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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Review Article
Dual Role of CD40 Receptor Signaling in Host Protection and Diseases Progression Against Leishmania Infection
Abdul Aziz A. Bin Dukhyil
In striking contrast to previous observation of two counteracting cells like Th1 and Th2 or two counteracting receptors like CD28 and CTLA4 expressed on the same cell, regulate homeostatic functioning of a physiological process, CD40, a single receptor triggers counteracting effector functions through kinases in reciprocally signaling modules to serve as a bifunctional switch. CD40 differentially activates these modules as a function of stimulus strength and Leishmania infection. With increasing CD40 stimulation, CD40 relocates to cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains called raft. Leishmania, a protozoan parasite impairs the relocation by depleting membrane cholesterol, as cholesterol supplementation in Leishmania-infected macrophages restores CD40 migration to raft. Cholesterol depletion by Leishmania infection or β-methyl cyclodextrin treatment does not abrogate CD40 signaling but switches it from p38MAP kinase module to ERK-1/2 module, modulating effector functions accordingly. The mechanism of signal switching is through differential recruitment of TRAF proteins and membrane associated kinases to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains called membrane raft and detergent-soluble membrane microdomains called membrane non-raft. Leishmania infection and β-methyl cyclodextrin impair whereas cholesterol supplementation restores the CD40 signaling. This review, discussed the different reported functions of CD40-CD40-L interaction and its detailed signaling and importance in Leishmania infection.
Research Article
Morphological Responses of Maize to Drought, Heat and Combined Stresses at Seedling Stage
Liliane Ngoune Tandzi, Graeme Bradley and Charles Mutengwa
Background and Objective: Drought and heat stresses are major abiotic constraints causing limitations to plant growth worldwide and limited focus has been devoted to the combination of the two stresses. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Identify maize genotypes tolerant to heat, drought and combined drought and heat stress and (2) Identify some secondary traits associated these stresses at seedling stage. Materials and Methods: Twenty maize genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates and stresses were imposed in a growth chamber. The leaf stress response percentage, leaf area, plant height, plant aspect and some indices (STI, HTI, DTI and MSTI) were measured. The variances in traits among genotypes were performed using SAS software and Turkey’s test was used for mean separation. Results: There were significant differences between genotypes for all the traits assessed under stress environments. Three inbred lines (L6-Y, L24-Y and Sweety 015) expressed relatively good performance across environments and could be potentially useful genotypes in breeding maize for tolerance to combined drought and heat stress and for tolerance to the individual stresses. Shoot weight, plant height and chlorophyll content showed significant relationships with stress tolerance indices (STI, HTI, DTI and MSTI) and could therefore, be used as secondary traits in maize screening at seedling stage under combined drought and heat stress environments. Heat stress environment was highly and positively correlated with combined drought and heat stress environment (+0.79) for stress tolerance index. Conclusion: Result of study demonstrates that the heat tolerant genotypes are likely to tolerate combined drought and heat stress conditions. The identified stress tolerant genotypes need to be evaluated in open environment for confirmation of the results.
Research Article
Fermentation by Lactic Acid Bacteria Consortium and its Effect on Anti-nutritional Factors in Maize Flour
Alloysius Chibuike Ogodo, Dawn Ify Agwaranze, Nkechi Valentina Aliba, Adindu Chukwuma Kalu and Chioma Blessing Nwaneri
Background and Objective: This study investigated the effect of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-consortium on the anti-nutritional factors of maize flour. Materials and Methods: Maize was processed into flour, fermented spontaneously and with LAB-consortium (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus nantensis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus brevis) previously isolated from maize and sorghum to evaluate their effects on tannins, phytate, polyphenol and trypsin inhibitor activity at 12 h intervals using standard techniques. Results: The result showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the contents tannin, phytate, polyphenol and trypsin inhibitor activity with increasing fermentation period. The reductions in the anti-nutritional factors were more in the fermentations set-ups by LAB-consortium than spontaneous fermentation. Conclusion: This suggested that altering the natural microflora of maize flour by LAB-consortia during fermentation has potential to decreasing the anti-nutritional factors and improve nutrient bioavailability.
