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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Isolation and Molecular Identification of Food Grade Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Antifungal Activity
Soher El-Sayed Aly, Nivien Abdelrahman Abo-Sereih, Rasha Gomma Salim and Amal Shawky Hathout
Background and Objective: The presence of pathogenic fungi in grains has been a global concern due to their economic effects. Recently, biological control methods have become an important strategy to control pathogenic fungi. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and identify food grade lactic acid bacteria and screen their antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from peanuts. Materials and Methods: Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from dairy products. The lactic acid bacterial cell-free supernatants and bacteriocins were studied for the antifungal activity against fungal species isolated from peanut samples. The two lactic acid bacteria isolates and their bacteriocins that showed antifungal activity were identified using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. Results: A total of 20 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from traditional dairy products. Meanwhile, a total of 90 fungal isolates were isolated from peanut samples. Aspergillus (55%) was the dominant genus including five species namely, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus and A. niger. Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma genera were also isolated but in a lower frequency. Both lactic acid bacterial cell-free supernatants and their bacteriocins showed antifungal activity against fungal species isolated from peanut samples and were thus identified using the molecular 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Lactic acid bacteria isolates 11 and 12 showed 99% homology with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. Their sequences were deposited in the GenBank databases under accession number MF000305.1 and MF000307.1. Conclusion: This study revealed the probability of using these Enterococcus isolates in food preservation. The partial or total sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rRNA) gene showed a fast technique for bacterial classification.
Research Article
Yeast and Trichoderma viride Don't Synergistically Work to Improve Olive Trees by Products Digestibility and Lactating Barki Ewe's Productivity
Hossam H. Azzaz, Hend A. Aziz, Hoda Alzahar and H.A. Murad
Background and Objective: Olive trees by products (OTB) as agro-waste not efficiently used and left it without treatment may cause serious economical, social and environmental problems. Biological treatments for such wastes can upgrade their nutritive values to be used as alternative feeds for ruminants. Investigate if their synergism between T. viride and S. cerevisiae and impact of each of them or their mixture on OTB digestibility and lactating Barki ewe's productivity are the main objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: Early lactating Barki ewes were randomly assigned into four groups of seven animals each using complete random design. Ewes were fed (4% of their body weight DM), 70% concentrate feed mixture (CFM)+30% untreated OTB (control group), 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with Trichoderma viride (R1), 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (R2) and 70% CFM+30% OTB treated with T. viride+S. cerevisiae (R3). Results: No synergism was noted between T. viride and S. cerevisiae on the tested parameters. Ruminal total volatile fatty acids and NH3-N concentrations, microbial protein synthesis and total protozoa count were higher in treated groups than control. Biological treatments increased (p<0.05) all nutrients digestibility, fiber fractions digestibility, milk production and milk components yields. Blood serum globulin, urea, ALT and AST concentrations were not change among all ewes groups, while biologically treated ewes had higher (p<0.05) serum total protein and albumin than those of control. Conclusion: Inclusion of biologically treated olive tree by products (OTB) in lactating ewe’s rations improved their productive performance with no deleterious effects on the treated animal’s health.
Research Article
Tail Erosion an Emerging Disease Affecting Tilapia Fry in Kafrelsheikh Hatcheries
Nadia Gabr Ali and Ibrahim Mohamed Aboyadak
Background and Objective: Tilapia hatchery sector at Kafrelsheikh was suffered from increased mortality in newly hatched fry that results in severe economic losses, the present research was conducted to determine the possible causes of fry mortality affecting two Oreochromis niloticus hatcheries at Kafrelsheikh governorate. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 tilapia fry from two affected hatcheries were randomly collected for clinical and parasitological examination, another 150 naturally infected tilapia fry was used in the treatment trial using Viroscan or formalin-malachite green combination for determination of their efficacy in controlling of such infection. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, pH and salinity were also determined. Results: The cumulative mortality was estimated by 14 and 10% during 21-day post hatch. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity were suitable for Oreochromis niloticus fry rearing while, ammonia level was on the borderline. The main clinical signs observed on diseased fry were darkening color, tail erosion and swimming near the water surface. Microscopic examination revealed infestation with Gyrodactylus and Trichodina. The total prevalence of parasitic infestation was 92 and 84%, the mean intensity was 25.97±7.28 and 17.3±3.92 parasite/fry for Gyrodactylus, 33.92±8.59 and 13±3.51 for Trichodina in first and second hatchery, respectively. Gyrodactylus infestation controlled with long bath treatment using formalin-malachite green combination (50+0.2 ppm)/litter for 4 h while either the recommended dose (25+0.1 ppm) or Viroscan at (100 and 50 ppm) was ineffective. Trichodina resist all treatments after 4 h of application. All the applied treatments were safe for the fry but the high concentration of formalin-malachite green causes limited mortality (3.33%). Conclusion: Gyrodactylus sp. and Trichodina sp. were the direct causes of mortality in affected hatcheries, Formalin-malachite green mixture (50+0.2 ppm) was effective in controlling Gyrodactylus infestation also they considered safe at this concentration.
