The BBR could induce apoptosis and S phase arrest of S-180 cells in vitro. Tumor index of the BBR-treated group was significantly decreased and BBR-treated tumors showed more necrosis and decreased Ki-67 expression. The 16S rDNA gene analysis demonstrated that the control group of tumor-bearing mice had higher abundance of Prevotellaceae than the BBR treated group (p<0.05). Heat map showed the variations of some dominant bacterial family in the BBR-treated group, the tumor control group and the healthy group. The KEGG pathway analysis showed that several metabolism-related pathways were significantly changed in the three groups. Conclusion: The BBR can inhibit S-180 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by modulation of gut microbiome. The BBR may become a novel agent for prevention and treatment of tumors.
Research Article
Published on April 18, 2018
Curative Effects of Zoledronic Acid Combined with Calcitonin on the Treatment of Bone Metastasis and Osteoporosis in Lung Cancer
Chang-yan Xu, Song Zhao, Yi-yu Wang, Hui Sha, Jing-nan Sun, Feng-yan Jin and Feng Niu
Background and Objective: The role of calcitonin on cancers complicated with bone metastasis has not been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of zoledronic acid combined with calcitonin for bone metastasis and osteoporosis in patients with lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Total of 100 patients with lung cancer complicated with bone metastasis and osteoporosis were randomly and equally divided into the control group (conventional analgesic (non-opioids → mild-opioids → strong opioids), calcium and 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the observational group (additional zoledronic acid combined with calcitonin therapy). Then, the life quality, bone pain, activity ability, metastatic lesion, serum biochemical indicators of bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) of hip joint, as well as the adverse reactions and skeletal-related events (SREs) were recorded in both two groups. The effectiveness of treatment as ordered categorical variable was measured using Mann-Whitney U method. All the data of serum indicators were expressed as the mean±SD and analyzed using paired t-test for the comparison before and after treatment. Independent samples t-test was used for the comparison between the two groups. Chi-square test was used for the comparison of incidence of adverse reactions and SREs. Results: The significant improvement of life quality, bone pain, activity ability, serum biochemical indicators of bone metabolism and BMD of hip joint were observed in the observational group compared with the control group (p<0.01). Bone metastatic lesions were significantly reduced by this combined therapy compared with conventional therapy (p<0.05). The incidences of adverse reactions and SREs in the observational group were significantly lower than that in the control group (6.0 vs. 24.0% and 4.0 vs. 22.0%, p<0.05), respectively. Conclusion: The application of zoledronic acid combined with calcitonin was significantly more effective for bone metastasis and osteoporosis in patients with lung cancer, compared with conventional therapy.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Ameliorative Effects of Brachidontes variabilis Calcium Carbonate Against Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats
Wagdy Khalil Bassaly Khalil, Hoda Fahim Booles, Naglaa Abd El-Maksoud Hafiz and Gehan El-Tabie El-Bassyouni
Background and Objective: Marine products rich in calcium became promising supplements used in combination with medication for osteoporosis treatment. This study aimed to use natural products extracted from marine organisms in osteoporosis treatment as novel approach in drug discovery. Therefore, calcium carbonate isolated from Brachidontes variabilis (B. variabilis) shells were used against bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods: Ovariectomized (OVX) rat model was used to test treatment strategy for osteoporosis. Bivalve, Brachidontes variabilis, is a biomineral lamellar composite of calcite and/or aragonite (CaCO3) embedded within an organic framework. Efficaciously advanced novel class of CaCO3 particles isolated from Brachidontes variabilis shells (BVC) were used against bone loss in ovariectomized rats. All obtained data were analyzed using the general liner models (GLM) technique of statistical analysis system. Results: The present study demonstrates that both the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) could be feasible methods for structural identifications of the CaCO3. The present study showed that treatment of OVX-rats with low and high doses of BVC revealed significant p<0.05 increase in the proximal, distal and total bone mineral density (BMD), elevation in the serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) level and reduction in serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and β2-microglobulin levels. Results revealed that treatment of OVX-rats with low and high doses of BVC prevented significantly the expression alterations of bone resorption and bone formation genes compared with those in OVX-rats. Conclusion: These results suggested that CaCO3 isolated from B. variabilis shells may indeed have a promising significant potential in clinical translation, which then are exploited as a carrier for efficient loading of different types of therapeutic strategies.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Vanillic Acid Improve Neural Function after Focal Cerebral Ischemia-reperfusion Rats
Jin Wang, Ying Guo and Shao Yue Zhang
