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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Biological Treatment of Carcinogenic Acrylonitrile Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Basra City
Sufyan Mohammed Shartooh, Laith Muslih Najeeb and Muthana Mohammed Sirhan
Background and Objective: Biological treatment has become a temptic alternative for expensive ways. However, the low costs and technology of bio-remediation means that it is possible to use for addressing ecological problems in many polluted locations around the world. The objective of this study was to determined the biodegradation ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to utilize carcinogenic acrylonitrile, via an environmentally-sound method. Materials and Methods: Comprised isolation of bacteria using suspended soil dilution method, where eight soil samples were collected from polluted sites in the Southern part of Basra city. In return, the best isolation was chosen in its growth on a media containing acrylonitrile as a sole-source of carbon and nitrogen, isolate was identified using biochemical tests that shows it belong to the species of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, substantial cultural processes were conducted at this isolate to reveal the preferable period of adaptation. Additionally, series of acrylonitrile (C3H3N) concentrations were prepared within the purity of 96%, a pure culture of bacteria was obtained to determine its efficiency for acrylonitrile degradation and the bacterial-culture was concentrated using enrichment media. Aforementioned concentrations were inoculated with 1.5×108 cell mL–1 of bacterial culture inferenced by McFarland standard (600 nm, OD = 0.5) and were incubated for 7 days at 37°C, then the concentration of acrylonitrile was measured before and after treatment using HPLC and FTIR spectrum, to set the efficiency of biodegradation confirmed by the production of ammonia, through decomposition processes. Results: The under study bacteria have the ability to degrade the carcinogenic material, the best adaptation period was for 7 days as well as the optimum concentration for treatment is 500 ppm, with a degradation efficiency of 92.7%. Conclusion: The extracted results revealed that the isolated bacteria demonstrated eminent quantities of acrylonitrile degradation. Thus, it could be used to bio-remediate contaminated soils in such environments.
Research Article
Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity of Indonesian Red Algae Acanthophora muscoides Crude Ethanol Extracts
Haji Sunarpi, Eka Sunarwidhi Prasedya, Mutiadevi Ariyana, Aluh Nikmatullah, Lalu Zulkifli, Susumu Yoshie, Masao Miyake, Daisuke Kobayashi and Akihiro Hazama
Background and Objective: Red macroalgae Acanthophora muscoides is widely distributed in Indonesian oceans. However, information regarding their bioactive properties and pharmaceutical potentials are largely unexplored. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity of ethanol extracts of Acanthophora muscoides and compare with common species Acanthophora spicifera collected from Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity of A. spicifera (AS-EtOH) and A. muscoides (AM-EtOH) crude extracts were evaluated with Lactate dehidrogenase (LDH) and Trypan blue exclusion assay from 6.25-200 μg mL–1 concentration in Human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells for 72 h. Viability staining with nucleus staining Hoechst33342/PI was conducted to investigate apoptotic activity. Potential cell death mechanisms of treatments were determined by DNA fragmentation assay. Results: AM-EtOH demonstrated high cytotoxicity in HeLa cells with EC50 of 180±14 μg mL–1. However, AS-EtOH EC50 values could not be determined in this study. Antiproliferative activity was significant in AM-EtOH treated cells as cell density was suppressed to 29×104 cells mL–1 compared to AS-EtOH (70×104 cells mL–1) and untreated cells (78×104 cells mL–1). Finally, DNA fragmentation with a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis was observed in AM-EtOH treated HeLa cells. Cells treated with AS-EtOH were seen to show significant cytotoxic effects towards cell viability, but not to the point of death through apoptosis. Conclusion: Current results show AM-EtOH possesses more promising bioactive properties, cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity compared to AS-EtOH. Further advanced studies would be reasonable for AM-EtOH potential uses in pharmaceutical industries.
