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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Review Article
Microrna a New Gate in Cancer and Human Disease: A Review
Ghanbar Mahmoodi Chalbatani, Hassan Dana, Elahe Gharagozlou, Habibollah Mahmoodzadeh, Elham Zeinalinia, Omaid Rezaeian, Parisa Pilvar, Milad Ardaneh, Saeed Meghdadi, Fereidoon Memari and Nargesyousefi Rad
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs with lengths of 21-22 nucleotides that participate in post-transcriptional control of gene expression. According to recent studies, 2588 microRNAs have been detected and the list is growing. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) plays a major role in regulating biological processes and miRNA in relation to many diseases including cancer. The deregulation connection between miRNA and cancer was discovered in 2002. Today, even more information about the main role that miRNA plays in cancer development has been uncovered, however, there is still a long way to go to understand the functions of all the microRNAs in eukaryotes. In this review, briefly explained miRNA biogenesis and discuss the roles that miRNAs play in cancer development. Finally, discussed how miRNAs can be used as biomarkers and as a new therapeutic approach in cancer.
Research Article
Prevention from Complications Associating Liver Toxicity by Carbon Tetrachloride Using a Blend of Plants in the Form of Dietary Supplement
El-Shobaki F.A., Amal S. Abdel-Azeem, Amany M. Hegazy and I.H. Badawy
Background and Objective: Carbon tetrachloride toxicity has been reported to cause several hepatocellular pathological changes. The present study was designed to investigate the efficiency of 2 formulas formed from several plant sources to protect against the health complications associating liver toxicity due to carbon tetrachloride injection. Materials and Methods: In this study 2 dietary supplements, the first constituted of green apple (25%), pomegranate (25%), red grape (25%), green tea (10%), tomato (10%) and artichoke (5%), the second of green tea (15%), licorice (25%), mint (25%), coffee (5%), lemon (15%) and grape fruit (15%) were used. The results were statiscally analyzed using SPSS-PC software, version 22. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison of different biochemical values. Results: Rats injected with carbon tetrachloride (1 mL kg–1 b.wt.) showed a significant decrease of serum protein and albumin, the activities of AST, ALT, γ-GT and ALP were significantly increased. Significant increase in most lipid parameters occurred while the high density lipoprotein was decreased. The antioxidant capacity of the 2 formulas were high. Inclusion of each of these 2 formulas with the diet of injected rats prevented most of the associated health complications as indicated by sound correction of most biochemical parameters describing the biochemical changes that occurred due to carbon tetrachloride injection, however the correction of the histopathological changes that occurred due to carbon tetrachloride injection was limited. Conclusion: It was recommended to use these 2 dietary supplements by patients suffering from liver diseases assuming that they will help a lot to ameliorate health complications associating the liver disease thus act as complementary medicine to the main route of therapy.
Research Article
Roselle Seed as a Potential New Source of Healthy Edible Oil
Sahar Youssef Al-Okbi, Adel Gabr Abdel-Razek, Shaimaa Elsayed Mohammed and Mahmoud El-Sayed Ottai
Background and Objective: Searching non-traditional sources of edible oil is crucial in Egypt. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a vital medicinal plant in Egypt, where all its parts are utilized except the seeds that are completely discarded. The aim of the present research was to study the possibility of consuming roselle seed oil (RSO) as edible oil. Materials and Methods: The composition of RSO from fatty acids, total phenolic, flavonoids and tocochromanols was assessed. In vitro antioxidant and ABTS scavenging activity and the oxidative stability of RSO were evaluated. Oral acute lethal toxicity test of RSO was studied in mice to assess its safety. Two experiments were carried out on rats, in the first experiment two balanced diets were fed to two groups of rats one contained 10% RSO while the other contained the same percentage of sunflower oil as reference oil for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, plasma lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver and kidney functions were assessed. In the second experiment, dyslipidemia was induced in rats then rats were fed either 10% RSO or 10% sunflower oil diet. At the end of the second experiment plasma glucose, lipid profile, interlukin 6 and MDA were assessed. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA followed by Duncan’s test. Results: The RSO showed to possess high safety and in vitro antioxidant activity. Major fatty acids were linoleic, oleic and palmitic. Total tocopherols and tocotrienols were 96.2 and 3.48 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents were 56.31mg GAE and 4.99 mg catechin g–1 oil, respectively. Induction period of oxidative stability of RSO was 24.88 h. All assessed parameters of first rats experiment showed insignificant changes when rats fed on RSO diet was compared to those fed on sunflower oil diet. In the second experiment, significant improvements in all parameters were noticed when dyslipidemic rats were fed on either RSO or sunflower diet with superiority to RSO concerning MDA and interlukin 6. Conclusion: The RSO has high safety, oxidative stability and antioxidant activity and cardiovascular remedial effect. It is proposed that RSO is suitable as edible oil for human consumption.