Background and Objective: Vanillic Acid (VA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid derivative found in in the roots of Angelica sinensis and used for treating various ailments. The current preclinical study was designed to demonstrate the neuroprotective activity of VA against cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) injured rat model. Materials and Methods: Healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 40) were segregated into 4 groups. Rats received only saline (Group I), rats were induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min and followed by reperfusion for 24 h (group II), group III and IV rats pretreated with VA (50 or 100 mg kg–1) for 14 days and followed by MCAO induction. Data were analyzed using Turkey’s test with SPSS software. Results: A considerable decline in the neurological deficit score and cerebral infarct area was observed in VA pretreated group. On administration with VA (50 or 100 mg kg–1) concomitantly lowered the levels of lipid peroxidation product (Malondialdehyde-MDA) with improved antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase). Whereas, the inflammatory markers such as interleukins-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit were remarkably decreased upon VA supplementation, on comparison with MCAO induced group. Furthermore, the relative protein expression of TNF-α and NF-κB p65 were significantly hampered on 14-day intervention with VA. Conclusion: The outcome of this study inferred that VA (100) could exert better neuroprotective activity by improving neuronal function via attenuating inflammatory cascade.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Effects of Extraction Variables on Pharmacological Activities of Vine Tea Extract (Ampelopsis grossedentata)
Umair Muhammad, Xiaoyu Zhu, Zhaoxin Lu, Jinzhi Han, Jing Sun, Sultana Tayyaba, Benazir Abbasi, Farman Ali Siyal, Kuldeep Dhama and Jabbar Saqib
Background and Objective: Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) may potentially perform multiple pharmacological roles, including antibacterial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-hypertension functions. But effects of extraction polarity, time and temperature on the recovery of bioactive compounds along their pharmacological activity of vine tea extract have not been reported yet. The present study reports on the importance of extraction variables for obtaining vine tea extract aiding in purification and isolation of functional and polyphenolic compound and their pharmacological activity (polyphenols) from vine tea. Materials and Methods: The effects of extraction variables (time, temperature and polarity) on Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Condensed Tannin Content (CTC) were evaluated using single factor experiment. Antiradical capacity assay and radical-scavenging capacity 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested for evaluating the antioxidant activities of vine tea crude extract. To analyze data, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was established followed by the Tukey’s test and to test the correlation, Pearson correlation coefficient was tested. Results: Data explained that extraction polarity, extraction time and the temperature had a significant effect (p<0.05) on yield and their anti-radical activities. The optimized extraction parameters for TFA and CTC were 40% aqueous ethanol at 45 while 50 for TPC for 180 min. Whereas, maximum yield were 40.01 μg Catechin Equivalent per gram (CE g–1) of Dry Weight (DW) for TFA, 15.12 μg, Gallic Acid Equivalent per gram of DW (GAE g–1) for TPC and 12.70 μg CE g–1 DW for CTC. Ethanol concentration showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on extraction of phenolic compounds and their pharmacological activity especially antioxidant capacity and DPPH assay. Conclusion: This study showed that extraction variables were greatly influence on the pharmacological activities of vine tea crude extract and this study can be used as preliminary and key information to design central composite rotatable design for Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Moreover, this approach can be used to determine significant factors that influence functional compounds and their other pharmacological activities.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Efficacy and Safety of Bivalirudin Plus Half/Full Dose of Tirofiban in Patients Undergoing Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Juan Kuang, Lan Li, Xiang Ma, Jihong Gan and Shubin Jiang
Background and Objective: A combination of bivalirudin and tirofiban is commonly applied in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin plus half/full dose of tirofiban in perioperative treatment of PCI. Methodology: The patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing PCI between January, 2013 and December, 2016 were investigated. Five hundred and twenty-five patients were divided into bivalirudin+a half dose of tirofiban group (half dose group) and bivalirudin+a full dose of tirofiban group (full dose group). The efficacy index was evaluated by thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade, the cardiac function, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The safety index was evaluated by bleeding events after PCI. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Continuous variables were statistically analyzed by Student’s t-test. Categorical variables were assessed by chi-square analysis. Results: The improvements of TIMI flow, cardiac function and the decreased incidence rates of MACE were shown no significant differences between the two groups. The occurrences of bleeding events in 4, 48 and 96 h, 30 and 90 days in half dose group were obviously lower than full dose group after PCI (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study revealed that half dose of tirofiban based treatment has the similar therapeutic effect and higher safety compared with full dose of tirofiban based treatment in patients with ACS undergoing emergency PCI.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 Against Ethanol-Induced Male Infertility in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Zhenzhen Jin, Min Zhang, Aijun Yang, Yafei Shi, Huanfu Niu, Qin Wang, Chunna Yu, Zefeng Wei and Xuenan Wang