Research Article
Physicochemical Study on Lactose-Free Biscuits and Brownness Cakes
Ahmed Mohamed Saied Hussein, Nefisa Abbas Hegazy, Mohie Mostafa Kamel and Ola Saleh Saleh Mohamed
Background and Objective: Nowadays lactose-free/reduced products are in demand to alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance in suffering individuals where most humans had deficiency of lactase intestinal enzyme. The goals of the study were to produce lactose free products as brownness cakes and biscuits. Materials and Methods: This study was performed by preparing two free lactose formulas products. The obtained products were evaluated their qualities using the methods of chemical composition, baking quality, color parameters, texture properties, freshness and sensory evaluation. Data represented as a mean of triplicate samples ±Standard Deviation and evaluated using the analysis of variance and differences between means of parameters (ANOVA, one way). Results: Physicochemical studies showed that lactose free biscuit characterized with its higher contents of protein (13.49%) and fiber (041%) and lower fat (22.75%) compared to control sample. Also, lactose free brownness cake contained higher protein (7.55%) and lower moisture (7.29%) and fiber (0.98%) compared to control sample. Hunter color parameter showed that lactose-free biscuits and brownness cake were slightly darker than control sample. Sensory evaluation indicated that lactose-free biscuit was affected slightly on taste and color. Also, lactose free brownness cakes was rated slightly higher in their odor (19.23) than control sample (17.80). Furthermore, lactose-free brownness cakes not affected significantly in color, taste, texture, appearance and overall acceptability. Texture profile analysis of lactose-free biscuit characterized with lower fracturability (23.08 N), adhesiveness (0.00 mJ), adhesiveness force (0.03 N) and chewiness (1.10 mJ) compared to biscuit of control sample. Also, Lactose free Brownness cake characterized with its lower hardness (9.10 N), adhesiveness force (0.07 N), springiness index (0.83), gumminess (6.69 N) and chewiness (23.30 mJ), while it was higher in resilience (0.25), cohesiveness (0.73) compared to control cake sample. Conclusion: Biscuit and cakes of lactose-free characterized with its nutritive values and sensory properties. Therefore, it could be recommended to produce such two products at industrial scale for its healthy and nutritive value for gluten-sensitive patients (celiac disease).
Research Article
Ethno-medical Botany and Some Biological Activities of Ipomoea oblongata collected in the Free State Province, South Africa
Ketlareng Liza Polori, Samson Sitheni Mashele, Idah Madamombe-Manduna and Sebua Silas Semenya
Background and Objective: Literature reporting on the therapeutic uses and biological activities of Ipomoea oblongata (E.Mey.ex Choisy) is very scanty in South Africa. This study was carried out to comprehensively document medicinal use of this species and also determine some of its biological activities namely the antioxidant, total phenolic content and phytochemical properties. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data on the healing applications of I. oblongata was gathered using a semi-structure questionnaire with 12 traditional healers (THs) practicing in the Free State province. The antioxidant properties and the total polyphenol content of I. oblongata extracts (Dichloromethane, DCM, Methanol, MeOH and Water, H2O) were determined by means of the 2, 2-Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay and the Folin Ciocalteu method, respectively. Gallic acid and ascorbic acid were used as standards. Phytochemical constituents were determined using standard screening procedures. Results: Roots of I. oblongata were mainly used by THs as remedy for ailments such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diarrhoea and nausea, inflammatory diseases, pregnancy and postnatal, respiratory infections, sexually transmitted infections and wounds. The MeOH roots extract of I. oblongata showed remarkable (98% at 0.25mg mL–1 and 99% at 0.5mg mL–1) antioxidant potential. Total phenolic contents of this species showed the Gallic acid equivalence (GAE) of 0.04 for both the MeOH and DCM and 0.03 for the H2O extract. The phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannis. Conclusion: Ipomoea oblongata roots are highly harvested and multi-used by THs against various human ailments, which could be attributed to the present of biologically active pharmaceutical components demonstrated.
Research Article
Synergistic Oxidative Effects of Smoking and Pesticides Exposure on Reproductive Male Sex Hormones
Amal Saad-Hussein, Mohga Shafik Abdallah, Eman Mohamed Shahy, Manar Seleem Fouda and Asmaa Mohammed Mohammed Abdel-Aleem
Background and Objective: Several studies indicate that pesticide intoxication produces oxidative stress. This oxidative stress plays an important role for human health and contributes significantly to many diseases and other chronic health effects. This study aimed to determine the role of oxidative stress of pesticides occupational exposure and smoking on male reproductive hormones and the antagonistic role of antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were estimated in 51agriculture workers occupationally exposed to pesticides and 50 controls. Results: Results revealed significant decrease in AChE, BuChE, GSH and SOD levels in the workers compared to controls and significant increase in MDA, GPx and GST. Moreover, MDA and FSH were significantly increased among the smoker workers compared to non-smoker workers. The MDA was significantly correlated with GST and inversely correlated with AChE and BuChE in exposed workers. The FSH and LH were significantly correlated with SOD. Conclusion: Occupational exposures to pesticides and smoking have synergistic oxidative effect on FSH. It seemed that SOD and GST play important roles in antagonizing this oxidative stress among the examined pesticides workers. Therefore, smoking cessation and improving in the dietary habits with antioxidant supplementation could be essential for protection against the chronic toxic effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on the male reproductive hormones among smokers.