Research Article
Rapid Detection and Control of Gram-negative Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Summer Mortality Outbreak Affecting Tilapia Farms
Nadia Gabr Ali, Ibrahim Mohamed Aboyadak and Mofeed Yousef Gouda
Background and Objective: Summer mortality considered a well-established phenomenon affecting cultured tilapia farms allover Egypt in the past 5 years. The present study was undertaken for determining the pathogenic bacteria incorporated in this phenomenon affecting seven tilapia farms using a rapid diagnostic technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five clinically diseased Nile tilapia were sampled for determining the clinical, gross internal and pathological lesions followed by isolation and automatic biochemical identification for the recovered isolates using VITEK 2 system. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done for bacterial isolates together with conduction of a treatment trial using oxytetracycline and sulphadiazine-trimethoprim combination. Results: Twenty-eight Enterobacter cloacae, 15 Vibrio cholera and 7 Plesiomonas shigelloides isolate were identified using VITEK 2 system. Eighty-six, 52 and 10% of the recovered isolates were sensitive to oxytetracycline, sulphadiazine-trimethoprim and ampicillin, respectively. Various degenerative changes in posterior kidney, hepatopancreas and fundic region of the stomach were observed during the histopathological examination including congestion, hemorrhage, leucocytic infiltration and necrosis. Ammonia level was ranged between 0.33-0.72 mg L1 in farms water. In feed administration of oxytetracycline and sulphadiazine-trimethoprim combination at a dose of 50 and 30 mg kg1 body weight respectively for 10 consecutive days was successful treatment with improving farm water quality. Conclusion: E. cloacae, V. cholera and P. shigelloides were the causative agents of the outbreak affecting the studied farms, high ammonia level was act as a predisposing factor, antibiotic treatment with improving farm water parameters was effective in termination of this disease condition.
Research Article
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Extracts on Blood Glucose in Normal and Alloxan Monohydrate-induced Diabetic Rats
Manoj Ramesh Kumbhare and Thangavel Sivakumar
Background and Objective: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a long term endocrine metabolic disorder that is described by elevated blood sugar, insulin resistance and deficiency of insulin. Due to low toxicities and cost effectiveness natural products are comparatively safe and good source of effective antidiabetic agents. The present study designed to evaluate the effects of Caesalpinia pulcherrima extracts on blood glucose in normal and alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain (150-200 g) of either sex were used in the entire study. After randomization into various groups and before initiation of experiment, the rats were acclimatized for a period of 7 days under standard environmental conditions of temperature, relative humidity and dark/light cycle. Animals described as fasting were deprived of food for 16 h and water ad libitum. Sample collection-blood samples were collected by retro-orbital plexus puncture method and blood glucose levels were estimated using an electronic glucometer. Results: Three weeks of daily treatment of Alloxan induced methanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima at dose 400 mg kg1 led to a dose dependent fall in blood sugar levels from 290-233 mg dL1 in 21 days (Group 6). Conclusion: Extracts of pods of C. pulcherrima are capable of exhibiting reduction in blood glucose level in normal and alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetic rats.
Research Article
Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Salmonella Typhi in Jakarta and its Trends Within the Past Decade
Lucky H. Moehario, T. Robertus, Enty Tjoa, Wani D. Gunardi, Angela Ch. M. Nusatia and Daniel Edbert
Background and Objective: A trend of changing susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi, the etiologic agent of typhoid fever to antibiotics, especially the first line occurred elsewhere to the worst, in which emerged the multiple drug resistance strains. This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi isolates from hospitalised patients in Jakarta and its satellite city to the 1st line antibiotics and others and evaluated whether there is a change of the pattern in the past decade. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis. Records of antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi from 2012-2017 in the hospitals in North, Central and West Jakarta and the satellite city, i.e., South Tangerang was retrieved from WHONET (5.4 and 5.6 version). Antibiotic susceptibility of 80% or greater was determined as good activity in vitro. The susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi in 2008-2010 from hospitals in Central and West Jakarta was also included to view its trend within a decade period. Results: Susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi isolates to the 1st line antibiotics i.e., Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was good, also to Ceftriaxone, Nalidixic acid, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin. The pattern relatively remained unchanged for the past 10 years towards most of the antibiotics tested. Conclusion: Susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi from Jakarta and the satellite city was good to the 1st line antibiotics and others within a decade period. Hence, these can be of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever, especially when microbiology laboratory diagnostic is not available.