Background and Objective: Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) is the most abundant and active steroid saponin of Panax notoginseng with several pharmaceutical properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) on ethanol-induced male infertility in rat model. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups. One group (control) received saline (2 mL/day), while another group was given ethanol (EtOH, 4 g kg–1 b.wt./day). One treatment group received 20 mg GR1 kg–1 b.wt./day, while another treatment group was given 40 mg GR1 kg–1 b.wt./day. Both treatment groups were also given 4 g EtOH kg–1 b.wt./day. All treatment were given orally for 28 days. The significant differences between the groups were determined using one-way ANOVA and data were analyzed using SPSS software followed by Tukey’s test. Results: The weights of epididymis, testis and seminal vesicles, as well as testicular sperm count, viability, motility and serum testosterone levels were significantly elevated (p<0.01) by exposure to GRg1 at each of the two doses (20 and 40 mg kg–1 b.wt./day), when compared to the EtOH-treated groups. The two doses of GRg1 also led to significant (p<0.01) increases in the activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and the steroidogenic enzymes 3β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β HSD) and 17β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (17β HSD), as well as lower levels of MDA. Histomorphological lesions such as thickening of seminiferous tubules and disintegration of leydig and sertoli cells were ameliorated by both doses of GRg1. However, 40 mg kg–1 GRg1 showed better anti-infertility effect. Conclusion: Co-administration of ethanol and 40 mg kg–1 GRg1 to rats produced anti-infertility effects by suppressing alcohol-induced sperm oxidative stress and testicular toxicity.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Inhibition of Proliferation, Invasion and Migration in U-251 MG Glioblastoma Cell Line by Gedunin
Hong Li, Jian-guo Wu, Hong-wei Zhang, Wei Wang, Yuan-xing Zhang and Jian-ning Zhang
Background and Objective: Glioma is the most commonly detected primary brain tumor found in adults and has very high rate of morbidity and mortality. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gedunin on viability, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma multiforme, U-251 MG cell line. Materials and Methods: Invasion assay was performed using 24-well cell culture invasion chamber (Corning Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) coated with 8.0 μm Matrigel™ (Becton Dickinson, Bedford, MA, USA). For real-time polymerase chain reaction U-251 MG cells were distributed on to the six-well tissue culture plates and treated with gedunin for 24 h. Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit was used for the isolation of total RNA from the cells. Results: The results revealed that exposure of U-251 MG cells to gedunin reduced the viability of U-251 MG cells to 28% compared to 98% in control group. Analysis of cell migration and invasion showed a significant inhibition by gedunin at a concentration of 20 μM after 24 h. Gedunin treatment suppressed the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), metalloproteinases (MMP)-7, MMP-9 and uPA which play a vital role in inducing migration of carcinoma cells. The inhibition was significant (p<0.005) at all the tested concentrations except 5 μM after 24 h in U-251 MG cells. In addition the real-time PCR analysis revealed a marked reduction in the expression of MMP-9, FAK and Rho kinases-ROCK-1 (ROCK-1) mRNA by gedunin treatment. Conclusion: Thus, gedunin treatment caused inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion in U-251 MG cells through inhibition of MMP-9, FAK and ROCK-1. Therefore, gedunin is a potent agent for the treatment of tumor growth.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Effects of Regional and General Anesthesia on Survival in Head and Neck Cancer
Long Wang, YeLiKen YeErDaoLaiTi, Gang Yang and Jianhua Du
Background and Objective: Surgical stress is a causative factor reducing natural killer cells (NK) cell activity and promoting cancer cell proliferation. Authors have assessed 5-years survival rates after general anesthesia and regional anesthesia in patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The total sample comprised 180 patients who received surgery for head and neck cancer. Between June, 2010 and July, 2015, about 90 patients were treated under general anesthesia and 90 histopathologically proven cases were treated under regional anesthesia. Results: The average age of patients was greater in the general anesthesia group than in the regional group. The effective time of general anesthesia was about 30 min longer than that of regional anesthesia. The prevalence of recurrence of cancer during the 5 years following surgery was 1±0.7 with general anesthesia and 0.4±0.3 with regional anesthesia, however, this difference was not significant. Chi-square tests clearly demonstrated that the rate of achieving 5-years survival after surgery, was greater with regional anesthesia than with general anesthesia. This was confirmed by partial correlation analyses, which also indicated that regional anesthesia was associated with a longer recurrence-free period. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind. Five-year survival was more often attained and cancer recurrence was lower, in patients who received surgery under regional anesthesia compared to general anesthesia.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Characterization and Quantification of Taxifolin Related Flavonoids in Larix olgensis Henry Var. koreana Nakai Extract Analysis and its Antioxidant Activity Assay
