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International Journal of Poultry Science
eISSN: 1994-7992
pISSN: 1682-8356

Editor-in-Chief:  Ibrahim Seker
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Research Article
The Positive Effect of Crossing Speckled Hungarian Breed with Commercial Lines in Term of Meat Production and Meat Quality
A. Drobnyak, T.N. Lan Phuong, M. Heincinger, K. Kustos, A. Almasi, I.T. Szalay, L. Bodi, R.T. Szabo and M. Weber
Background and Objectives: The study aimed to investigate the meat production (live weight, carcass weight, breast fillet weight, leg weight) and quality (pH, colour, tenderness) of Speckled Hungarian chicken and grandparents’ line of TETRA-H, TETRA HARCO and their crossbreeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 1120 birds (7 genotypes, 4 pens/genotype, 40 birds/pen) were reared under the same conditions (5 birds/m2, ad libitum feeding, deep straw bedding) until the age of 84 days. Daily light was 16 h and dark cycle was 8 h. The temperature was maintained at 32°C at the start of the experimental period and gradually decreased to 20°C by the fourth week of age. Results: The live weight and carcass percentages of crossbreeds (2244 g, 73.0% for TETRA-H x Speckled Hungarian chickens and 2135 g, 72.3% for Speckled Hungarian chickens x TETRA-H) were significantly higher than Speckled Hungarian chickens (1339 g, 69.9 %). Although, carcass percentages of these genotypes were similar. The breast meat tenderness of TETRA-H×Speckled Hungarian chicken (1.92 kg) was significantly lower than that of Speckled Hungarian chickens (2.70 kg) and the other crossbreeds (3.10 kg for Speckled Hungarian chickens×TETRA-H, 2.81 kg for HARCO×Speckled Hungarian chickens and 2.96 kg for Speckled Hungarian chickens×HARCO). Conclusion: The results revealed that the reciprocal crossbred genotypes of TETRA-H and Speckled Hungarian have higher meat production and their meat quality remained the same as that of purebred Speckled Hungarian chickens.
Research Article
Improvement of Small Intestine Morphometry in Broiler Chicken Using Fermented Cow and Soymilk as Probiotic
Lovita Adriani, Diding Latipudin, Roostita.L. Balia and Tuti Widjastuti
Background and Objective: Probiotics have been reported to have positive effect on gut morphology and subsequent performance of poultry birds. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of fermented soy and cow milk as probiotic on small intestine morphometry of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: 100 day old commercial broiler chicks were allocated to 4 treatment groups in a complete randomized design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated 4 times with 5 chicks in each replicate. The treatments consisted of birds fed: Only basal feed (T0), basal feed with 100% fermented cow milk (T1), basal feed with fermented cow milk+fermented soy milk in 50:50% ratio (T2) and basal feed with fermented cow milk+fermented soy milk with a 75:25% ratio (T3). Results: Use of fermented cow or soy milk as probiotic in the diet of broiler had no significant (p>0.05) effect on jejunal villus height when compared with the control group. However, there was an improvement in the jujunal villus width and number of villi in chicken fed fermented cow or soy milk as probiotic in the diet when compared with the control. Conclusion: Inclusion of dietary fermented cow or soy milk in the diet resulted in improvement in the morphometry and number of villi in the jejunum part of small intestine in broiler chicken.
Research Article
Detection of Mycotoxins in Poultry Eggs
Dalia A. Abdul-Shaheed, Oday S. Abbas and Yasser J. Jameel
Background and objective: Safe food is imperative for food production worldwide. Poultry eggs are crucial in the safe food chain; thus, special attention is directed towards the possible contamination of food and feed with fungi and the risk of mycotoxin contamination. This study aimed to identify the presence of Fumonisin (FU) and Zearalenone (ZON) in 100 laying poultry eggs in Diyala province. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 100 egg samples were randomly collected from different poultry farms in Diyala province. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: The results obtained from the analysis of mycotoxins FU and ZON in the poultry egg samples were 94 and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that there may be a risk for animal exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of mold-infected feeds, which may affect consumer health.
Research Article
The Effect of Spray-Dried Bovine Plasma and Shrimp Hydrolysate on Components of the Immune System and Zootechnical Parameters in Broiler Chickens
G. Parra, N. Mier, A. Aguirre and R. Riboty
Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of spray-dried bovine plasma (SDBP) and shrimp hydrolysate (SH) in components of the immune system and its influence on zootechnical parameters in broiler chickens raised at 2500 m.a.s.l. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred one-day-old mixed Cobb broilers were divided into four groups with five replicates each in a randomized block design. The animals were raised in a challenging manner, that is with reused and untreated litter and without being vaccinated against Avian pneumovirus (APV). A three-phase (1-14, 15-28 and 29-42 days) restricted mash feeding program was used. Birds of the five experimental units were fed for 42 days, with one of the following treatments: a corn and soybean basal diet (Control), SDBP or SH reformulated diets under two dosing strategies (S1 and S2). Inclusion levels were 5, 2.5,1.5% in S1 and 2.5%, 1.5%, 0.5% in S2 on the three-phase feeding program. Results: In the first week, the SDBP S2 avoided a drastic drop in maternal antibodies against APV and produced better white blood cell percentages. In week 6, similar results in white blood cell percentages were observed with SDBP S1, SDBP S2 and SH S1. The SDBP S2 generated a better performance than the control group throughout the fattening cycle and the SH S2 produced the same effect as the control group. The treatments produced no significant effect on the immune organ indices and the mortality rate. Conclusion: The inclusion of SDBP S2 in broiler chickens’ diet has a more evident immunomodulatory effect in white blood cells and maternal antibodies without vaccination and has a positive effect on the animals’ performance.