Research Article
Effects of Melatonin and Zinc Amino Acid on Female Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) Broodstock Performance
Siti-Ariza Aripin, Orapint Jintasataporn and Ruangvit Yoonpundh
Background and Objective: Clarias macrocephalus is an important aquaculture species and have generated much interest in artificial propagation, especially in enhancing the broodstock performance and larval quality for aquaculture production. This study examined the broodstock performance effects of the combined zinc amino acid and melatonin treatment to the female walking catfish, Clarias macrocephalus. Materials and Methods: The varied zinc amino acid levels and melatonin of Control (0 ppm zinc amino acid and melatonin), MZn1 (100 ppm zinc amino acid and 50 mg kg–1 melatonin) and MZn2 (200 ppm zinc amino acid and 50 mg kg–1 melatonin) were mixed in the diet comprised of isonitrogenous and isocaloric of 37% crude protein and 9.3% crude lipid and were fed to the female catfish. Zinc accumulation, maturation analysis, breeding performance and immune analysis were evaluated. Results: The results of this study revealed that the combined zinc amino acid and melatonin treatment (MZn1 and MZn2) significantly increased the maturation parameters and reproductive performance after 8 weeks of treatment. There was also a significant increase in haematological parameters within the combined zinc amino acid and melatonin treatment such as red blood cell count and haematocrit. Conclusion: This study recommended the combined zinc amino acid and melatonin treatment of the dosage of 200 ppm zinc amino acid and 50 mg kg–1 melatonin (MZn2) to enhance the female maturation of C. macrocephalus.
Research Article
Prospective Role of Solanum Cultures in Producing Bioactive Agents against Melanoma, Breast, Hematologic Carcinomas Cell Lines and Associated Microbiome
Hanan Abd Al-Hay Al-Ashaal, Mona Mohamed Hasan, Walid Fayad and Magda Abd El-Ghaffar El-Bendary
Background and Objective: Solanum genus (Solanaceae) is well known by a diversity of active phytochemicals with multi disciplinary biological applications. The study aimed to evaluate the activity of methanolic extract and isolated glycoalkaloids of Solanum torvum callus as antimicrobial in vitro and also to evaluate their cytotoxic role against human carcinomas cell lines. Materials and Methods: Callus cultures of S. torvum were established on Murashige and Skoog media with plant growth regulators. The main constituents of the methanolic extract were identified using HPLC analysis. Anticandidiasis activity was examined against candida albicans. The antibacterial performance was checked versus Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Cytotoxic activities were performed contra melanoma, breast and lymphoma cell lines. Results: Present outputs illustrated that callus cultures were successfully established and accomplished with biosynthesis of the distinguished solanum glycoalkaloids (15.18%). Phenolics were also identified in the in vitro cultures as flavonoids (9.80%) and coumarins (3.41%). Regarding anti candidiasis, current results demonstrated high activities of both S. torvum callus extract and isolated glycoalkaloids with distinctive effect of the later comparing to nystatin. Present data also, illustrated that glycoalkaloids were more active against Gram +ve bacteria while callus extract was more active against Gram -ve bacteria. Plant materials exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against the examined carcinomas cell. Total callus extract showed higher cytotoxic activity than isolated glycoalkaloids which might return to synergistic effect of other phytochemicals. Conclusion: S. torvum cultures are promising routes for developing biologically important active compounds that could be applied as favorable antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.
Review Article
Gene Level Interactions of Four Commonly Used Herbal Products-A Systematic Literature
Muzaffer Arıkan and Sule Arı
Increasing discoveries and introduction of new technologies in genomics field has shown that genomic variations can cause important differences in effects and efficiency of drugs. Thus, the assessment of herbal interactions at gene level can shed light on how effects and efficiency of herbal products (HP) are changed due to genomic variations. In this review, the studies focusing on interactions of four commonly used and clinically important HP, St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Kava (Piper methysticum) with genomic variations by performing a systematic literature review of PubMed database covering the period from the dates of database’s inception till end of 2016 were investigated. The articles met inclusion criteria were classified according to design of studies. The search and evaluation of thousands of articles brought only 15 articles particularly focusing on interaction of four selected HP with genomic variations in certain genes. Of these 15 articles elaborated in this study 11 performed on human subjects while animal models used in 3 of them. And only 1 study was conducted using cell lines. In total, 17 genes were reported in these studies while one of them was genome wide association study. Although it is known that HP interact with numerous number of genes and genomic variations can alter the efficacy, results of our study have showed these pharmacogenomic mechanisms are poorly investigated. Therefore, comprehensive studies focusing on gene level interactions are strongly needed to improve safety and efficiency standards for HP.

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