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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Dr. Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Published on September 21, 2019
Molecular Investigation of KRAS Gene in Breast Cancer Patients
Rozhgar A. Khailany, Muhammad Safdar and Mehmet Ozaslan
Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the type of cancer that most affects women around the world. It accounts for around 30% of all cancers. KRAS gene is mutually initiated in about 20% of every single vigorous cancer. However, the further development of clinically successful KRAS coordinated malignancy treatments was usually unsuccessful and KRAS mutant malignancies are among the most resistant drugs. KRAS gene variations usually occur in many adenocarcinomas such as; lung, pancreas, breast and colon. The role of oncogene KRAS in later periods of neoplastic development that is taken after the onset is still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate mutation and mRNA expression level of KRAS in breast cancer patients by using DNA sequencing and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase techniques. Materials and Methods: The study included 44 paired normal and tumor samples from patients grouped based on the types of breast cancer and the patients' clinical characteristics, including age and grade of tumors. Results: The KRAS expression on the level mRNA was significantly increased (up-regulated) in tumor samples compared to the control samples. However, a heterozygous mutation (G>A) (GGT/GAT) was identified in two patients in the KRAS gene. Conclusion: The up-regulated expression of KRAS on the level mRNA can be a risk factor for breast cancer development and the changed KRAS expression level can alter individual breast cancer sensitivity.
Research Article
Published on September 21, 2019
Inhibition and Co-Regulation of Five Amino Acids Produced in Alternaria alternata Exposed to Acetaldehyde
Mvuyisi Mivuyo Surrender Mbovane and Khayalethu Ntushelo
Background and Objective: Acetaldehyde is an inhibitor of growth of fungi including Alternaria alternata and alters biochemical processes. However, its effect on the regulation of the production of amino acids in A. alternata remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition and co-regulation of five amino acids produced in Alternaria alternata exposed to acetaldehyde. Materials and Methods: To assess the regulation of the production of amino acids in A. alternata exposed to acetaldehyde colonies of this fungus were exposed this volatile compound at concentrations of 0, 5 and 10% over 24, 48, 96 and 120 h. Results: Results showed that acetaldehyde inhibited A. alternata mycelial growth in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, evidence of suppression and co-regulation of the production of amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, proline, tyrosine and valine was discovered. Conclusion: From these results it could be concluded that acetaldehyde can suppress and co-regulate the production of the five amino acids.
Research Article
Published on September 23, 2019
Changes in Antioxidant Status, Water Relations and Physiological Indices of Maize Seedlings under Drought Stress Conditions
Arwa Abdulkreem AL-Huqail
Background and Objectives: Continuously changing climate and drought stress is drastically affecting maize crop ecology. Drought stress at seedling stage disturbs the normal physiological plant functions and results in stunted growth. In present study the maize seedlings were tested to evaluate their stress tolerance against water limiting conditions through fluctuations in antioxidant defense mechanism, physiological responses and changes in plant water relations. Materials and Methods: Maize seedlings were exposed to drought stress at 3 levels (15, 25, 35%) induced by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000), under controlled conditions with completely randomized design (CRD) having 3 replications. Results: Drought stress significantly inhibited the plant growth and its oxidative defense mechanism. Drought stress also affected significantly plant water relations and physiological attributes. Results showed that 35% PEG6000-induced drought stress has affected these parameters with more severity as compared to 15 and 25% stress levels and control plants. Increased quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) viz. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide (O2·) were observed due to PEG6000-induced drought stress. Similarly, antioxidative enzymes activities were accelerated due to drought stress with high values for superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In contrast, leaf water contents and membrane stability values were recorded with marked decrease, with maximum membrane leakage values for 35% PEG6000 drought stress treatment. Similarly, all drought stressed plants under 3 stress levels had showed fluctuations for efficiency of dark-adapted PS-II (Fv/Fm), as compared to non-stressed control plants. Conclusion: In crux, drought stress at 35% PEG-6000 considerably influenced the maize seedlings in oxidative defense mechanism, water relations and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.

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