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International Journal of Poultry Science
eISSN: 1994-7992
pISSN: 1682-8356

Editor-in-Chief:  Ibrahim Seker
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Review Article
Published on August 15, 2019
Exogenous Enzymes and the Digestibility of Nutrients by Broilers: A Mini Review
O.O. Alabi, A.J. Shoyombo, O.B. Akpor, O.M. Oluba and A.G. Adeyonu
The feed fed to broilers is a determinant of digestibility, absorption and utilization of nutrient by the birds. The increasing cost of poultry production currently for feed formulated from conventional feed ingredients has made the use of cheaper, lesser known and unconventional feed ingredients a possible way of reducing the cost of production and providing more profit to poultry producers. However, most of the alternative feed ingredients are richer in Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP) content, the high content of NSP invariably affect animals’ performance in different ways. To mitigate the anti-nutritional factors of NSP, the use of feed enzymes are employed. This is so, since the endogenous enzyme secreted in the gastro-intestinal tract of broilers cannot digest NSP, therefore, it is desirable to supplement high fibrous feed with exogenous enzymes for effective and efficient digestion of NSP content and better performance of the birds in terms of feed intake, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, body weight gain and carcass characteristics. These exogenous enzymes are readily obtainable from different microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Humicola insolens. The enzymes preparations are available under various trade names such as Nutrase xyla, Histazyme, Avizyme, Natugrain, Allzyme, Grindazyme, Roxazyme G, Avizyme, Maxi-grain, Natuzyme and others. In this review, exogenous enzyme for broiler’s diet, features of bacterial and fungal xylanase enzymes, effect of xylanase and phytase on broiler nutrition, qualities of commercial enzymes and benefits of enzyme supplementation was discussed.
Research Article
Published on August 15, 2019
Salmonella Colonization of Production Hens Fed a Parietal Yeast Fraction with High Levels of Mannan and Beta-Glucan
P.T. Price, T. Gaydos, J.C. Padgett, K. Gardner and C. Bailey
Background and Objective: Salmonella is a gram-negative rod-shaped pathogen responsible for approximately 1 million foodborne illnesses per year in the U.S. Previous studies with highly concentrated levels of mannans (>20%) in yeast cell wall have shown to reduce Salmonella counts in broiler ceca when added to feed. This study was conducted to understand the effects of concentrated mannans on Salmonella in egg producing hens. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 Hy-Line W36 layers were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium, 12 birds fed basal diet only (Control) and 12 birds fed the basal diet plus treatment of 500 ppm cell wall. At one-week post challenge, all birds were humanely euthanized and cecal prevalence and enumeration were recorded. Results: Cecal counts on birds challenged with S. Typhimurium showed a final count of 4.71 log10 CFU mL–1, while yeast cell wall sample counts were 3.71 log10 CFU mL–1 (p = 0.015). Conclusion: A 1 log reduction of cecal Salmonella is a biologically important result indicating there may be some potential for this yeast cell wall to impact levels of Salmonella Typhimurium in the ceca.
Research Article
Published on August 15, 2019
Substituting Soybean Meal with Fermented Leaves and Seeds of Rubber Trees (Hevea brasiliensis): Effects on Carcass Percentage, Abdominal Fat Percentage and Meat-to-Bone Ratio in Broiler Chickens
Erman Syahruddin, Rita Herawaty and Azhar
Objective: This study aimed to reduce the use of imported feed ingredients and those competing with human food resources by using local conventional feed. Materials and Methods: This study included 480 day-old caged broiler chicks of the Cobb strain. Chicks were housed in colonies in wire cages. Each cage unit was equipped with a feeding area, a drinking area and an incandescent lamp. A completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replications was employed. The data obtained were analysed using ANOVA and differences between treatments were tested by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT). Treatments included a group fed control rations as well as groups fed FLSRT as a replacement for specific percentages (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) of soybean meal. The observed variables included body weight gain, carcass percentage, meat-to-bone ratio, percentage of abdominal fat, percentage of ventricular weight and thickness of broiler chicken intestine. Results: The results showed that replacement of up to 80% of soybean meal protein with processed rubber leaves and seeds in broiler rations had no significant effect (p>0.05) on body weight, carcass percentage, or meat-to-bone ratio. However, measurements of these parameters under replacement with 100% processed rubber leaves and seeds differed significantly (p<0.01) from other treatments. Conclusion: Replacement of up to 80% of soybean meal with FLSRT resulted in increased body weight, higher carcass percentage and meat-to-bone ratio and a lower percentage of abdominal fat in comparison to replacement at the 0% concentration.
Research Article
Published on August 15, 2019
Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed 8% Crude Fibre Diets at Three Energy Levels With or Without Enzyme During the Starter and Finisher Phases
R.I. Salami and A.A. Odunsi
Background and Objective: Optimal inclusion levels of Crude Fibre (CF) and exogenous enzymes in poultry diets have beneficial effects on growth performance indices and feed cost per unit weight gain. This study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate the production performance and economy of unsexed Obamarshal broiler chickens fed ca 8% CF diets at three energy levels with or without Roxazyme®G2G supplementation during the starter and finisher phases. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-four day-old unsexed Obamarshal broiler chicks were divided into six treatments at 24 birds each with three replicates per dietary treatment and fed for 28 days each for the starter and finisher phases with ca 8% CF diets at 2600, 2800 and 3,000ME (kcal kg1 diet) with or without enzyme. Roxazyme®G2G was incorporated at 0 and 200 mg kg1 diet per energy level to produce six diets labeled A, B, C, D, E and F in ascending order of energy and enzyme levels. Live weight, average daily gain (ADG), feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein intake, protein efficiency ratio (PER), calorie intake, fibre intake, water intake, water intake: feed intake, water intake: weight gain, faecal output and mortality rate were evaluated using standard methods. Data were analysed using 2×3 factorial arrangement and according to one-way Analysis of Variance. Means were separated with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at p<0.05. Results: Except for the non-supplemented diet A, birds on the other dietary treatments B, C, D, E and F had better (p<0.05) and comparable (p>0.05) performance indices, with the ADG ranging from 28-30 and 50-55 g b1 during the starter and finisher phases respectively. The findings implied beneficial effect of enzyme inclusion at sub-optimal but not at optimal energy levels. Feed cost per unit weight gain was minimized in the birds fed ca 8% CF diet at 2600ME (kcal kg1) with enzyme, showing that energy is the most costly component of the feed. Conclusion: Feeding diet of about 8% CF at 2600 ME (kcal kg1) with Roxazyme®G2G appeared to be nutritionally and economically feasible for broiler starters and finishers in the humid tropics.
