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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Source of Plants Used by Traditional Healers for Respiratory Infections and Related Symptoms in the Limpopo Province
Sebua Silas Semenya and Alfred Maroyi
Background and Objective: Establishment of therapeutic plant specimen supplies used in the traditional healing sector is a crucial step towards conservation of medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The aim of the study was to evaluate sources of plants used by Bapedi traditional healers (THs) as remedies for respiratory infections (RIs) and related symptoms (RLs) in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Materials and Methods: For data collection, it employed a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field observations with 240 Bapedi THs practicing in the Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts of the Limpopo province, South Africa. Results: A total of 224 species (83%, n = 186 indigenous and 16.9%, n = 38 exotics) belonging to 177 genera and 85 botanical families were documented. This species was obtained by THs from free access communal lands, home gardens and informal herbal medicine shops (muthi shops), for use against RIs and RSs. Amongst these sources, communal lands (68.3%, n=153), particularly bushvelds and grasslands were the major supplies of native plant species (98.6%, n=151). Conclusion: Conservation strategies of the recorded medicinal plants distributed in the communal lands are required.
Research Article
Comparative Response of Cantaloupe Features to Amino Acids, Humic Acid and Plant Oils Towards Downy Mildew Disease
Kamar Mohamed Abd El-Hai, Ayman Yahya El-Khateeb, Abeer Abdulkhalek Ghoniem and WesamEldin Ismail Ali Saber
Background and Objective: Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is the causal pathogen of cucurbit downy mildew, with behavior as an obligate parasite to crops within Cucurbitaceae family. Control of this pathogen commonly used costly fungicide programs, which a current application developed resistant fungi. The aim of the study was to investigate the vegetative features, biochemical parameters and fruity yield of cantaloupe as a response to amino acids, humic acid and essential oils (anise and thyme) towards downy mildew disease. Materials and Methods: The investigation trial was conducted under natural infection with P. cubensis, whereas the mixture of amino acids, humic acid (1000 and 2000 ppm), essential oils of thyme and anise (2 and 4 mL L1) were treated as a foliar spray for plants and compared with fungicide. Results: Amino acids and humic acid showed a highly significant decrease in the percentage of disease incidence and severity. As well as, significant response of plant heights, branches number, shoot dry weights and leaves area to amino acids and humic acids has been obtained. Interestingly, the low dose of humic acid (1000 ppm) was more effective compared to a high dose (2000 ppm) in the induction of the afore-mentioned parameters. However, both thyme and anise showed moderate significance at a certain concentration and season. The superiority of amino acids in productivity of yield. Conclusion: Amino acids and humic acid were effectively decrease the disease incidence and severity (%) of cantaloupe and improved the vegetation characters, biochemical and fruity yield.
Research Article
Antimicrobial and Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Potential of Ziziphus Spina-christi (Sedr), A Jordanian Medicinal Plant
Sabah Mohammad Khaleel, Adnan Saleem Jaran and Taghleb Muhammad-Fateh Al-Deeb
Background and Objective: Anti-microbial agents, specially anti-biotics are becoming less potent against microbial infections due to the development of resistance. The need to find new agents never been more pressing. Natural products such as plant extracts are emerging as possible replacement for the outdated anti-biotics. The overall aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-microbial activities of crude methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ziziphus spina-christi (sedr), collected from Jordan Valley, against Gram-negative bacteria represented by E. coli and P. aeruginosa, Gram-positive bacteria represented by S. aureus and yeast represented by C. albicans and to assess the lipid anti-oxidant potential of the plant leaf extracts in linoleic acid model system. Materials and Methods: Methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Z. spina-christi were prepared and tested for their anti-oxidant activities against lipid peroxidation using ammonium thiocyanate method. Agar well diffusion and microtiter plate-based anti-bacterial assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth were performed to determine the anti-microbial activities. Results: Plant leaf extracts exhibited anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more susceptible to both extracts. However, no anti-fungal activity against C. albicans was detected for both extracts even at the highest working concentration of 70 mg mL1. Both extracts inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid significantly. Conclusion: Ziziphus leaf extracts showed in vitro anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities. Further purification of extracts and identification of the active component is necessary to enhance greater biological activities.
