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International Journal of Poultry Science
eISSN: 1994-7992
pISSN: 1682-8356

Editor-in-Chief:  Ibrahim Seker
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Research Article
Relationship of Eggshell Thickness to Thermal Gradients Across the Shell at the Large and Equatorial Regions of Ross 708 Broiler Hatching Eggs1,2,3
O.A. Durojaye, S.D.F. To, K.E.C. Elliott, P.D. Gerard and E.D. Peebles
Background and Objective: This study was designed to examine the relationship between the thickness and thermal barrier property of the eggshell of embryonated Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs. Methodology: On each of 8 levels of a single-stage incubator, 43 eggs were weighed and set. Transponders were implanted in the air cell of 10 eggs per level at 12 d of incubation (DOI) and shell thickness at the large end (LSTH) of those eggs was measured at 19 DOI. Along with air cell temperature (ACT), external surface temperature of the shell was measured daily at the equator (EST) and large end (LST) of the egg by infrared thermometry at 10 AM and 4 PM between 12 and 19 DOI. Thermal gradients across the shell at the equator and large end of the egg were expressed as differences between ACT and EST (TE) and ACT and LST (TL). Results: There was a significant (p<0.0001) location in the egg ×time period interaction for the temperature readings and thermal gradients across the eggshell. At 4 PM on 12 DOI, 10 AM on 13 and 14 DOI and 10 AM and 4 PM on 15-19 DOI, ACT was higher than EST and EST was higher than LST. However, at 4 PM on 13 and 14 DOI, ACT and EST were not significantly different but both were higher than LST. At all time periods examined, TE was lower than TL. Mean EST and LST were positively correlated (p<0.0001). However, significant negative correlations were observed between LSTH and TE at 10 AM on 17 DOI and between LSTH and TL at 10AM and 4 PM on 16 and 17 DOI and at 10 AM on 18 DOI. Conclusion: Although, EST and LST are positively correlated, EST is more closely related to ACT than is LST and an increase in LSTH, within the range observed in this study, does not increase the shell’s function as a thermal barrier in embryonated Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs.
Research Article
Selection of Local Microorganism Solutions as Crude Fiber Digester in Areca catechu L. Peel Waste for Producing Poultry Feed Additives
Maria Endo Mahata, Ardi and Yose Rizal
Background and Objective: Areca catechu L. is an herbal plant that contains polyphenol (flavonoids and tannin) and alkaloid (arecholine, arecolidine, guvacoline, guvacine and isoguvacine) compounds. Both polyphenols and alkaloids are known to be anthelmintic as well as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cholesterol lowering compounds for poultry and dogs. When Areca catechu L. seeds are harvested, they produce 76% Areca catechu L. peel waste, which can be potentially used as a poultry feed additive to increase poultry performance. Areca catechu L. peel waste contains as much as 1.693% total polyphenols, 1.383% total alkaloids, 1.466% catechins and 456.59 mg/100 g tannins. The utilization of Areca catechu L. peel waste as a poultry feed additive is limited due to the high crude fiber content, which can be as high as 47.02%; the poultry digestive tract does not produce cellulase to hydrolyze crude fiber. The fermentation of Areca catechu peel waste with a local microorganism solution that produces cellulase is one solution for lowering crude fiber in Areca catechu L. peel waste. This experiment was performed to select the best local microorganism solution from different sources as a crude fiber digester in Areca catechu peel waste to produce poultry feed additives. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed with a completely randomized design using five different sources of local microorganism solutions derived from bamboo sprouts, banana corms, mixed fruit waste, mixed vegetable waste and rice waste. As much as 500 mL of each local microorganism solution was used to ferment 200 g of Areca catechu L. peel waste for 2 weeks and each treatment was repeated four times. Crude fiber and dry matter were the parameters in this experiment and the total number of colonies of bacteria and fungi was calculated before and after fermentation with each local microorganism solution. Results: The fermentation of Areca catechu L. peel waste with different sources of local microorganism solutions significantly lowered crude fiber and dry matter (p<0.05) and the total number of colonies of bacteria and fungi decreased after the fermentation process, except for the colony of bacteria and fungi in the local microorganism solution from bamboo sprouts, which increased. Conclusion: Mixed vegetable waste was the best source of local microorganism solutions for lowering crude fiber in Areca catechu L. peel waste and the crude fiber decreased from 47.02-25.95%.
Research Article
Effect of Gallotannoids on the Productive Performance and Stress Index of Broiler Chickens under Stress Conditions
Kanokporn Poungpong, Eisuke Sumiyoshi and Chaiyapoom Bunchasak
Background and Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of hydrolyzable tannoids (gallotannoids) on the productive performance and stress hormone levels (cortisol) of broilers, from hatching to 42 days of age, under high environmental stresses (i.e. heat stress, high stocking density, dirty litter). Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight male broiler chickens (Ross 308 strain) were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet under high stress conditions. The birds were devided into three groups: (1) control group, (2) group that received synthetic vitamin C at 286 ppm and (3) group that received gallotanoid at 100 ppm. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Results: Gallotannoids significantly improved body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control and synthetic vitamin C groups (p<0.05) during the finisher period (days 35-42). During the overall period (days 0-42), gallotannoids significantly improved the European production efficiency factor (EPEF) and FCR compared to the control group (p<0.05), whereas the synthetic vitamin C did not significantly improve these measures (p>0.05). Blood cortisol hormone levels were decreased by the synthetic vitamin C, as well as by the gallotanoids (p>0.05). Conclusion: Results indicate that, at the tested doses and under high stress conditions, gallotannoid supplementation can improve broiler production performance more efficiently than synthetic vitamin C.
