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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Aluminium-Induced Behavioral Changes and Oxidative Stress in Developing Rat Brain and the Possible Ameliorating Role of Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio
Imene Benyettou, Omar Kharoubi, Nouria Hallal, Hadj Ali Benyettou, Kaddour Tair, Mansoria Belmokhtar, Abdelkader Aoues and Mehmet Ozaslan
Background and Objective: Aluminium (Al) is a widely recognized neurotoxin that inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions inducing severe behavioral abnormalities, impaired cognitive functions and metabolic dysfunction. The present study was designed to investigate oxidative stress of aluminium induced toxicity in developing rat brain and enlarged to investigate the possible ameliorating role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with low and high ratio. Methodology: Aluminium was administered intraperitoneally (100 mg kg–1 b.wt., twice a week) to female adult rats. Postnatally (30 days), pups were given orally by gavage the low and high ratio of omega-6/omega-3 for 5 weeks. The antioxidative and protective properties of omega-6/omega-3 ratio against the effects of aluminium toxicity (Al) on behavior, redox status and leptin level was analysed by using the one way ANOVA test. Results: The results revealed that AlCl3 significantly increased (p<0.05) the level of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), Nitric oxide (NO), the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), while Glutathione Reductase (GR) was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the cerebral cortex in intoxicated pup rats. Moreover, the leptin concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) in cortex. On the other hand, the results exhibited that, omega-6/omega-3 when given in low or high dose were able to ameliorate the mentioned parameters approaching them to the normal ranges. Conclusion: It is concluded that aluminium may be attributed to induce disturbance of locomotor and stereotype behavior, anxiety, disturb antioxidant system and leptin level. Furthermore, the results suggested that the omega-3 and omega-6 could be able to antagonize Al neurotoxicity perhaps by its antioxidant properties.
Research Article
Roots Morphology of Rhizophora apiculata Blume as an Adaptation Strategy of Waterlogging and Sediment
Sitta Amaliyah, Sucipto Hariyanto and Hery Purnobasuki
Background: The waterlogging and sediments condition in coastal area of mangroves effect a significant (α = 0.05) adaptation strategy in mangrove roots characterization. Objective: The aim of the study was to know the structure of the submerged root morphology of the Rhizophora apiculata seedlings especially to incorporate into the flooding and sediment thickness. Materials and Methods: The field data from 40 sample trees in Wonorejo Mangrove Conservation of Surabaya (07°18'32.7 "S and 112°48'59.1" U) were measured. The total number of primary roots, the root length and the root-spread distance, the root diameter, the vertical root angle from trunk and the architecture of roots were measured. Observational method was used and measurement of environmental factors consists of parameters air temperature, groundwater salinity and the acidity level of sediment. The quantitative data were analyzed by statistical test. Data of root length and number of branches were analyzed by two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by factorial test. Results: The results of this study indicated that an adaption of the treatment condition waterlogging seemed apparent in the presence of root hairs at the base of the stem. Rooting of this species had also very different architecture, where the soil conditions were not inundated direction of root growth seemed to lead down (perpendicular). While on land conditions with waterlogging indicated the direction of growth more broad or sideways. The change of color is more brown or reddish brown on the morphology of the roots with the treatment of extreme thickness indicated adaptation to environmental stress. Conclusion: It is concluded that stress inundation and sediment thickness affects the morphology of the roots. In waterlogged soil conditions, root growth leads down (perpendicular). While on land that is not waterlogged conditions, root growth more broad direction or sideways.
Research Article
Effect of Brusatol Biolarvicide Administration on Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti and its Toxicity on Vero Cells
Dwi Sutiningsih and Nurjazuli
Background and Objective: Brusatol is one of quassinoid, derived from Makassar fruit (Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.) and belong to the family of Simaroubaceae. Brusatol has been proven to have insecticidal and anti-feeding activity on larvae of Spodoptera exigua. This study aimed to investigate the larvicidal activity and behavioral response to the larvae of A. aegypti after administration of brusatol and to demonstrate cytotoxicity activity in vero cells. Materials and Methods: Larvicidal activity was monitored using bioassay test. The behavioral response of larval A. aegypti was observed after treatment with various brusatol concentrations and compared directly with control every 10, 30 min and 1, 5 and 24 h. The examination of brusatol cytotoxicity on vero cells performed by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method. Results: The results of this study showed that the behavioral response of A. aegypti larvae after treatment with brusatol has similarity with the behavioral response after treatment with temephos 1 ppm. The behavioral response of A. aegypti larvae showed symptoms of a nerve poison that is excitation, convulsions, tremors and paralysis. The lethal concentration of 50 and 90 (LC50, LC90) to A. aegypti larvae were 0.669±0.106 and 8.331±0.060 ppm, respectively. Brusatol cytotoxic activity on vero cells is low, with IC50 values worth 1402.029±0.164 mg mL–1. Conclusion: The results of this study proved the potential of brusatol as biolarvicide to control the mosquito vector with low levels of cytotoxicity.