Research Article
Cytotoxic Activity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Calyx Extracts against Jurkat T-Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Cells
Normah Awang, Nurul Amalina Abd Aziz, Chan Kok Meng, Nurul Farahana Kamaludin, Rapidah Mohamad and Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof
Background and Objective: Plant derivative compounds have been widely used in in vivo and in vitro studies as potential anticancer agents. Several studies demonstrated that Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) possessed an anticancer effect against few cancer cell lines. However, study on their cytotoxicity against lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines still remains unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cytotoxic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) calyx water and ethanol extracts against Jurkat T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines. Materials and Methods: A powder of Roselle calyx was extracted using different types of solvent via ultra-sonication extraction method. The extracts obtained were then assessed for their cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells using (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay upon 24, 48 and 72 h treatment. Results: Water solvent gave the highest percentage of yield followed by ethanol solvent, with the least extract came from hexane solvent. The water and ethanol extracts of Roselle calyx gave no IC50 values in MTT assay yet demonstrated a decrease in cell viability of Jurkat cells in dose and time-dependant manner. The viability of treated cells at concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mg mL–1 of water extract gave a statistical difference (p<0.05) compared to untreated cells. Meanwhile, no statistical differences (p = 0.610) between cell treated with Roselle ethanol extract at any concentrations with negative control. Conclusion: This study indicated that water and ethanol extracts of Roselle calyx were not-toxic towards Jurkat cells. This could be due to the selectivity of phytochemical in which their cytotoxic effect depends on human cancer types. However, those extracts can be further studied for their other potential such as chemo-preventive agent towards Jurkat cell line.
Research Article
Applicability of Using Edible Algae (Spirulina platensis) to Prepare High Protein Quality Labenah
Hayam Mohamed Abbas, Eman Sayed Abdel-Kader Farahat, Wafaa Mohamed Zaky and Ashraf Gaber Mohamed
Background and Objective: The growing population number combined with limited food resources resulted in the great need for alternative protein sources and functional food. This study aimed to prepare functional labenah using edible green algae, Spirulina platensis, as a rich source of protein and enhancer of Bifidobacterium activity. Materials and Methods: This study was divided into two parts. The first one, was to study the effect of different concentrations of Spirulina platensis (1, 3 and 5 mg mL1 pure media) on the activity of Bifidobacterium. The second was to study the properties of three different labenah samples; the first one used as control (T1) and contained 2% traditional yogurt starter culture. The second (T2) was prepared by adding 2% Bifidobacterium spp. The third treatment (T3) contained 5 mg mL1 of Spirulina platensis powder plus 2% Bifidobacterium spp. All labenah samples stored at 5°C for 21 days and analyzed when fresh and after 7, 14 and 21 days for acidity percent; pH values and TVFAs contents. Color parameters and sensorial properties were also estimated during the same periods of storage. Results: Supplementation of Spirulina platensis markedly activated the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. While, slight differences were observed in the studied chemical parameters of the three different labenah samples. Obtained data revealed that the acidity percent of samples as well as TVFAs contents were slightly increased in treated samples rather than control and in stored samples rather than fresh. The pH values took an opposite trend. Noticeable and clear differences between control and treated samples were observed in color parameters and sensorial evaluation. Results also indicated that using of Spirulina platensis gave a clean and moderate acid taste with an acceptable color and favorite properties. Conclusion: Using 5 mg mL1 of Spirulina platensis powder succeeded in preparing acceptable labenah samples and promote the growth of Bifidobacterium. So it is recommended to use this formulation to prepare labenah. Further studies should be done in food sector to prepare another algal dairy products using Spirulina platensis powder.
