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International Journal of Poultry Science
eISSN: 1994-7992
pISSN: 1682-8356

Editor-in-Chief:  Ibrahim Seker
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Research Article
Palm Oil Sludge Fermented with Lentinus edodes in the Diet of Broilers
Ade Djulardi, Nuraini Nuraini and Ade Trisna
Background and Objective: Palm oil sludge (POS) represents a viable alternative poultry feed component after being fermented by the lignocellulolytic fungi, Lentinus edodes (produces ligninase and cellulase), which increases POS nutrient levels and quality. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of utilizing POS fermented by L. edodes (POSF) in broiler diets on growth performance. Methodology: The present study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five dietary treatment groups (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% POSF) and four replicates per treatment (5 broilers per replicates). One hundred 3 day-old broiler chicks were included in the study. Diets were isonitrogenous (23% crude protein) and isocaloric (3000 kcal kg–1 diet). The measured parameters were feed consumption, average daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage and meat cholesterol content. Results: Addition of dietary POSF levels up to 16% resulted in good feed consumption, weight gain, carcass percentage and feed conversion but decreased (p<0.01) meat cholesterol content. Conclusion: Up to 16% POSF in the diet resulted in good production performance while reducing the cholesterol content of broiler meat, indicating that this feed supplement should be considered for industrial use.
Research Article
Quality Deterioration of Spent Hen Jerky Packed Using Different Packaging Methods and Stored at Ambient Temperature
Supaluk Sorapukdee and Chanpen Uesakulrungrueng
Background and Objective: The packaging system of jerky, a semi-dried meat product, is one of the most important factors controlling product deterioration during prolonged storage, especially in the case of spent hen meat, which is susceptible to oxidation. This typical product is generally packed in vacuum (VAC) packaging or via heat sealing with an oxygen scavenger (HSOS). This study aimed to determine the suitable packaging and to assess the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of spent hen jerky packed using different packaging methods (VAC vs. HSOS) over 90 days of storage. Methodology: The jerky was prepared by grinding spent hen meat and mixing it with ingredients, followed by forming, dehydrating and roasting the jerky. The resulting products were randomly packed under VAC or via HSOS and stored at 32±2°C for 90 days. The changes in the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of the packed products were determined at 15 days intervals, while the changes in the sensory qualities were evaluated at 90 days by comparison with freshly prepared product (0 day) as a control. Results: The moisture content and water activity of the jerky increased with the storage period (p<0.05), with no significant differences observed between the packaging methods (p>0.05). Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) increased in samples during storage (p<0.05), but the HSOS packaging retarded the lipid oxidation in jerky compared to the VAC packaging. Moreover, the HSOS-packed product showed higher redness, yellowness and vividness and lower microbial growth during storage than did the VAC-packed product (p<0.05). According to the sensory evaluation, the jerky packed via HSOS and stored at 90 days had higher flavor and overall acceptability scores than that packed under VAC (p<0.05) and had similar scores to the those of the freshly prepared product. Conclusion: The results indicated that the HSOS treatment is preferred for packing jerky processed from spent hen meat because it can retard lipid oxidation, color deterioration and microbial growth during storage.
Research Article
Sex, Genetics and Test Type Affect the Responses of Chickens to Fear Testing
Gregory S. Archer
Background and Objective: Fear tests are often used as tools to evaluate the welfare of poultry under both experimental and commercial conditions. However, responses to these tests could be affected both by the genetic makeup and the sex of the individuals tested and in addition different fear tests may vary with respect to their validity and repeatability. The objective was to determine if genetics and sex affected fear response in two different tests. Methodology: Males and females of six different genetic stocks of fowl were tested using two fear tests, tonic immobility (TI) and inversion (INV). The stocks were Red Junglefowl, Red Junglefowl/New Hampshire Red crosses, three different Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) stocks (UCD-003 and Hyline CV 20) and genetically featherless (scaleless, SL) chickens. Results: There were pronounced genetic effects on all TI and INV responses, with significant differences among stocks although these were not necessarily consistent across all measures. Sex differences were more consistent than genetic differences, with males of all stocks showing. Males and females also differed irrespective of genetics, with males requiring fewer induction attempts and having longer latencies to first head movement and to right than females in the TI test (p<0.05). Males also had less wing flapping, for less time and less intensely than females during INV (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that different genetic stocks of fowl react differently in different fear tests and that single fear tests should not be used to evaluate the fear response of fowl.
