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International Journal of Poultry Science
eISSN: 1994-7992
pISSN: 1682-8356

Editor-in-Chief:  Ibrahim Seker
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Research Article
Effect of Direct-fed Microbials, Bacillus subtilis, on Production Performance, Serotonin Concentrations and Behavioral Parameters in a Selected Dominant Strain of White Leghorn Hens
Jiaying Hu, Hui Chen and Heng-Wei Cheng
Background and Objective: Probiotics modulate stress-induced changes of physiological homeostasis and behavioral exhibition through regulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The aim of this study was to assess if dietary supplementation of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, reduces aggressive behaviors in laying hens following social challenge. Methodology: Hens (n = 12) of an aggressive stain (Dekalb XL) were housed in single-hen cage prior to the study. At 24 weeks of age, the hens were paired based on their BW to identify the dominance rank within each pair (0 day). The subordinator and dominator of each pair were individually fed a regular layer diet or the diet mixed with 250 ppm probiotic for 2 weeks (days 14). Results: Data showed that the exhibition of aggressive behaviors in the regular diet fed subordinates were not affected by the treatment (p>0.05), while the frequency of threat kick (p = 0.04) was reduced and aggressive pecking (p = 0.053) had a tendency to be lower in the probiotic fed dominates compared to the levels at 0 day. Plasma concentrations of serotonin were also reduced in the probiotic fed dominant hens (p = 0.02). There were no treatment effects on plasma tryptophan levels, body weight gain and egg production (p>0.05, respectively). Conclusion: The data indicate that dietary probiotic supplementation could be a useful management tool for preventing aggressive behaviors in laying hens.
Research Article
Physical Properties and Nutritive Values of Shell Meal Derived from Different Shellfish Species and Habitats
Khalil , Widya Wati, Firman Hidayat and Evitayani
Background and Objective: The province of West Sumatra is rich in various species of shellfish that live in salt water and fresh water bodies, including the ocean, estuaries, lakes and rivers. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and nutritive values of shell meals produced from different shellfish species living in various habitats. Materials and Methods: Samples of shellfish were collected from 12 locations in 4 different water body types: Lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans. Shell parts were separated, dried and weighed. The dried shells were then ground or subjected to open-air burning to produce 3 meal products: Raw coarse meal, raw fine meal and roasted meal. The products were weighed and analyzed for physical properties (bulk density, angle of response and particle size) and content of crude ash, Ca and P. The nutritive values of the meals were evaluated by mixing 3% shell meal with basal diet that was fed to 200 laying quails in a completely randomized design. There were four dietary treatments: Control diet (P0), basal diet+3% roasted meal (P1), 3% raw fine meal (P2) and 3% raw coarse particles (P3). The quail were divided into 20 experimental units of 10 birds each, so that each treatment consisted of 5 replications. Parameters measured include feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and egg shell quality. Results: The dried shells represented between 47 and 56% of the total body weight of the shellfish, with lake mussels having the highest percentage of shell parts (p<0.05). Raw coarse ground meal had the highest percentage of meal yield (98.7%), followed by raw fine meal (95.8%) and roasted meal (86.8%) (p<0.01). Raw coarse meals had higher bulk density and lower angle of response due to the higher percentage of large particles (p<0.05). The Ca content of roasted meal was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the raw meals. There was no significant effect of the different shell meal products on feed intake, egg production or FCR. However, quail fed a diet containing raw coarse ground shell (P3) had significantly better egg shell quality (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet (P0), P1 or P2. Conclusion: Shell meal that had coarse particles showed the best physical properties and nutritive values.
Research Article
Grasshopper Meal (Ornithacris cavroisi) in Broiler Diets in Niger: Bioeconomic Performance
N. Brah, F.M. Houndonougbo and S. Issa
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the bioeconomic performance of grasshopper meal (GM) when used to replace fish meal (FM) in broiler diets during a period of 49 days. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were used in this experiment. The FM was replaced with GM on a kg per kg basis at 0% (control), 25% (25% GM+75% FM), 50% (50% GM+50% FM), 75% (75% GM+25% FM) and 100% (100% GM+0% FM) in broiler diets. Treatments (G0, G25, G50, G75 and G100) were randomly distributed into 20 pens of 18 birds each with 4 replications (4 pens/treatment). Data were analyzed in R 3.2 using ANOVA and regression was executed in Microsoft Excel 2013. Results: At the end of the experiment, the daily feed intake, body weight and weight gain linearly and significantly decreased (p<0.05) with increasing substitution rates of fish meal with grasshopper meal. Also, the results showed that feed conversion ratios linearly increased and were significantly affected by the treatments (p<0.05), with the highest performance observed in broilers fed the control diet. Carcass characteristics also significantly decreased (p<0.05) with increasing levels of grasshopper meal in broiler diets. However, the substitution did not significantly affect feed efficacy of broilers during the growing phase (p>0.05). In addition, during the 49 days of experimentation, the body weight, feed conversion ratio, economic feed efficiency and carcass yield of broilers fed G0, G25 and G50 were similar (p>0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, in Niger, fish meal may be substituted with up to 50% grasshopper meal in broiler feed.