Research Article
Variation in the Population of Alternaria solani by Using Sequencing of ITS1 Isolated from Tomato Plants from Jordan Valley
Khalaf Mohammad Khalaf Alhussaen
Background and Objective: The fungus of Alternaria solani causing early blight disease on tomato plants and become very important pathogen. Fungi usually have a variation between their populations and this variation affects disease control methods. In Jordan, scarcity of studies on Alternaria solani have been investigated. Hence, this study was designed to characterize the fungus of Alternaria solani isolated from diseased tomato plants grown in Jordan Valley based on molecular methods using sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. Materials and Methods: Twelve isolates were used and divided into four groups, isolated from diseased tomato plants grown in Jordan valley. Sequences of 12 isolates obtained in this study matched Alternaria solani (LT714700) from GenBank. The unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) dendrogram showed that there were four groups at similarity coefficient 0.1. Each group contains 3 isolates obtained from diseased tomato plants collected from different farms in the Jordan Valley in early 2012. Results: This study demonstrated that there were variation in the population of Alternaria solani isolated from Tomato plant in Jordan Valley based on the sequences of the ITS region of rDNA. The sequences of the ITS region of rDNA for the 12 Alternaria solani isolates were found to be identical to Alternaria solani (LT714700) in the GenBank. Conclusion: This study showed variations in the population of Alternaria solani. This research is the first to describe Alternaria solani in Jordan based on molecular methods. Moreover, the results of this study will help researcher and farmers in finding the best control methods to Alternaria solani.
Research Article
Assessment the Quality of Imitated Pumpkin Processed Cheese During Cold Storage
Hayam Mohamed Abbas, Ashraf Gaber Mohamed and Hala Mohamed Bayiomi
Background and Objective: In advances decades, producing novel products of processed cheese spreads suitable for individual consumers is considered urgent need. Producing of sweet cheese spreads is a new trail for overcoming many food healthy problems. The aim of this research was to study the effect of storage period on some properties of sweet pumpkin processed cheese spreads. Pumpkin is a fruit which has high nutritive value, it is considered a good source of anti-oxidants, carotenoids, potassium and fibers etc. Materials and Methods: Pumpkin paste was impact with processed cheese materials to prepare sweet-pumpkin processed cheese (SPPCs) samples. Samples were traditionally prepared by supplemented three ratios of pumpkin paste (5, 10 and 15% w/w) in cheese base. All resultant samples were stored at 7±1°C for 3 months. Soluble nitrogen content, pH values, color parameters as well as organoleptic properties were evaluated when fresh and after one and 3 months of storage. Results: Obtained data revealed that all treated samples were lower in pH values than control one. Control samples had the highest soluble nitrogen values when fresh or after one and three months compared to treated samples. However, during storage period, soluble nitrogen contents were increased in all samples after three months of storage. Color parameters data indicated that the treated samples had more yellowness color than control ones. Otherwise, sweet pumpkin processed cheese samples gained the highest scores in all acceptability. Conclusion: Preparing new type of processed cheese spread samples using 10 % (w/w) pumpkin past suitable for individual consumers whom suffer from hypertension and children could be available. Storage of these sweet processed cheese samples for three months at 7±1°C, improved their quality through lowing the pH values and increasing the soluble nitrogen contents. They possessed the best and the favorite sensorial properties where they had delicious, sweet and acceptable taste as well as preferable color.