Research Article
Biological Activity of Iris sari Schott ex Baker in Turkey
Safwan Moaket, Sibel Bayil Oguzkan, Ibrahim Halil Kilic, Bedrettin Selvi, Isik Didem Karagoz, Mehmet Erdem, Nese Erdogan, Huseyin Tekin and Mehmet Ozaslan
Background and Objective: Iridaceae is a widespread family which include 92 genus and 6 of them are spreading in Turkey. This family includes wild plants whose endemic species have attractive flowers. Iris sari is a folk medicinal plant in Southeastern of Turkey. This study aimed to investigate the biological and bioactive properties of I. sari in Turkey. Materials and Methods: In this study, n-hexane, dicloromethane, methanol and water extracts from different parts (flower, leaf and rhizome) of I. sari were obtained by Soxhlet apparatus and their antioxidant, antibacterial and DNA protection activities were studied. Antioxidant activity, total antioxidant and oxidant levels were determined by using Relassay Diagnostics Kit (Antioxidant Kit, Turkey) and DPPH assay was used to determine antibacterial activity. Microdilution assay was conducted by using 9 different bacterial strains (S. aureus ATCC 25923, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603, S. aureus ATCC 29213, E. coli ATCC 25322, E. coli ATCC 35218, E. coli ATCC 10799, E. coli ATCC 8739 and S. aureus ATCC 6538) according to CSL. To determine DNA protection activity, pBR322 plasmid DNA assay were used. Results: Results showed that water and methanol extracts of I. sari showed high antioxidant activities in both antioxidant methods. Although the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activities were found in root water extract, the most DNA protection effect was found in water and methanol extracts isolated from leaf and flower. Conclusion: It was concluded that the endemic and medicinal plant; I. sari contain active metabolites which are responsible for these antioxidant, antibacterial and DNA protection activities.
Research Article
Phenology, Growth, Yield and Protein Content of Wheat as Influenced by Foliar Application of Nitrogen
Jamil Hossain, Abul Awlad Khan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Abdul Khayer Mian and Md. Dulal Ali Mollah
Background and Objective: Foliar application of nitrogen (N) is an important technique in overcoming N deficit from different stresses particularly drought of wheat crop. However, the wheat crop response to foliar N are inconstant and there is limited understanding of its effects in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar spray of N on phenology, growth, yield and protein content of late sown wheat in rice-based cropping was pattern in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: There were 10 treatments such as recommended fertilizer dose in soil (RD) with Foliar Spray (FS) of N at 40 Days After Emergence (DAE) (T1), RD with FS of N at booting stage (T2), RD with FS of N at heading stage (T3), RD with FS of N at milking stage (T4), RD with FS of N at 40 DAE and booting stage (T5), RD with FS of N at 40 DAE+heading stage and milking stage (T6), RD with FS of N at 40 DAE+booting stage and milking stage (T7), RD (T8, control treatment), half RD of N (T9) and half RD of N with FS of N at booting stage (T10). The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Three percent urea was used for foliar spray. Data were analyzed using Analysis of variance ANOVA and mean separation was done by LSD at p = 0.05. Results: The highest dry matter (1811.41 g m–2), grain yield (4.02 t ha–1) and protein content (12.37%) were obtained from T7 treatment. Gross return, gross margin and BCR were also higher in T7 than any other treatments and the lowest BCR (2.43) was calculated in half of recommended fertilizer dose of N (T9). Conclusion: Recommended fertilizer dose with foliar spray of N at 40 DAE+booting stage and milking stage delayed the senescence which lead to lengthen the duration of reproductive phase, increasing the grain yield (28.84%) as well as protein content (29%) compare to half of recommended fertilizer dose of N.
Research Article
Identification of Low Simmondsin-High Oil Containing Accessions of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider (Jojoba) using HPLC
Deepti Arya and Suphiya Khan
Background and Objective: Jojoba is an oilseed plant with cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other industrial applications. Once the oil is extracted, the remaining cake has shown good potential as animal feed supplement but there are certain toxicity issues with the leftover feed cake due to the presence of simmondsin. This study was aimed to develop precise, faster and efficient High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantification of simmondsin in different accessions of jojoba and to find out best accession with low simmondsin and high oil content among them. Materials and Methods: Seed samples were collected from Association of Rajasthan for Jojoba Plantation and Research Project (AJORP), Rajasthan, India. Oil and simmondsin were removed by repeated extraction with water at 90°C for 1.5 h from ground jojoba seeds. Quantitative analysis of simmondsin was done by HPLC method. The separation was achieved by reverse phase C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of water-methanol (80/20; v/v), at a flow rate of 0.75 mL min–1. The resultant chromatograms were analyzed by CLASS-VP V6.14 SP1 software. The correlation between concentration and peak area was calculated by Excel 2010 software. Results: A great diversity was observed between the simmondsin content of jojoba accessions. Oil yield were ranged from 39.0 to 45.0%. The simmondsin concentration varied from 2.6-4.2 g per 100 g seeds. On the basis of above results, the best accession under study was "48-25" which had nearly 44.7% oil content and a low content of 2.61 g simmondsin per 100 g seeds. Conclusion: It is concluded that planting accessions with high oil content and low simmondsin will be beneficial for both farmers and the end users of the remaining feed cake.

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