Research Article
The Effect of Rice Hull in Diets on Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Blood Chemical Profile of Bali Duck
I.B. Gaga Partama, T.G. Belawa Yadnya, I.G.N.G. Bidura, A.A.A. Sri Trisnadewi and W. Sayang Yupardhi
Background and Objective: An experiment was conducted to study the effects of diets with rice hull urea deammoniated and biofermented by a complex of lactobacillus bacteria with Piper betle L. leaf supplement on the performance, antioxidant capacity and blood chemical profile of male Bali ducks in the growth phase. Methodology: The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments; the treatments were: (A) control treatment, (B) diet containing 10% rice hull, (c) a diet containing 10% ammoniated and biofermented rice hull, (D) a diet containing 10% rice hull and Piper betle leaf and (E) a diet containing 10% ammoniated and biofermented rice hull and Piper betle leaf. Each treatment consisted of five Bali ducks and each treatment was replicated four times. Observed variables were consumption and digestibility of diets, final body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: The results showed that diets containing 10% rice hull ammoniated and biofermented did not affect feed consumption (p>0.05), although feed digestibility and final body weight increased (p<0.05). However, in these diets, decreases were observed in the levels of total body cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TGA) as well as the levels of sugar and uric acid, whereas weight gain and FCR were not significantly affected (p>0.05). Diets containing rice hull deammoniated and biofermented with piper betel leaf supplement decreased concentrations in Bali duck blood. Conclusion: In conclusion, diets offered with rice hull urea deammoniated and biofermented supplemented with Piper betle leaf improved the performance, antioxidant capacity and blood chemical profile of Bali ducks in the growth phase.
Research Article
Using Principal Component Analysis to Identify Components Predictive of Shape Index in Chicken, Quail and Guinea Fowl
Ahmed S. Shaker, Questan A. Amin, Shilan A. Akram, Shahla M.S. Kirkuki, Rozhgar S. Bayez Talabani, Nidhal A. Mustafa and Mohammed Sardar Mohammed
Background and Objective: The shape index of avian eggs is used as an indicator for predicting chick weight, hatchability and eggshell quality. However, the components that most contribute to shape index remain unknown. The aim of this study was to provide an objective description of shape index using principal component analysis and to predict shape index from egg measurements derived from this analysis. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the Animal Production Department laboratories of Sulaimani University, Sulaimani, Iraq. From July 2017 to February 2018, a total of 98, 95 and 56 chicken, quail and guinea fowl eggs respectively were collected from local markets. Digital balance and vernier calipers were used to measure the traits. Then descriptive analysis, correlations and principal component analysis were determined by using SPSS program. Results: The guinea fowl and quail had high egg shape indexes of 79.24 and 79.00% respectively, followed by the chicken (75.19%). The relationships between the shape index and the majority of the egg components were positive and significant (p<0.05) in all three species. Bartlett’s test of sphericity on the egg components for the chicken (χ2 = 150.354, p = 0.000), quail (χ2 = 133.322, p = 0.000) and guinea fowl (χ2 = 256.323, p = 0.000) were also highly significant. Two principal components were extracted for each species with eigenvalues that, when combined, accounted for 82.5, 84.1 and 94% of the total variance for the chicken, quail and guinea fowl respectively. Conclusion: Easily measured, descriptive features can be used to predict the shape index of the eggs of gallinaceous birds, which helps toward selecting eggs and improving production.
Research Article
Production Performance and Carcass Percentage of Broilers Fed Distillers Dried Grain From Rice Husks With Co-culture Fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Candida tropicalis
Tatang Sopandi and A. Wardah
Background and Objective: Distillers dried grains of bioethanol production can be used as an alternative source of energy and protein for poultry feed. Sources of raw material for energy are very important to reduce the cost of poultry feed. The present study aimed to find suitable proportion of distillers dried grains from a rice husk with co-culture fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevicea with Candida tropicalis as feed ingredients for broiler chickens to replace corn. Materials and Methods: One hundred day-old chicks (DOC) were used in the present study. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 6 treatments and different replications. Six formulations of treatment feed were made for the starter and finisher periods, each consisting of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% rice husk DDG in broiler chicken rations. In the present study, the composition of DDG nutrients and formulated feed were analyzed according to AOAC recommendations. Results: Corn substitution with rice husk DDG up to 15% does not negatively affect the growth and weight of harvest, feed consumption and feed conversion, carcass, liver organ and gastrointestinal tract percentage and nitrogen retention of broiler chicken. However, replacement of corn with 20-25% of rice husk DDG can decreases growth and harvest weight, feed conversion and nitrogen retention of broiler chicken. Conclusion: The rice husk DDG can be used as a formulation material and replaces 15% of corn in broiler chicken rations.

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