Research Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Sweet Potato Starch-based Bioplastics Plasticized with Glycerol
Akbar Hanif Dawam Abdullah, Sri Pudjiraharti, Myrtha Karina, Oceu Dwi Putri and Rani Hasna Fauziyyah
Background and Objective: Poor biodegradability and the contamination risk of petrochemical-based plastics encouraged the utilization of renewable resources to replace them due to their inexpensive, renewable, biodegradable and compostable properties. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of sweet potato sourced from Indonesia as a base material of bioplastic and its characteristics for food packaging application. Materials and Methods: Starch was extracted from sweet potato and bioplastics was prepared by mixing starch with glycerol using different starch:glycerol w/w ratio (2.5:1, 2.75:1, 3:1 and 3.5:1). Intermolecular interactions and microstructure of bioplastics were assessed by using FTIR and SEM, respectively. The physical and mechanical properties were evaluated by measuring the density, tensile strength and elongation at break. The relative hydrophobicity was examined by measuring the water contact angle. The biodegradability was also investigated with the aid of enzymatic degradation by microbes. Results: Microstructure of bioplastics showed the incomplete gelatinization with the increase of starch:glycerol ratio indicated by the visible inhomogeneous granules. FTIR spectra exhibited that the intermolecular interaction in bioplastics occurred through C-O-H, O-H, C-H aliphatic and C=O groups. Mechanical properties evaluation showed that bioplastic with 3.5:1 (starch:glycerol) ratio exhibited the highest tensile strength of 2.57 MPa with the lowest elongation of 6.27%. Bioplastic with 3.5:1 (starch:glycerol) ratio also showed the highest density and contact angle of 1.66 g cm3 and 50.1°, respectively. The fastest enzymatic degradation showed by the highest microbial growth was presented by bioplastic with 3.5:1 (starch:glycerol) ratio as well. Conclusion: Bioplastic with the highest sweet potato starch:glycerol ratio showed the most excellent physical, mechanical and biodegradability properties.
Research Article
Properties of Probiotic UF-white Soft Cheese Fortified with Garlic Extract
Atif Farrag Farrag, Mohamed Morsy El-Sheikh, Mohamed Tawfeek Fouad, Ahmed Farouk Sayed and Mahmoud Abd El-Aziz
Background and Objective: Garlic ranks highly among health protecting foods, largely due to its antioxidant sulfur compounds. In this study, various properties of UF-white soft cheese fortified with aqueous garlic extract were investigated regarding sensory and microbiological features. Materials and Methods: Probiotic UF-white soft cheese fortified with 2 (T1), 4 (T2) and 6% (T3) garlic aqueous extract (GAE, 1:2) was evaluated. Further microbial and chemical analysis with texture profiling, color determination and sensory evaluation was done. Results: By increasing the proportion of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) in soft cheese, total solids, fat and protein contents as well as pH value decreased, while tyrosine and tryptophan contents slightly increased. GAE-fortified cheese was higher in lightness and yellowish degrees as well as gumminess and lower in hardness. As storage continues, the lightness of GAE-fortified cheese was more stable, while the hardness increased to an extent that it became > the hardness of control cheese. On day 10 on wards, the viable counts of B. bifidum in cheese control and T1 were closed and higher than those of T2 and T3. Mould and yeast were not detected in GAE-fortified cheese until the end of storage (90 days), reflecting GAE has an antimicrobial effect against mould and yeast. Cheese fortified with 6% GAE had judging score acceptable but less than the other treatments. Conclusion: It can be concluded that fortification with the low concentration of GAE (2%) improved cheese chemical, physical and microbiological properties with novel acceptable flavor.