Shengxue Zhou, Ying Shao, Jinghui Fu, Lan Xiang, Yinan Zheng and Wei Li
Background and Objective: Taxifolin or dihydroquercetin, is believed to exhibit superior activity and have great use to the food industry. The present study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze flavonoids in the extract of Larix olgensis Henry var. koreana Nakai (which is widely distributed in Northern China) and investigate its antioxidant activity. Methodology: Flavonoid identification was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrum/mass spectrum (HPLC-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis, revealing that the above extract primarily contained taxifolin (92.01%) and small amounts of aromadendrin, eriodictyol, quercetin and kaempferol. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0. Results: According to the antioxidant assay, the extract showed strong radical scavenging activity against the antioxidant activity were measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), being more potent than butylated hydroxytoluene that was used as a positive control. Conclusion: Thus, the extract of Larix olgensis Henry var. koreana Nakai contained large amounts of flavonoids and exhibited strong antioxidant activity.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Anti-angiogenic and Antioxidant Activity of Iraqi Cyperus rotundus Ethanol Extract
Amjed Haseeb Khamees, Ali Jabbar Abdulhussein, Hayder Bahaa Sahib and Hayder Adnan Fawzi
Background and Objective: Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) has been used in medicine years ago. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible anti-angiogenic and antioxidant activity and to find the different phytochemicals present in Cyperus rotundus ethanol extract that may has anti-angiogenic activity. Methodology: Qualitative analysis of various secondary metabolites by specific chemical tests was carried out on the ethanol extract. The ex vivo rat aorta ring assay was used to screen the extract for possible anti-angiogenic activity, this assay was also used to determine the dose-response effect of the active extract. Six concentrations of crude extract were tested (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 μg mL–1) on rat aortic rings to determine the dose response curve. Free radical scavenging activity of extract was determined by 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: Cyperus rotundus ethanol extract showed significant dose-dependent blood vessels inhibition in comparison to the negative control (p<0.05). Ethanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical investigation of alcoholic extract indicated the presence of various chemical constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates and flavonoids. Conclusion: The anti- angiogenic activity showed by the ethanol extract may be due to the presence of antioxidant compounds.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Aetiology of Diabetes Mellitus and Implications from a Prospective Single Centre Study in Chinese Patients
Yan Liu and Xiaowei Sun
Background and Objective: Diabetes augments the vulnerability of patients to get affected with several other diseases. In the present study, a prospective cross sectional investigation at a tertiary care hospital in Jingzhou, China during February, 2016-October, 2016, evaluating aetiology of diabetes mellitus and its implications was conducted. Materials and Methods: The patients were classified into three classes: (1) Patients with a prior medical history of diabetes, (2) Patients with no specific reasons for diabetes and (3) Patients without diabetes. In this study, a total of 495 patients (321 females and 174 males) were admitted during present study tenure. Among these patients 256 fell into Class I, 65 patients come into Class II and 174 into Class 3. In around 64.8% patients diabetes was main cause for the hospital admissions. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus or new occurrence of hyperglycemia were substantially elder than patients without diabetic mellitus. Results: The most general causes for hospitalizations in the study were bronchial asthma 51 (10.3%), cerebrovascular disease 75 (15.1%), hyperlipidemia 148 (29.8%) and coronary heart disease 221 (46%). Conclusion: In the current study, it was observed that the common most etiologies for hospitalization were bronchial asthma, cerebrovascular disease, hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease. In lieu of the findings of the current study suggests that regular check-up must be conducted for diabetic people as it could augment the probability, which may prevent imminent diabetes derived complications, specifically in elderly patients.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Nephroprotective Effect of Camel Milk and Spirulina platensis in Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats
Essam M. Hamad, Hassan M. Mousa, Ihab S. Ashoush and Ahmed M. Abdel-Salam
Background and Objective: The increasing number of patients with chronic kidney disease throughout the world has shifted global attention towards prevention of renal disease. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the nephroprotective effect of both camel milk and aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: About 30 male wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. One group served as normal control (NC), while the other four groups were injected intraperitoneally with 80 mg kg–1/day gentamicin (GM). One of these 4 groups was kept as injury control (IC) and the remaining three groups received orally spirulina extract (SP), camel milk (CM) or combination of spirulina extract and camel milk (SPCM) for 28 days. Results: Administration of GM increased urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels. Histological examination of kidney sections showed extensive tubular necrosis due to administration of GM. Administration of CM, SP and their combination (SPCM) resulted in a significant improvement (p<0.05) in kidney ratio and oxidative stress markers (MDA, GSH). These positive effects were more pronounced when rats were given a combination of camel milk and spirulina (SPCM). In addition, SPCM showed a normal histological appearance better than that of SP or CM alone. Conclusion: Induced nephrotoxicity in rats can be ameliorated by camel milk and spirulina.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Impact of Cytochrome P450 2C9 Polymorphism on Warfarin Therapy in Saudi Population
Fahad Ibrahim Al-Saikhan, Mohamed Abd-Elghany Abd-Elaziz, Rehab Hamdy Ashour and Taimour Langaee
Background and Objective: Individualization of therapy based on patient’s genetic profile is particularly important with certain drugs. Warfarin is one of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) that is widely used anticoagulant with inter and intra-individual dosage variability depending on many non-genetic and genetic factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytochrome P450 2C9 isoform (CYP2C9) polymorphism on the dosage variability and therapeutic efficacy of warfarin in a subset of Saudi patient. Materials and Methods: The study included 112 patients on regular warfarin therapy for various causes. Genomic DNA of all patients was isolated and quantified. The DNA samples were genotyped for CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles by TaqMan allelic discrimination genotyping method. The primary outcome was time in therapeutic range (TTR). Data were compared utilizing one-way ANOVA, independent measures t-tests and the corresponding non-parametric test and Fisher’s exact test. Results: The dose of warfarin was less for patient expressing either genotype variant alleles of CYP2C9. Time in therapeutic range was not significantly different utilizing one-way ANOVA test when evaluating CYP2C9 genotype. Patients homozygous for *2 allele had less TTR (50.0%, p = 0.10) and lower average weekly dose than the others. Conclusion: CYP2C9 polymorphism influences warfarin dosage and efficacy among a subset of Saudi population and tends to be a good clinical practice particularly in patients experiencing excessive bleeding or patients with less TTR.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anticancer Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of the Red Alga, Laurencia papillosa
Hanan Omar, Awatif Al-Judaibiand and Adel El-Gendy
Background and Objective: Marine macro-algae contain bioactive compounds and can produce a great variety of secondary metabolites useful to human health. The present study was meant to evaluate the biological activities of extracts from the red alga, Laurencia papillosa (L. papillosa). Materials and Methods: The dichloromethane, dichloromethane:methanol (1:1 v/v), methanol and water were used to obtain the algal extract. The antimicrobial activity of the different extracts was evaluated against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Streptococcus agaloctiae) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis)) and two fungal strains (Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis)) by the well diffusion method. The algal extract was assayed for DPPH radical scavenging activity and MTT cell viability using HCT-116 colon cancer. The phytochemical composition of L. papillosa was studied. The FT-IR and GC-MS analysis were performed for the most effective algal extract. Results: The dichloromethane:methanol (1:1) extract revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens, which mostly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, C. tropicalis, E. coli and P. mirabilis with inhibition zones range of 13-15 mm. The algal extracts exhibited bactericidal effect against the tested strains at the ratio of MBC/MIC >2.0. Among the algal extracts, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1) exhibited the highest antioxidant and anticancer activities with a very low IC50 (110.8 and 196 μg mL–1, respectively). The pigments, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of alga were assayed. The FTIR analysis of extract revealed the presence of alcohols, phenols, ester and alkanes. The results indicated the presence of long chain unsaturated and saturated fatty acids with the dominance of palmitic acid (53.3%). Conclusion: The results indicated that L. papillosa contains different biologically active compounds and can act as a promising antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer agents and may represent an application in the therapeutic uses.