Research Article
Functional Characteristics of Fermented Egg White Powder After Pan-drying at Different Temperatures and Times
N. Nahariah, A.M. Legowo, E. Abustam, A. Hintono and H. Hikmah
Background and Objective: Eggs, especially egg whites, are high in protein but susceptible to damage, even via fermentation. Thus, it is necessary to preserve them by adding flour. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different drying temperatures and durations to produce fermented egg white powder with optimal functional characteristics. Materials and Methods: The present study had a factorial design (3×3) using drying temperature (45, 50 and 55°C) and duration (30, 39 and 48 h) as treatments. All chicken eggs (900) used were obtained from the same farm. Parameters measured were foaming capacity and stability, powder solubility and coagulation time. A pan dryer was used to dry fermented egg whites. Results: Neither drying temperature nor time significantly affected the foaming capacity or stability, but there was an interaction between both treatments and foaming capacity. In contrast, drying temperature and duration significantly (p<0.05) affected the powder solubility, but there was no interaction with either treatment. Variance analysis showed that drying temperature had significant effect (p<0.01) on coagulation time of egg white powder. Drying time was not significant (p<0.05), but there was an interaction between the two. Conclusion: Pan-drying fermented egg whites at 45°C for 48 h increased the foaming capacity and stability. Moreover, drying at 50°C for 39 h could increase the powder’s solubility and coagulation time.
Research Article
Influence of Dietary Vitamin A, Zinc and Copper on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Broiler Breeders
O.M. El-Husseiny, A.Z.M. Soliman, H.M.R. El-Sherif and A.M. Fouad
Objective: The study was designed to investigate the impact of selected essential micronutrients, vitamin A, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), on productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders from 53-72 weeks of age. Materials and Methods: Total number of 96 broiler breeders (72 ♀ and 24 ♂) at 53 weeks of age, were randomly assigned to 8 equal groups of 9 hens each, divided into 3 replicate. The experiment was conducted in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of the dietary treatments. Eight experimental diets were formulated using two levels of vitamin A (12500 and 25000 IU kg–1), two levels of Zn (132 and 264 mg kg–1) and two levels of Cu (15.7 and 31.4 mg kg–1) in this study. Results: The diet containing 12500 vitamin A IU kg–1+264 Zn mg kg–1+15.7 Cu mg kg–1 resulted in the best productive (egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio) and reproductive performance (fertility, hatchability and day-old chick weight). The optimal level of vitamin A, Zn and Cu resulted 12500 vitamin A IU kg–1, 264 Zn mg kg–1 and 15.7 Cu mg kg–1, respectively. Conclusion: Feeding diet containing 12500 vitamin A IU kg–1, 264 Zn mg kg–1 and 15.7 Cu mg kg–1 would produce best productive and reproductive performances of Cairo B-2 broiler breeders.
Research Article
Effect of Dietary Combinations of Garlic and Onion in Broiler Production
Diya Al-Ramamneh
Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of garlic and onion in the diet of broiler chickens. The chickens were assessed with regard to feeding, growth performance and behavioral responses. Methodology: Fifty 1-day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to two experimental dietary groups. Each treatment included 5 replicates with five birds in each replicate. The experimental groups included a control group with a basal diet containing neither garlic nor onion. The remaining group received the basal diet plus 2.5 kg t–1 garlic and 2.5% onion powder at room temperature between 30-35°C at a relative humidity of 15-20%. Feed intake and body weight were measured once each week. For measurement of the carcass, organ weights and blood analysis, one bird per pen was euthanized at a rate of 42 birds per day. Results: Present investigation showed that the combination of garlic and onion improved chicken performance and decreased blood cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. Behavioral observations showed higher feeding and drinking activities when garlic and onion were provided. Conclusion: The addition of garlic and onion improves the feeding efficiency and body weight of treated chickens.

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