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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Impact of Flood Cycle on Phytoplankton and Macroinvertebrates Associated with Myriophyllum spicatum in Lake Nasser Khors (Egypt)
Soad Saad Abdel Gawad and Eman Ibrahim Abdel-Aal
Background and Objective: Phytoplankton and macroinvertebrates are two of the most interesting groups in freshwater habitat and aquatic food chains. The objective was to study phytoplankton and macroinvertebrates associated with aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum (M. spicatum) at Dahmeit and Tushka West khors of Lake Nasser during flood cycle (before, during and after flood). Materials and Methods: About 1.0 L Ruttner Sampler was used to collect composite surface water samples for studying phytoplankton. Macrophyte, Myriophyllum spicatum was collected from the same sites at the same times. The associated macroinvertebrates were separated with a net 500 μm for identification and the macrophyte was dried and weighed. Correlation analysis between the measured parameters of water, phytoplankton and macroinvertebrates associated with Myriophyllum spicatum were carried out using Statgraphics program. Results: The dominant groups of phytoplankton were Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta while, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Crustacea, Insecta and Gastropoda were the dominant groups of macroinvertebrates associated with Myriophyllum spicatum. The highest densities of phytoplankton were recorded after flood (8.16×106 and 1.27×107 cells L–1 at Dahmeit and Tushka khors, respectively). Meanwhile, the highest densities of associated macroinvertebrates were recorded during flood (576 and 690 organisms/100 g plant dry wt at Dahmeit and Tushka khors, respectively). The most dominant macroinvertebrate taxa were Pristina sp., Bulinus truncatus, Gyraulus ehrenbergi and Chironomid larvae while those of phytoplankton were Chroococcus spp., Pseudoanabaena sp., Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Scenedesmus bijugatus and Aulacoseira granulata. The results of water quality index (WQI) and species diversity indicate the improvement of water quality in the study area by flood. Tushka West khor (upstream) was more productive in phytoplankton and associated macroinvertebrates than Dahmeit khor (downstream). Species evenness of macroinvertebrates shows negative significant correlation with species diversity (-0.6) and evenness (-0.5) of phytoplankton. Also, negative significant correlation (-0.76) was detected between species richness of phytoplankton and associated macroinvertebrates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) shows that total count of phytoplankton was not affected by total count of associated macroinvertebrates and its groups. Conclusion: The flood cycle influenced microalgae and macroinvertebrate communities by stimulating spatial and seasonal variations of phytoplankton and invertebrates succession and density.
Research Article
Traceability in the Meal Production Chain of Hospitalized Patients: Safety and Hygienic Quality
Mohammed Abubaker Basalamah, Mohammad Abd Elmoneim Elmadbouly and Firas Sultan Azzeh
Objective: The objective of study was to investigate the safety and microbial quality of each stage of the patients' meals production chain to determine the critical control points to reduce, eliminate or prevent the possibility of a food safety hazard in two public hospitals in Mecca. This study also evaluated the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and sanitation procedures in the hospitals. Methodology: A predesigned checklist was used to assess the GMP, sanitation and hygiene practices. Bacteriological examination including estimation of total Aerobic Plate Count (APC), enumeration of mould and yeast count and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella spp. were done according to the standard methods. Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data was performed to determine the statistical differences of results between the two hospitals. Results: The GMP and sanitation procedures showed comparable values between both hospitals. No significant differences in the microbiological examinations were observed in the stages of receiving and storage of ingredients, preparation, cooking and collecting foods at the line between the two hospitals. Serving the meals to patients' stage showed significantly (p = 0.036) higher APC value in hospital 1 than hospital 2. Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli bacteria were not detected during the delivery of meals to patients but Salmonella spp. were found at this stage in cold served vegetable salad and coleslaw salad that contained mayonnaise. Conclusion: Hospital food workers should be trained to carefully handle food items that could possibly be contaminated with pathogenic microbes.
Research Article
Study of Safflower Varieties Cultivated Under Southern Egypt Conditions for Seeds and Flowers
Eman Taha and Bertrand Matthaus
Background and Objective: Safflower has some valuable characteristics that have made the species throughout the centuries as a multi-purpose oilseed. Safflower is an oil crop with high fat content with a good amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Safflower seed oil has gained interest as an excellent health care product and also it is a rich source of vitamin E. Safflower flower is used as source for dyes or for medicinal purposes. Materials and Methods: In this study, three safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) varieties (Giza1, Kharega 1 and Kharega 2) cultivated at semi-arid regions in Egypt were studied for its chemical composition, oil content, fatty acid composition, lipid composition and sterol content. Moreover, safflower seed and flower extracts obtained by solvent extraction were evaluated regarding the content of total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. Results: The varieties contained oil contents between 29.4 and 31.0% with considerable amounts of sterols (2326.0-2715.5 mg kg–1 ) and high contents of unsaturated fatty acid (85-88%). In the varieties appreciable amounts of total phenolic compounds (3.17-4.89 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) were found and they showed a good DPPH scavenging activity, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8-1.31 mg and a high inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (AAC) ranging between 64.6 and 72.6. Extracts of safflower flowers also showed remarkable higher contents of total phenolic compounds (6.44-13 mg g–1) than the seeds, with IC50 values ranging between 1.68 and 3.21 mg and AAC from 106.94-201.24. Conclusion: Safflower presents comparable high amounts of total phenolic compounds showing a good antioxidant activity.
Research Article
In vitro Culture and Bulblets Induction of Asiatic Hybrid Lily ‘Red Alert’
Lobna Salah Taha, Sawsan Sami Sayed, Mahmoud Mohamed Farahat and Iman Mohamed El-Sayed
Background and Objective: Asiatic of lily is an important hybrid for trade in the international market because of its colour, beauty and long vase life. The objective of study was to establish a micropropagation protocol for Asiatic hybrid lily using bulb scales for continuing in vitro cultures. Methodology: Sterilized treatments were investigated at three concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) of HgCl2 (MC). The MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L–1) of BA (6-Benzylaminopurine) and 2ip (isopentyl adenine) was used for in vitro scales multiplication. For bulblets induction, 0.5 mg L–1 of both BA and thidiazuron (TDZ) each alone or combined with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 1.0 and 2.0 mg L–1 were examined. Different parameters were statistically analyzed using randomized complete block design. Results: The highest percentage of both free contaminated explants and survival (88.89 and 77.77%, respectively) were clearly appeared when 10% of sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride at 0.1% were used. Using MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA or 2ip had a significant promotion effect on the number of bulbscales/explant which can induce adventitious bulblet formation and use for micropropagation. MS culture medium supplemented with TDZ at 0.5 mg L–1+NAA (2.0 mg L–1) was favored for obtaining the highest numbers of shoots, leaves and bulblets induced/explant (9.33, 4.67 and 9.33, respectively). IAA at 0.5 mg L–1 was favored for rooting percentage, number of roots as well as number of formed bulblets/shootlet (100%, 2.5 and 3.33, respectively). Most of plants were easily grow, normally acclimatized to the green house conditions and 98% of them were survived. Conclusion: Tissue culture technique is suitable propagation method for producing great new bulbs of Asiatic hybrid lily plant.

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