Research Article
Identification of Serious Clinical Amebic Dysentery Cases in the Middle Euphrates Region of Iraq
Hadi Fadhil Alyasari, Hayder O. Hashim, Alaa Hamady Obeid Altaei and Mohammed Baqur S. Al- Shuhaib
Background and Objective: A lot of enteric parasites are responsible for causing morbidity and mortality outcomes in the worldwide individuals, especially in poor hygienic countries. The present study was conducted to detect amebic dysentery-causing Entamoeba species in the middle Euphrates regions in Iraq. Materials and Methods: A total of 155 diarrhea admitted-females (aged from 10-70 years old) who underwent parasitological examination were included in the study. After its classical confirmation, the presence of amebic dysentery was detected by PCR. Results: It was found that the overall prevalence of amoebic species infection in the infected females was 62% (96/155). Comparison of age groups showed that 30-39 aged females had a more susceptibility rate than other age groups since the highest levels of amoebic infection were shown in the 30-39 aged females. Three forms of amoebic infection were observed, including E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. coli, which, as long as other painful clinical symptoms were concentrated in rural and low educated level of the studied areas. Conclusion: This pilot present study discovered a remarkable percentage of amoebic dysentery infection in the females aged 30-39 years old, which may imply serious precautions for this group throughout the developing world.
Research Article
Treatment of Feline panleukopenia Virus Infection in Naturally Infected Cats and its Assessment
Romane Adieb Awad, Safwat Ali Hassan and Brit Martens
Background and Objective: High mortalities recorded in diseased cats with Feline panleukopenia virus infection (FPV) and failure of treatment in most of those cases has stimulated us to evaluate different types of treatment used to treat cat with Feline panleukopenia viral infection (FPV) in different ages. Materials and Methods: About 300 cats showing signs suggestive for (FPV) infection were subjected to clinical examination, Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on fecal sample to detect viral antigen and blood examination complete blood picture (CBC). Clinical examination revealed the presence of fever, depression, vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration. ELISA on fecal samples was positive for FPV in all the 300 examined cats. Panleukopenia was detected in the examined blood samples. A trail for treatment was applied using supportive classical treatment for all of the diseased cats while 2 groups (each of 100 cats) received also Feliserine Plus and Zylexis as trail for treatment using antibodies specific against FPV and as a source for interferon to control viral infection Results: Recovery rate in the form of clinical improvement and survival of diseased animals were significantly higher in the group treated by Feliserine Plus (85%) followed by the group treated by Zylexis (16.%) in age groups of 6-7, 8-10,12 and 24 months, while sex has no effect using chi-square test. Conclusion: The use of Feline specific neutralizing antibodies against FPV proved to be more efficient in treatment of diseased cats in comparison to the use of inactivated parapox ovis strain D1701, while the use of supportive and classical treatment only gave the lower recovery and survival rate among diseased cats.
Research Article
Protective and Curative Effects of Bombax ceiba Flower and Ziziphus spina christi Fruit Extracts on Gastric Ulcer
Maged Mohamed Abd-Elhakim Barakat, Noha Ahmed El-Boghdady, Ebtehal Kamal Eldin Farrag, Ataa Abdelhalim Said and Sylvia Edward Shaker
Background and Objective: Bombax ceiba L. and Ziziphus spina christi L. are medicinal plants with remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory features. The current study aimed to investigate the protective and the curative effects of Bombax ceiba flower (BCF) and Ziziphus spina christi fruit (ZSCF) extracts against ethanol induced gastric injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was produced by single oral dose of 5 mL kg1 absolute ethanol on 24 h empty stomachs. One group of animals was left untreated as normal control (NC) group. Other animal groups received orally Ranitidine 100 mg kg1/day, Bombax 300 mg kg1/day or Ziziphus 200 mg kg1/day for 7 days prior to set A or after ulceration (set B). All rats were sacrificed after 2 h in set A or after 1 week in set B. Results: Each extract succeeded to attenuate the severity of ethanol gastric mucosal damage, decreased the elevated ulcer index and cell organelle marker enzymes. Both extracts suppressed gastric inflammation by curbing of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels along with interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and halted gastric oxidative stress via inhibition of lipid peroxides with concomitant enhancement of glutathione (GSH) level. These favorable actions were associated with increase in the gastric cytoprotective factors such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), nitric oxide (NOx) and decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Conclusion: The foregoing findings accentuated the protective and curative actions of both extracts in ethanol gastric injury.