Research Article
Published on August 15, 2019
Alternative Bedding Materials to Improve Growth Performance and Welfare of Broilers
Tarek Boussaada and Derradji Ouachem
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of five litter types on the growth performance and some welfare indicators (pododermatitis, hock burns, breast blister and feather cleanliness) in broilers over rearing cycle of 42 days. Materials and Methods: The used litter types were wood shaving, sawdust, standard quality straw, low quality straw and crop residues. A total of six hundred one day-old male broilers (Cobb 700) were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 20 chicks each. Results: Results showed that at the age of 7 day, the FCR and body weight were significantly improved (-5%, p = 0.002; +9,5%, p = 0.015 respectively) in broilers reared on sawdust. Furthermore, the heavier BW observed in broiler reared on sawdust at an early age persist at the slaughter age (+4.95%; p = 0.01). In contrast, low quality straw resulted in lower (p = 0.01) final body weight and feed conversion ratio. On the other hand, pododermatitis lesions appear from the first week in all litter types. The rate of severity of foot pad dermatitis increased significantly with the age of the birds (p<0.05).At the last week, results indicated that the highest rate of chickens with severe lesions (score 4) was recorded in the birds reared on both straw types (60%). In contrast, the lowest rate was found in the group reared on wood shaving (3.3%). However, hock burns and breast blisters were very low (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that the birds reared on sawdust showed the best BW and FCR. However, broilers kept on wood shaving had the best score of plumage and hock burn. The presence of scratches was not observed in any treatment.
Research Article
Published on August 15, 2019
Growth Performance, Feed Digestibility and Meat Selenium of Broilers Fed Fungi-Fermented Rice Bran with Addition of Inorganic Selenium
S. Mozin, U. Hatta, S. Sarjuni, M. Gobel and B. Sundu
Objective: A study was conducted to determine effects of fermented rice bran by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger with addition of selenium on growth performance, feed digestibility and meat selenium of broilers. Materials and Methods: A finely ground rice bran with addition of 0.1% sodium selenite was autoclaved at 20 psi for 20 min and added distilled water to meet 80% moisture content. The autoclaved substrate was fermented with Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5 days to produce Aspergillus niger-fermented rice bran (ANFRB) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-fermented rice bran (SCFRB) respectively. A total of 140 day-old-chicks were used and kept for 6 weeks. The birds were fed 5 experimental diets ad libitum. The experimental diets were basal diet (T1), Basal diet +0.4 ppm selenium from sodium selenite (T2), basal diet +0.4 ppm selenium from commercial organic selenium (T3), basal diet +0.4 ppm selenium from SCFRB (T4) and basal diet +0.4 selenium from ANFRB (T5). The study used a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Results: Birds fed the T2 diet had the lower body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, digestible dry matter intake, selenium intake and selenium digestibility. The birds fed the T3, T4 and T5 diets had higher concentration of meat selenium than those birds fed the T1 and T2 diets. Conclusion: Addition of fungi-fermented rice bran with additional sodium selenite in the diets improved the feeding values of diets as efficiently as commercial organic selenium-supplemented diet.
Research Article
Published on August 15, 2019
Poultry Production Management on the Buildup of Nutrients in Litter
Dexter B. Watts, H. Allen Torbert and Eton E. Codling
Background and Objectives: It is believed that the poultry litter’s nutrient composition is influenced by management. However, limited information exists on whether current poultry litter management strategies influence litter nutrients. To fill this knowledge gap, Alabama poultry producers were surveyed to evaluate their management strategies and asked to submit a litter sample to determine how their production practices impacts poultry litter and its nutrient composition. Specifically, this study assessed the frequency of cleanout, the depth of sampling, the size of birds reared and the number of flocks raised on the bedding to determine how it influenced macro and micro nutrient concentrations of the litter. Materials and Methods: The influence of poultry rearing facility (broiler, breeder, or pullet) and whether the litter was collected from a poultry house, composter or dry stack barn was also evaluated. A total of 188 L samples submitted by producers were used for this study. Results: Averaging across all samples collected, the litter on an as-is basis had a fertilizer grade close to that of 3-3-2 for N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively. Litter collected from broiler production facilities had the highest overall macro- and micronutrient concentrations, while litter from composters had slightly higher N, P and Ca and lower C than litter taken directly from houses or drystack barns. The depth sampled, frequency of cleanout and number of flocks on the litter also influenced nutrient composition. Nutrients tended to be higher in caked litter than from sampling the entire six-inch depth. Litter nutrients tended to increase with flocks and decrease with frequency of cleanout. Conclusion: This study shows that differences in management may influence litter nutrient concentrations.

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