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International Journal of Poultry Science
eISSN: 1994-7992
pISSN: 1682-8356

Editor-in-Chief:  Ibrahim Seker
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Research Article
Effect of the Phytase Inclusion in Broiler Breeder Diets on Fecal and Egg Characteristics
Basheer Nusairat, Mireille Arguelles Ramos and John Brake
Objective: A study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase inclusion in broiler breeder diets on fecal and egg characteristics of individually caged females. Materials and Methods: A total of 184 female broiler breeders were fed growing and laying diets containing 0.7% or 2.7% calcium (Ca) and 0.35% or 0.12% available phosphorus (AvP), respectively, with one of four graded levels of phytase 0 (Control), 300, 600 and 1200 FTU kg–1 with 46 replicate cages/treatment at photostimulation. Results: Feeding 1200 FTU kg–1 of phytase produced greater fecal liquid portion at 31 week (p<0.001) and 38 week (p<0.01) while fecal phosphorus (P) was increased (p<0.01) at 38 week in birds that had consumed either 600 or 1200 FTU kg–1 of phytase. There was no significant effect of phytase on egg characteristics or egg production. Conclusion: When formulating broiler breeder diets with phytase, attention should be made to the quantity of enzyme used to avoid increased liquid feces.
Research Article
Cloning of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Follistatin and Production of Bioactive Quail Follistatin288 in Escherichia coli
Yusuf Mohammed Maaeni, Sang Beum Lee, Dong Hyuck Choi, Paul E. Mozdziak and Yong Soo Kim
Background and Objective: Follistatin (FST) is a cysteine-rich autocrine glycoprotein and plays an important role in mammalian prenatal and postnatal development. The FST binds to and inhibits myostatin (MSTN), a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, thus FST abundance enhances muscle growth in animals. The objective of this study was to determine cDNA sequence of quail FST and to produce biologically active quail FST288 (qFST288) in an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. Materials and Methods: Total RNA isolated from quail ovary tissue was used in performing 3'-and 5'-RACE to determine the full-length mRNA sequence of quail FST. The full-length quail FST cDNA consisted of 1118 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1032 bp. The qFST amino acid sequence deduced from qFST cDNA was identical to chicken FST except the sequence at 28 position. To produce recombinant qFST288 protein, Gibson assembly cloning method was used to insert the DNA fragments of qFST288 into pMALc5x vector downstream of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) gene and the plasmids containing the inserts were eventually transformed into shuffle E. coli strain for protein expression. Results: Soluble expression of the qFST288 protein was achieved through the experiments and the protein could be easily purified by the combination of amylose and heparin resin affinity chromatography. In an in vitro reporter gene assay, MBP-qFST288 demonstrated its capacity to suppress the activities of MSTN or activin A. Conclusion: Through cloning of quail FST cDNA, it was discovered that amino acid sequence of quail FST is identical to that of chicken FST. In addition, it was demonstrated that bioactive qFST288 could be produced in E. coli.
Research Article
Immersion of Sargassum binderi Seaweed in River Water Flow to Lower Salt Content before Use as Feed for Laying Hens
Yelsi listiana Dewi, Ahadiyah Yuniza, Nuraini , Kesuma Sayuti and Maria Endo Mahata
Background and Objective: In certain coastal areas of Indonesia, Sargassum binderi drifts to the shore because of ocean waves and because people do not use it, becomes useless waste. This seaweed could potentially be used as feed for laying hens because certain bioactive compounds in seaweed, such as alginate, fucoidan, fucoxanthin and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are useful for poultry health. High salt content is a problem with using Sargassum binderi as poultry feed because it causes diarrhea and death in poultry. Therefore, the salt content of Sargassum binderi should be reduced before it is fed to poultry. The purpose of this study was to reduce the salt content of Sargassum binderi for use as feed for laying hens. Materials and Methods: The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with Sargassum binderi immersed in flowing river water for durations of 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 19, 21 and 23 h, each treatment was repeated 3 times. The measured variables were salt, crude protein, total dry matter, organic matter and ash. Results: The results showed that the different immersion durations of Sargassum binderi in flowing river water significantly affected (p<0.05) the reduction of salt, total dry matter and ash content and also significantly affected (p<0.05) the increase in organic matter and crude protein. Conclusion: The immersion of Sargassum binderi in flowing river water for 15 h was the best treatment to lower salt, total dry matter and ash and to increase the organic matter and crude protein content.