Research Article
Dietary Fucoidan from Padina boergesenii to Enhance Non-specific Immune of Catfish (Clarias sp.)
Cahyono Purbomartono, Alim Isnansetyo, Murwantoko and Triyanto
Background and Objective: Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide with diverse biological activity including immune-potentiating activity, but such activity is little evaluated in fish. This research aimed to evaluate the non-specific immune-stimulating activity of fucoidan from a tropical brown alga, Padina boergesenii orally administered in catfish (Clarias sp.). Materials and Methods: A brown alga of P. boergesenii used was collected from Jepara intertidal coastal zone, Central Java, Indonesia and the species was identified base on morphological characteristics. Fucoidan was isolated by acidic methods. CaCl2 was added to separate fucoidan from alginate and then the fucoidan was precipitated by ethanol. Fucoidan was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FT-IR) spectrometry and chemical analyses. Catfish was orally administered with fucoidan at 2,000, 4,000 and 6,000 mg kg1 feed. Non-specific immune parameters of phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, superoxide anion (SOA) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum antibacterial activity, respiration burst and serum bacterial agglutination were evaluated. Results: Identification based on morphological characteristics of the brown alga used in this research was Padina boergesenii Allender and Kraft. FTIR spectrum of fucoidan extracted from P. boergesenii was identical to the bands demonstrated by FTIR spectrum of fucoidan standard from Fucus vesiculosus. Chemical analysis showed that fucoidan from P. boergesenii composed by sulfate 22.4%, uronic acid 7.5% and sugar content 40.18%. Dietary fucoidan increased SOA activity, serum antibacterial activity, serum agglutination and phagocytic activity (p<0.05). However, SOD activity and phagocytic index was not affected by supplemented fucoidan. Conclusion: This fucoidan significantly enhanced innate immunity of catfish at 4,000-6,000 mg kg1 feed implying the potential of fucoidan to be used for feed supplement in stimulating non-specific immune response in fish culture.
Research Article
Real Time Brightness Mode Ultrasound in Determining the Causes and Complications of Obstructive Uropathy
Mustafa Z. Mahmoud
Background and Objective: Obstructive uropathy (OU) refers to the structural or functional changes in the urinary tract that impede normal urine flow. This study was designed with an aim to detect the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of using real-time brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) in determining the causes and complication of OU. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with symptoms of OU were recruited for a period of 12 months between August, 2017 and August, 2018 in this prospective study. The renal and pelvic US examination was conducted using Mindray's DC-60 machine, equipped with a lower frequency (3.5 MHz) curvilinear probe that allowing a deep penetration and a wide depth of field, which was excellent for viewing intra-abdominal and pelvic structures. Results: Renal stones 25(40.3%), prostatic masses 9(14.5%), urinary tract infection (UTI) 2(3.2%) and urinary bladder (UB) diverticula1(1.6%) were the major causes of OU in male patients. While, in female patients, the most common causes of OU were renal stones 11(28.9%), ovarian masses 6(15.8%), UTI 1(2.6%) and ureterocele 1(2.6%). Hydronephrotic changes with grade II 16(25.8%), grade III 9(14.5%), grade I 2(3.2%) and grade IV 1(1.6%) were frequent in male patients. While, in female patients, the commonest hydronephrotic changes were with grade II 8(21.1%) and 7(18.4%), grade I 1(2.6%) and grade III 1(2.6%). Conclusion: Renal and pelvic US showed a sensitivity of 97.85%, specificity of 75% and accuracy of 95.24% in determining the causes and complication of OU.

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