Research Article
Effect of Natural Tal-enzyme on Functional Foods for Tyrosinemia Treatment in Mice Fed on
Hesham A. Eissa, Zeinab Y. Abdallah, Naglaa A. Hafiz, Wafaa A. Ibrahim and Wagdy K.B. Khalil
Background and Objective: The cornerstone management options for tyrosinemia treatment are tyrosine and phenylalanine low diet, plus nitisinone (2-[2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione) (NCTB). Tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) converts tyrosine to harmless metabolites, i.e., P-coumaric acid and ammonia. This study aimed to produce functional foods using tyrosine ammonia-lyase enzyme (TAL) for tyrosinemia treatment through feeding of female mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Extracted TAL enzyme was used to treat egg white and mushroom flour to produce functional foods for tyrosinemia treatment. These functional foods were used to examine their effectiveness on food quality by estimation of color characteristics and determination of tyrosine concentrations. Moreover, determination of the levels of tyrosinemia related-genes expression and DNA damage were carried out. Results: This study found that treated egg white and mushroom flour with TAL enzyme were stable in color. Tyrosine reduction percentages in female mice fed Tal-enzyme treated egg white and Tal-enzyme treated mushroom flour were 72.3 and 30.96%, respectively, compared with untreated diets using tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the expression levels of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD) genes were remarkably elevated in mice feeding on TAL-egg white than other groups. Also, the DNA damage rate in mice fed on TAL-egg white showed lowest was decreased significantly compared with other groups. Conclusion: Addition of TAL enzyme reduced tyrosine to egg white and mushroom flour could be utilized and applied as functional food for tyrosinemia treatment regimes.
Research Article
Effect of Spirulina platensis as Nutrition Source on the Chemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Spreadable Processed Cheese
M.M. Tohamy, Hamdy A. Shaaban, M.A. Ali and A.M. Hasanain
Background and Objective: Supplementation of conventional foods with Spirulina platensis seems to be promising trend due to the nutritional value of such alga which is known as a rich source of protein, fatty acids, fiber, essential vitamins and minerals. Also, it have a functional properties due to the presence of anti-oxidants, omega 3, anti-viral and anti-cancer components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to supplement processed cheese with Spirulina platensis in order to enhance the nutritional and health value of the final product. Materials and Methods: Processed cheese analog (PCA) was supplemented with 2, 4 and 6% of Spirulina platensis on powder form and 4% of this alga on slurry form. The chemical, rheological and sensory properties were evaluated for supplemented PCA as fresh and within 3 months of cold storages 5-7°C. Results: Supplemented PCA with 2% of algae showed the best sensory properties followed by 4% fortified sample, but the level of 6% was unacceptable. The chemical analysis of supplemented PCA showed an increase in the contents of protein, ash, fiber, selenium, zinc, iron, magnesium and potassium. Anti-oxidants activity was higher in supplemented PCA in comparison to control sample. With respect to the powder form of algae, application of slurry form improved more the organoleptic, physical and rheological properties of PCA properties. Conclusion: Supplemented PCA with Spirulina platensis proved to have excellent nutritional, functional and healthy properties to be used as nutraceutical food.
Research Article
Potentiality of Local Wastes as a Source of Natural Antioxidant Dietary Fibers on Dry Pasta
Manal F. Salama, Safaa S. Abozed and Wafaa M. Abozeid
Background and Objective: Nowadays fruits and vegetables by-products may be suggested as a new source of food ingredients, for their content of antioxidant dietary fiber and bioactive compounds for enhancing nutritional and health properties of cereal products. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive compounds, dietary fiber and antioxidant potential of by-products to increase their turning possibility into processing industry. Materials and Methods: This study estimated the influence of fruits and vegetables by-product (outer cabbage leaves, banana peel and carrot peel) on antioxidant dietary fiber, polyphenols and antioxidant activity of the final pasta products at substituted ratios (1, 3 and 5%). Data was analyzed by one-way and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p<0.05 Results: Dried cabbage leaves have higher contents of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents than dried banana and carrot peel while, dried banana recorded highest values of antioxidant activity (RSA/DPPH%) and total dietary fiber. Maximum total phenolic and flavonoid content was recorded at 21.08 mg (GAE g1) and 5.78 mg (RE g1), in pasta substituted with 3 and 5% outer cabbage leaves, respectively. The water absorbed increased significantly as the substitution of peels and leaves were increased. The hardness values of all pasta samples were ranged between 5.77 N in carrot peel pasta 1% to 25.60 in pasta sample substitution with 5% dry cabbage leaves. Conclusion: Results revealed that substituted pasta with by-products can be good source of total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants dietary fiber contents and more acceptable evolution, subsequently extend their potential uses in nutritional, pharmaceutical and industrial application.

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