Research Article
Protective Role of Seed Extract of Tephrosia purpurea in Letrozole Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Wistar Rats
Muddasir Basheer, Seema Rai, Hindole Ghosh and Younis Ahmad Hajam
Background and Objective: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is very common heterogeneous endocrinologic and metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age which leads to infertility/subfertility. The medications available are associated with so many side effects. Therefore; the current study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) in letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in female rat model. Materials and Methods: Letrozole was administered orally (1 mg kg–1 body weight) for 21 days to induce PCOS condition in female rat model (Rattus norvegicus). Three different doses of ethanolic seed extract were administered to PCOS induced rats orally (100, 200 and 300 mg kg–1) for 28 days. On the completion of experimental period, different parameters were studied viz. ovarian weight, ovarian tissue biochemistry (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase), hormone assays (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH, leptin) and histopathology. Results: Ovarian PCOS-induced female rats revealed significant increase in ovarian weight lipid peroxidation and blood plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone when compared to control group, whereas, there was a reduction in the level of blood plasma estradiol, progesterone leptin and ovarian tissue reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities. The ethanolic seed extract restored the anomalies in biochemical, hormonal and histological parameters suggesting it might be used in the management of PCOS. Conclusion: Therefore, it might be suggested that ethanolic seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea might be used in the management of PCOS.
Research Article
Anti-hyperuricemic, Uricosuric and Xanthine-oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Watermelon Powder in a Rat Gout Model
Basim Jasim Hameed, Falah Hassan Shari and Usama Hamid Ramadhan
Background and Objective: Gout is a common metabolic disorder around the world. It characterized by elevation of uric acid levels in the blood, leading to increase the deposition of urate crystals in the joints and kidneys. The current study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and mechanism action of watermelon powder as antihyperuricemic agent. Materials and Methods: Enzyme assay was done by using bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO). The XO inhibitory activity in vitro was performed by using different doses of watermelon powder and the degree of XO inhibition was expressed as IC50. The antihyperuricemic and uricosuric activity of watermelon were tested in the potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats for seven consecutive days of oral treatment of 25, 50 and 100 mg kg–1 doses. Results: The results of the study revealed that the watermelon has a moderate activity of XO inhibition with IC50 =95.24 μg mL–1. In addition, these results showed that all doses of watermelon powder were able to significant reduce serum uric acid levels in the hyperuricemic rats. Moreover, the results of uricosuric activity assay showed that the watermelon significantly increased the urinary excretion of uric acid. Conclusion: The watermelon powder showed significant effects on the evaluated models and therefore it may be promising agent for the treatment of gout since it possesses a moderate xanthine oxidase inhibitory and a potent of both antihyperuricemic and uricosuric effects.
Research Article
Evaluation of Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties of Isolated Flavonoids from Breynia disticha J.R.Forst. and G.Forst
Nagwa M. Ammar, Seham S. El Din El-Hawary, Amira A. El Anssary, Rehab M. Seif El-Din Ashour, Ahmed H. Afifi, Abeer A.A. Salama, Noha Nazeeh and Mohamed M. Ayoub
Background and Objectives: Breynia disticha J.R.Forst. and G.Forst is a tropical shrub widely grown in tropical Africa. The leaves have characteristic green, purple and pink color, found in gardens and public areas. The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical and biological activities of successive extracts of aerial parts of Breynia disticha J.R.Forst. and G.Forst, cultivated in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Collection and taxonomical identification of the plant. Biological screening of successive extracts of Breynia disticha J.R. Forst. and G. Forst. and structural elucidation of compounds isolated by using different spectral techniques. Results: Two new flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1→6) β-D-galactopyranoside along with its analogue kaempferol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1→6) β-D-galactopyranoside were isolated from 70% aqueous methanol extract of aerial parts of Breynia disticha J.R.Forst. and G.Forst. The chemical structures of the two compounds were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic analysis. Quercetin 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1→6) β-D-galactopyranoside showed significant antioxidant and cytotoxic activities against hepatocellular carcinoma compared by its analogue. Also the polar fraction showed hepatoprotective activity by reducing elevated serum ALT level, AST, ALP, total bilirubin and decreased liver content of NO and normalized MDA, GSH and SOD. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed the presence of two new compounds and the polar fraction of the plant represent a promising hepatoprotective activity.