Research Article
Morphometric Traits and Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) Gene Polymorphism of Indonesian Muscovy Ducks of Different Plumage Color Population
Ismoyowati , Agus Susanto, Dattadewi Purwantini, Elly Tugiyanti and Aziz Noor Awalludin
Background and Objective: The body shape or morphological characteristics of Muscovy ducks are determined by the length of the femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, tarsometatarsus circumference, 3rd-digit, wings and maxilla. Identification of the feather color of Muscovy ducks is important because feather color determines the physical quality of the carcass and affects the level of consumer preference. The aim of this research was to assess the genetic variation of native Indonesian Muscovy ducks based on morphometric traits and gene sequence variation of Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and its genotypic association with different feather colors. Methodology: Two hundred day-old Muscovy ducks consisting of the white and white-black feather color combination in the same proportion between male and female ducks were included in the study. Differences in body weight and morphometric measurements among the groups were evaluated by ANOVA with Systat version 13. Primer design used Clustal X, based on Cairina moschata MC1R gene, partial cds (KX013541.1) from the GenBank database, the primary forward sequence: 5’-GCTCTTCATGCTGCTGATGG-’3 and reverse primer: 5’-GATGAAGACGGTGCTGGAGA-’3. Results: The male Muscovy ducks have larger morphometric features than females. Male Muscovy ducks with the white-black feather color combination had the heaviest body weight. A general linear F-test analysis separately showed that only the neck length, length of third digit and sex significantly affected the animals' body weight. The identification of feather color of Muscovy ducks showed that there are variations within a group of white-black feather color combination of Muscovy ducks. Feather color variation was observed on the head, wings, breast, tail and plumage. The sequencing of PCR products resulted in nucleotide polymorphism. The GG genotype was observed in 293 nt in the white-black population and the CC genotype was observed in white-black and white feather colors in both male and female Muscovy ducks. Conclusion: Muscovy ducks with the white-black feather color combination had heavier body weights than those with the white feather color. The neck length can be used to predict the body weight of Muscovy ducks. Muscovy ducks had a variety of feather colors ranging from white to the white-black color combination. The MC1R gene polymorphism was observed in Muscovy ducks. Muscovy ducks with the white-black feather color grow faster and their live weight can be estimated by neck length.
Research Article
Immuno-pathological Study of a Deprivation Effect on the Immune Response of Post-hatched Chicks
Saad Thabit Jassim Alrawi and Z. Kh. Jalob
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of deprivation during the first few days of the post-hatch period on the immune response of chicks. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty one days old Ross 308 birds were used and they were divided into four groups, beginning with group 1 (G1): Direct feed supply, which was divided into 2 subgroups at 11 days of age with G1.a as a positive control and G1.b as a negative control. Groups 2, 3 and 4 experienced deprivation for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Results: The results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in antibody titre in G1 compared to that in G2 and G3 at 11 days of age, whereas at 21 days of age, G2 and G4 recorded a significant increase (p<0.05) in antibody titre compared to that in G1 and G3. The mortality rate significantly (p<0.05) increased in G1b compared to that in other groups. Histopathological study of the duodenum at 14 days of age showed that there were no developmental and functional differences between G1 and G2. In contrast, deprivation for 48 h (G3) showed a regenerative process, which was indicated by newly formed crypt cells in addition to the presence of congested mucosa. Deprivation for 72 h (G4) showed some compensatory growth in the form of hyperplasia of crypt cells and a congested muscular layer with inflammatory cells, but the cells did not attain their full size during G1 and G2. Conclusion: The study showed that an early feed supply had a direct effect on the immune status of the birds within 1-3 weeks. In addition, the study showed that an early supply creates a concrete communication with the digestive function of the gut but not at an older age.
Research Article
Utilization of Fermented Palm Kernel Cake with Sclerotium rolfsii in Broiler Ration
Mirnawati , Ade Djulardi and Gita Ciptaan
Background and Objective: Palm kernel cake (PKC) can potentially be used as feedstuff, especially for poultry. PKC needs to be processed in advance, by fermentation, with Sclerotium rolfsii. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of palm kernel cake fermented (PKCF) with Sclerotium rolfsii in the diet of broiler. Materials and Methods: Two hundred day-old chicks (DOC) were used in this study. The diet was arranged based on the equal amount of energy and protein, which were 3000 kcal kg–1 and 22%, respectively. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were arranged as follows: (1) 10% PKCF (control diet), (2) 15% PKCF, (3) 20% PKCF, (4) 25% PKCF and (5) 30% PKCF in broiler diet. The parameters measured were feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, body weight, carcass weight, crude fiber digestibility and nitrogen retention of broiler. Results: Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, body weight, carcass weight, crude fiber digestibility and nitrogen retention were highly significantly decreased (p<0.01) with any treatment. Conclusion: The palm kernel cake fermented (PKCF) with Sclerotium rolfsii can be used up to 25% in broiler ration.

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