Research Article
Impact of Dietary Enzymes Prepared at Ensiling (ZADO®) on Productivity, Blood Metabolites and Enzymes Activity in Commercial Laying Hens
Hosam M. Safaa, Hany R. Elsherif, Mourad H. Elsanhoury, Ahmed M. Fouad, Mohamed A. Elmenawey and Ahmed O. Abass
Background and Objective: An Egyptian patented product (ZADO®) consists of exogenous enzyme mixture prepared from anaerobic bacterium, improves performance of broilers but not examined in laying hens. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the impacts of ZADO® on productivity, blood metabolites and enzyme activity in laying hens. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 Hisex Brown laying hens (48 week of age) were used to evaluate the impacts of exogenous xylanases, cellulases, protease and α-amylase enzyme preparations at ensiling (ZADO®) on the productive performance and enzymes activity up to 64 week of age. Hens were divided randomly into 5 treatment groups (basal diets supplemented with 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 or 2.00 g kg–1 diet with ZADO®) and housed in individual cages in an open house system under the same managerial conditions. Hens' performance traits were measured every 4 weeks and blood metabolites and enzymes activity parameters for protease and α-amylase were measured at 54 week of age. Results: No significant effects of dietary ZADO® levels on productive performance of laying hens were detected. However, numerically, a slight increase in egg production rate (92.1, 92.5, 93.9, 93.1 and 93.2%), egg mass (55.8, 57.0, 57.0, 56.8 and 57.2 g) and feed consumption (116.3, 115.8, 117.8, 118.2 and 115.9 g hen–1 day–1) were noted for birds fed diet supplemented with 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 or 2.00 g kg–1 diet with ZADO®, respectively. Dietary enzymes cocktail increased total protein level in favor of globulin (p<0.05) and dietary 1 g kg–1 ZADO® or more increased total cholesterol level (p<0.05) with no significant impact on neither LDL- nor HDL-cholesterol levels in plasma. Moreover, enzymes supplementation increased enzymes activity in digesta of both proventriculus and ileum (p<0.05). For example, α-amylase activity records were 0.70, 1.50, 2.26, 19.08 and 11.96 g kg–1 (p = 0.037) in proventriculus digesta and 90, 108, 282, 407 and 287 g kg–1 (p = 0.013) in ileum digesta for the 5 treatment groups, respectively. Conclusion: Laying hens' diets supplemented with ZADO® might increase plasma protein and enhance enzymes activity which might reflect into slight increase in hens' productivity.
Research Article
In vivo and In vitro Inoculations of Live Viruses Alter Parthenogenesis in Chinese Painted Quail1
Reshma Ramachandran, Midian N. dos Santos and Christopher D. McDaniel
Background and Objectives: Avian parthenogenesis is embryonic development that occurs without fertilization. Virgin birds exhibiting parthenogenesis have reduced reproductive performance following mating. Previously in the 1960s, in vivo exposure of chickens and turkeys to certain live viruses was shown to increase the incidence of parthenogenesis as well as parthenogen size. However, no modern information is available on the effect of current virus vaccine strains or their mode of action on parthenogenesis in poultry. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the in vivo and in vitro effects of live pigeon pox (PP) virus as well as the in vitro effect of live Newcastle disease (ND) virus on parthenogenesis. Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted using virgin Chinese painted quail hens. The in vivo effect of live PP virus following vaccination and the in vitro effects of live PP and ND viruses following direct administration over the germinal disc of cultured quail eggs on parthenogenesis were determined. Results: It appears that vaccination of virgin hens with live PP virus has the potential to increase parthenogenesis as well as parthenogen size by the direct action of the virus on the embryo. Moreover, under in vitro conditions, live ND virus was found to exert similar effects as live PP virus. Conclusion: As vaccination for pox and ND is a routine practice in the modern poultry industry, it is possible that vaccination of birds carrying the parthenogenetic trait could impact their overall fertility and hatchability.
Research Article
Effect of Some Organic Acids on Body Weight, Immunity and Cecal Bacterial Count of Chicken during Heat Stress
Abdulwahab Kammon, Samia Alzentani, Omar Tarhuni and Abdulatif Asheg
Objective: The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on body weight, immune response and cecal bacterial count in parent broiler chickens and to determine the ameliorating effects of some organic acids to overcome heat stress. Materials and Methods: Day-old, 1920 male broiler parent chicks were used in a 2×2 factorial completely randomized design. The experimental chicks were randomly and equally distributed into 2 major groups (960 chicks each) which further divided into 4 subgroups (480 chicks each) with 8 replicates. Two subgroups were exposed to heat (H) at 35°C from 22-42 days of age and the other two subgroups was lift normal. Four replicates in each subgroup were given organic acids (OA) in drinking water at the first week, days 19-27 and last week of age whereas the other 4 replicates in the same subgroup were given normal drinking water. Results: Heat stress caused significant decrease in body weight, coliforms count and serum lysozyme level at 5th week of age. The body weight has been significantly ameliorated by organic acids. Deleterious effects of heat stress on immunity has been confirmed by the significant decrease of bursa/body weight ratio and total leukocyte count (TLC) at 4th week of age. The bacterial count was significantly increased in the group exposed to heat at 5th week of age. Conclusion: It is concluded that heat stress has deleterious effects on chickens and organic acids has significantly ameliorated some of these effects.

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