Research Article
Antifungal and Anti-mycotoxigenic Impact of Eco-Friendly Extracts of Wild Stevia
Shaaban Mostafa Abdel-Fattah, Ahmed Noah Badr, Ferial Abdel-Hamid Abu Seif, Safaa Mohamed Ali and Ramadan Ahmed Hassan
Background and Objectives: Plant extracts included several antioxidant molecules like phenolic, tocopherols, flavonoids and other active molecules. These compounds could have antimicrobial properties and could control mycotoxigenic fungi in foods and feeds, avert utilizing synthetic chemicals. This study aimed to evaluate several wild stevia extracts impact on toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins as food hazards. Materials and Methods: A plant of wild Stevia (WST) was extracted using three different methods. Extracts tested as antimycotic contra toxigenic fungi. Antibacterial activity against positive and negative gram bacteria assessed. Oxidative activity estimated by the spectrophotometer via two different assays. Phenolic and flavonoid molecules spectrophotometrically evaluated. Aflatoxins content and the reducing ratio evaluated using HPLC assay. Result statistically analyzed using analysis of variances (ANOVA one way SPSS.16). Results: The three extracts showed variation for inhibiting bacterial and fungal growth with antioxidant efficiency. Among the extracts, aqueous-ethanolic extract (1:1) recorded as the highest antimicrobial, antimycotic and antioxidant potency. The antioxidant activity of tested extracts was varying depending on extracting type. The concentration of 10 mg mL1 of WST ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts was more effective than their aqueous extract, in inhibition of fungal growth or aflatoxin production. The aqueous alcoholic extract was the most effective in aflatoxin degradation. Conclusion: While WST leaf showed promising antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Extraction methods in present research were applied by the eco-friendly solvent system. These findings indicate the possible exploitation of this plant as modern food preservatives side to a good ability of the aqueous alcoholic extract to limit mycotoxin.
Research Article
Dominant Weeds Diversity in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Crop in Garut Regency West Java Province, Indonesia
Yayan Sumekar, Denny Kurniadie, Uum Umiyati, Dedi Widayat and Syariful Mubarok
Background and Objectives: The existence of weeds on potato crops could decrease the productivity of the crops, so that weed control efforts were absolutely necessary. The diversity of dominant weed types needed to be known so that weed control could be done correctly. This study aimed to make dominant weed mapping on potato cultivation in Garut regency. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted using the quadratic method. Two locations of potato plant areas as samples scattered at different altitude or topographic conditions were randomly selected in each sub-district. At each location the sample was weighed diagonally (5 times) for each plot of potato cropping using the iron squares of size 0.5×0.5 m. Field data was used to determine weed species, weed density, weed frequency, weed domination, importance value, summed dominance ratio, weed dry weight and species diversity index. Results: The results showed that the dominant weed species in Cisurupan, Pasirwangi, Cikajang and Cigedug Sub-districts were Galinosoga parviflora (29.66%), Amaranthus spinosus (34.62%), Drymaria vilosa (22.72%) and Cyperus rotundus (21,26%), respectively. The value of diversity index of potato crop acquired in Garut regency ranged from 1.46-2.26 including low-moderate. Conclusion: This study concluded that weeds in highland potato cultivation in Garut regency were dominated by broad-leaved weeds.
Research Article
Whey Protein Bar Supplementation Effects Combined with Resistance Training on Athletes
Fawzi Amin El-Shobaki, Shreef Gamal Noub Gabrial, Marie-Christine Raymond Shakib, Magda Soliman Mohamed Abdel Haleem and Gamal Noub Gabrial
Background and Objectives: Resistance training causes damage or tears to the muscle cells, which require supplementation with protein sources that have a rapid rate of digestion and good source of amino acids and other essential nutrients to ensure quick repair and help muscle regeneration and growth. The objective of the present study was to formulate a whey protein bar supplement that satisfies the requirements of the athletes from different nutrients. Also, to investigate its beneficial synergistic effects following resistance training on body measurements. Additional parameters to insure safety of the formula were analyzed. Materials and Methods: Eight male athletes, aged 19–25 participated in the present study, which lasted for a period of four months. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, anthropometric and skin fold measurements were registered. Blood hemoglobin concentration, serum activities of AST and ALT enzymes, serum creatinine, uric acid and urea were measured. Serum lipid profile and blood electrolytes were estimated. Results: After whey protein bar supplementation, a significant decrease in the activity of AST was recorded. Serum urea level and uric acid were significantly decreased. Concerning electrolytes, results showed a significant increase in serum sodium, phosphorus levels and a significant decrease in serum potassium and magnesium. Moreover, significant reduction in serum lipid profile levels was observed. Whey protein bar supplementation slightly increased body weight and caused an increase in circumference measurements. A regular decrease in body fat, an increase in water percentage and in muscle mass, together with a slight decrease in bone mass and in skin fold measurements occurred. Conclusion: Supplementing whey protein bar with other nutrients sources improved athletes’ post exercise body composition and other anthropometric measurements. Biochemical assessments proved health effect and safety of this formula; therefore it may be helpful to athletes following resistance training for muscle hypertrophy.

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