Research Article
Published on April 15, 2018
Formulation of Nutraceutical Biscuits Based on Dried Spent Coffee Grounds
Hatem S. Ali, Amr Farouk Mansour, M.M. Kamil and Ahmed M.S. Hussein
Background and Objective: Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are the most abundant residual material (45%) obtained during the instant coffee production. Therefore, around 6 million tons of SCGs generated per year. The purposes of the present study consisted in evaluating the use of SCGs as innovative functional food ingredient in bakery products and study the effect of SCGs and their chemical constituents on the sensory properties, volatile constituents and rheological properties of the final product. Materials and Methods: Effect of mixing wheat flour with 2, 4 and 6% SCGs on rheological properties of the obtained dough was evaluated, then chemical, texture profile and sensory properties of the final product were studied. Results: Rheological properties of mixed wheat flour with SCGs dough was affected slightly with the higher dietary fiber content. Moisture content of SCGs reached to 58.98%, therefore, was dried to reach 7.47% to control the microbial activity. Protein, ash, crude fiber and total carbohydrate of SCGs were 8.97, 2.77, 51.86 and 78.5%, respectively. Also, SCGs is good source of lipids (13.89%). Chemical composition of biscuit indicated that increasing mixing level of SCGs (2-6%) has shown good enhancement in fiber and ashes compared to control sample. Volatile sensory active compounds of biscuits and its supplemented mix with SCGs was evaluated. Thirty-eight volatile compounds was separated and identified in the biscuit samples by using SPME/GC-MS analysis. Hunter color parameter of produced biscuit indicated that whiteness (L*) of control sample reached to 71.17, while mixing SCGs with wheat flour at levels 2, 4 and 6% decreased L* to 66.31, 54.88 and 43.88, respectively. Also, redness degree (a*) was lower in wheat flour (0.45) than SCGs (3.57). Therefore, a* value of biscuit increased with increasing mixing level of SCGs. Sensory properties of biscuits showed that increasing SCGs level decreased significantly the color score but overall acceptability not affected significantly. Conclusion: Spent coffee grounds contains sufficient amounts from dietary insoluble fibers, protein, lipids, ashes and lower glycaemic sugars. Mixing wheat flour with SCGs affected slightly the rheological properties of dough and overall acceptability of the final product. Therefore, the obtained biscuit could be recommended to patients with obesity-related diseases and diabetes in addition to people looking for foods intake with reduced energy.
Short Communication
Published on April 15, 2018
Furocoumarin from Radix Angelica dahurica and Synthetic Analogue as Potential Agent for Treatment of Vitiligo
Xiao-Ying Yang, Rui Liu, Tao-yan Dou, Jie Wang, Huai-Zhen He and Wen Lu
Background and Objective: Imperatorin, isolated from medicinal plant Radix Angelica dahurica, has the same furocoumarin nucleus with psoralen and 8-Methoxypsoralen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the melanocyte activity of imperatorin and its synthetic derivative. Methodology: The effects of imperatorin and its derivative on the activity of tyrosinase and the content of melanin were tested on A375 cells. The possibility of healing vitiligo in Guinea pigs was assessed by using Lillie iron staining, DOPA staining and ELISA assay. Results: Psoralen, 8-Methoxypsoralen, imperatorin and its derivative all increased cellular tyrosinase activity and the contents of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. These four compounds significantly increased the number of melanocyte mm–2 compared with the model control group (p<0.01). The activity of tyrosinase in plasma and cholinesterase in serum were increased contrast to the model control (p<0.01). Conclusion: Imperatorin and its derivative can induce the production of melanocytes in vitiligo animal model, which could be helpful in treating vitiligo and clarifying structure-activity relationship.

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