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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Influence of Vitamin E on Proliferation and Differentiation of Rat’s Dental Follicle Stem Cells Treated with Nicotine (An Experimental Study)
Reham Abdel-aal Awad Morsy, Salwa Mahmoud Sarhan, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Mohamed Gomaa Attia-Zouair, Mohamed Mahmoud Ahmed, Mona Mahmoud El-Batran and Nadia Lashin Soliman
Background and Objective: Many lines of evidence suggested that the oxidative stress is important in pathogenesis of diseases. Nicotine inhibited the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and decrease alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The biological antioxidants, such as vitamin E act in synergy to form an integrated network of antioxidant defense, which is considered to be the first line of defense against any increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on the proliferation as well as differentiation potentiality of rat’s dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) treated with nicotine. Materials and Methods: Rat DFSCs were isolated, cultured and divided into four groups. The 1st group was the control, the 2nd group was cultured with 5 mM of nicotine, the 3rd group was cultured with 2mM of vitamin E (1h) prior to nicotine treatment and the 4th group was cultured with 2 mM of vitamin E (1 h) after nicotine treatment. Methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to assess the cell viability among the groups used. Wright staining solution was used to assess the effects of nicotine on cell morphology. The flow cytometric analysis was used to identify the stemness of isolated rat’s DFSCs by CD34 and CD29. Alizarin red-sulfate (AR-S) staining and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) utilizing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and activity were used to determine the osteoblastic differentiation. Results: The results of this study revealed that increase the proliferation rate and the ALP expression and activity in group I followed by group III and IV then group II. The vacuolization and loss of cell membrane of DFSCs appeared to be more extensive in group II compared to group III and group IV. Conclusion: These findings indicated that vitamin E could relief the state of oxidative process induced by nicotine. Vitamin E also can increase the capability of DFSCs to proliferate and differentiate into osteogenic lineage detected by AR-S stain and increase the ALP level.
Research Article
Invasive Character of Prosopis juliflora Facilitated by its Allelopathy and a Wide Mutualistic Interaction with Soil Microorganisms
Mahdhi Mosbah, Tounekti Taieb and Khemira Habib
Background and Objective: The impact of plant invasions on ecosystems, habitats and native species is severe and often irreversible. The present study attempted to observe the effect of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) on seed germination and plant growth of two native Acacia species (Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis). The effect of mesquite on mutualistic interactions and soil microbial biomass was also investigated. Materials and Methods: The effect of Prosopis juliflora (P. juliflora) extract on seed germination and plant growth of two native legumes was studied in petri dish and pot experiments, respectively. Root nodule bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and soil microbial biomass were compared between the invasive legume and two native species. Results: The results showed that different aqueous extracts of Prosopis juliflora significantly affected the germination of native Acacia species. Plant growth of these species was also affected by the litter of the invasive plant. A relationship between mutualisms and the invasion process by Prosopis juliflora has been recorded. The MPN analysis showed that the density of rhizobia organisms which were able to nodulate Prosopis juliflora was greater than for Acacia species. Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi colonization in the roots of native species was affected by Prosopis juliflora. Conclusion: Results suggested a significant effect of Prosopis juliflora on soil microbial biomass. This is the first study reporting the relationship between invasion process of Prosopis juliflora and soil microbial community composition in Saudi Arabia.
Research Article
Evaluation of Safety and in vitro Mechanisms of Anti-diabetic Activity of β-caryophyllene and L-arginine
Ginpreet Kaur, Leo Joseph Philip Tharappel and Vivek Kumawat
Background and Objective: β-caryophyllene (BCP) and L-arginine (LA) have been found to have anti-inflammatory, insulinotropic and antioxidant activity. However, a mechanistic approach regarding the combination of BCP and LA against the inflammatory processes present in diabetes mellitus has not been explored. Hence, the current study’s objective was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of BCP, LA and their combination. Materials and Methods: In vitro cell viability (20-500 mM) was assessed using the MTT assay. Safety studies for BCP and LA were carried out for acute (2000 mg kg–1) and repeated dose toxicity (300, 600, 900 mg kg–1). In vitro anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and α-glucosidase activity of BCP, LA and their combination was evaluated at different concentrations (20-320 μg mL–1) using the DPPH assay, H2O2 scavenging capacity assay, RBC membrane stabilization method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. Results: BCP+LA showed higher cell viability than BCP at 500 μg mL–1 (86.8 vs. 72.9%). Safety studies showed BCP+LA to be safe at 2000 mg kg–1. BCP+LA was more potent than the individual agents in all the assays with >50% activity at half the concentrations of the individual agents (80, 20 and 20 μg mL–1) for all the assays. The membrane stabilizing activity of BCP+LA was greater than the individual agents at 320 μg mL–1. BCP, LA and BCP+LA displayed concentration-dependent increase in activity in all the assays. Conclusion: BCP+LA was safe and has more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than individual agents. These results give preliminary evidence supporting the combined use for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Research Article
Estimated Heavy Metal Residues in Egyptian Vegetables in Comparison with Previous Studies and Recommended Tolerable Limits
Gomaa Nour-Eldein Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Bedair Mohamed Ahmed, Essam Mahmoud Saleh and Ahmed Sayed Morsy Fouzy
Background and Objective: Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables might represent a major problem that could affect the food safety and human health. The objective of this study was to estimate the levels of heavy metals in potato, tomato and cucumber samples collected from some Egyptian governorates and compare the levels of recent contamination with these obtained from previous studies and the recommended tolerable limits. As well as, to evaluate the potential risk of studied heavy metals for public health. Materials and Methods: The experimental design was established to search for the hazards of 5 heavy metal residues in 3 common consumed vegetables collected from 3 certain locations of each of 4 governorates involved more than 25% of the Egyptian population. Thirty six samples, each of potato, tomato and cucumber were collected from Egyptian local markets of four governorates (Cairo, Alexandria, Giza and El-Faiyum). Results: The highest average concentrations of Pb were detected in all vegetable samples of Ibshway as 0.96, 0.25 and 0.58 mg kg–1 for potato, tomato and cucumber samples, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest average concentration of Cd was detected in potato samples of Al-Omraniyah as 0.16 mg kg–1. Chromium was detected only in cucumber samples of Helwan and Al-Maadi. With respect to Cu and Ni, the highest average concentrations were recorded for potato samples of Dokki as 2.39 and 0.49 mg kg–1, respectively. Additionally, the results revealed that values of the estimated daily intake of heavy metals, for a typical adult person, were located within the safe limits. Qualitative data showed that the highest concentration levels of Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were obtained from potato samples comparing with those of tomato and cucumber samples. As well as all potato and tomato samples were completely Cr-free, while cucumber samples exhibited 16.6% Cr-contamination. Conclusion: The estimated daily intake of heavy metals in vegetable samples of the current study was less than the recommended tolerable daily intake.

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