Research Article
Reproductive Performance of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Induced with Two Different Hormone Protocols with Respect to the Effect on Gonadotrophic Cells
Olfat Malak Wahbi, Zeinab Abdel Baki El-Greisy and Heba Saad El-Sayed
Background and Objective: The routine technique applied in spawning of sea bream (Sparus aurata), in the hatchery depends on the use of a mixture of synthetic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH-a)+human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (HCG). The present study aims to use HCG alone as a method to take the advantages of HCG specifically lower production costs. Materials and Methods: Adult and fully ripe Sparus aurata were injected with either one of two hormone protocols using two hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (HCG) and a mixture of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue and HCG (LHRH-a+HCG) during the spawning season. The two hormone protocols were applied through a single dose of each hormone. The first protocol was applied by 5000 IU HCG kg–1 and the second protocol was applied by using 5000 IU HCG+200 μg LHRH-a kg–1. A comparison between the two protocols is demonstrated in the present study. Forty four ripe fish (16♀+28♂) were divided into 2 groups each of (8♀+14♂) and were injected intramuscularly with a single dose of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (HCG 5000 IU kg–1) or mixture of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone [LHRH-a (200 μg kg–1)+HCG (5000 IU kg–1)]. Data were analyzed using overall one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences were observed at significance of p<0.05. Results: In the females of the two experimental groups, spawning was induced in 54 and 48 h after injection in the mixture and the single hormone protocol, respectively. A comparison between both protocols showed that both treatments were found to be equipotent in inducing fish spawning with superiority of LHRH-a+HCG mixture over HCG. Fertilization and hatchability rates as well as eggs and larval quality recorded increased values in group injected with hormones mixture. Although no histological differences were seen in pituitary section of the 2 groups, the number of gonadotrophic cells and vacuoles diameter/unit area showed differences between the two groups. The correlation value and F-test showed that there are not any significant differences between the values of survival percentages, average length and average weight in cases of HCG alone or LHRH-a+HCG. Conclusion: Even though the superiority of LHRH-a+HCG mixture over HCG but for economical purpose, the use of HCG alone is preferred.
Research Article
Floristic Composition and Diversity in Tsitsa River Catchment Area, the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Pelisa Ngcaba and Alfred Maroyi
Background and Objective: Assessment of vegetation in catchment areas need to be assessed and understood in terms of plant diversity, ecological processes and functions that support appropriate ecosystem goods and services. The aim of this study was to assess plant species composition and diversity within the Tsitsa river catchment area in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Materials and Methods: Nineteen square plots measuring 5×5 m were established in Tsitsa river catchment area. Within each plot, environmental data and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. Vegetation and environmental data were analyzed using palaeontological statistics (PAST) version 3.06. Results: In total of 78 plant species were recorded belonging to 24 families and 57 genera. Among the documented species, 11.5% are exotic to South Africa. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Asteraceae with 15 species, followed by Poaceae with 14 species, Cyperaceae (10 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Lobeliaceae (3 species), Acanthaceae, Asphodelaceae, Lamiaceae, Oxalidaceae, Polygalaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Verbenaceae and Vitaceae (2 species each). Six main floristic clusters were identified from the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). Results from canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that species composition was mainly influenced by calcium, carbon, erosion, magnesium, potassium and the slope of the landscape. Conclusion: The diverse species diversity and composition documented is due to several environmental factors particularly calcium, carbon, erosion, magnesium, potassium and the slope of the landscape.

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