Research Article
Supplementation of Caloric- and Protein-restricted Diets with L-leucine Stimulates Food Intake and Improves Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens
Edi Erwan
Background and Objective: As one of branch chain amino acids (BCCA), L-leucine may have potential as a regulator of feed intake in broiler chickens. This study aimed to evaluate dietary supplementation of low-protein and low-energy diets with L-leucine to improve the growth performance, body composition and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: About 80 days old broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 4 treatments, each group had 4 replicates, with 5 birds/replicate pen in a battery brooder. The birds were fed a starter diet until the 21st day of age and from day 21-42, they were fed experimental diets that had restricted protein and calorie contents (18% and 3,000 kcal kg–1, respectively). Chickens were fed diets supplemented with different levels of L-leucine (0, 0.42, 0.5 and 0.75% kg–1). Results: Supplementation with different doses of L-leucine strongly and dose-dependently increased feed intake and body weight gain and decreased the feed conversion ratio. Dietary L-leucine supplementation also increased live weight, carcass percentage and breast meat as well as the loss of body fat. Conclusion: Supplementing protein and energy-restricted diets with L-leucine can be used to improve growth performance, body composition and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens.
Research Article
Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Leaves and Seeds of the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) on the Production Performance and Carcass Cholesterol Levels of Pitalah Ducks
Erman Syahruddin, R. Herawaty and Azhar
Objective: This study aimed to determine the production performance and cholesterol content of Pitalah ducks fed a diet in which soybean meal had been replaced with rubber tree leaves and seeds fermented with the fungus Trichoderma spiralis. Methodology: A 12 week field trial was performed using 480, 1 day old Pitalah ducklings that were maintained in colonies in wire cages. Each unit was equipped with a feed enclosure, water and an incandescent light source. This randomized study was performed with 6 treatments, 4 replicates and 20 ducklings per box. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and differences among treatment groups were analyzed with Duncan’s multiple range test. The treatments included a control diet and diets in which a percentage of the soybean meal (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) was replaced with fermented leaves and seeds of the rubber tree (FLSRT). The variables measured were feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, income over feed cost and carcass cholesterol content. Results: Broiler production factors, such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, income over feed cost and carcass cholesterol content, were not markedly affected by the inclusion of up to 80% FLSRT in livestock rations. Conclusion: Up to 80% of the soybean meal in Pitalah duck rations can be replaced with FLSRT.
Research Article
Effect of Dietary Replacement of Maize with Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Grain on Production Performance and Egg Quality of White Leghorn Hens
Yilkal Tadele, Tegene Negesse, Negassi Amha and K.R. Yadav
Objective: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize by finger millet as energy source on feed intake, body weight gain, egg production and quality parameters of white leghorn layers. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty chickens were randomly distributed in 5 treatments, each replicated three times with ten layers and two cockerels/replicate in CRD and kept on a deep litter system. The treatment rations were formulated to contain finger millet in place of maize at the rate of 0 (T1), 25 (T2), 50 (T3), 75 (T4) and 100% (T5). Birds were offered a weighed amount of feed and feed leftover was collected and weighed the next morning. Weight of chicks was taken at the beginning and end of the experiment. Egg production and egg quality parameters were also recorded. Results: Finger millet contained 9% crude protein (CP) and 3280 kcal kg–1 metabolizable energy (ME) on DM basis. Dry matter intake among T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 (94, 91, 94, 95 and 90 g/hen/day, respectively) was not different (p>0.05). There were significant differences (p<0.05) among treatments in percent hen day egg production (33.09, 34.62, 36.89, 39 and 31.96, SEM = 2.735) for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) among treatment groups was observed in albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness but no significant differences (p>0.05) in yolk weight, yolk height, albumen height and haugh unit was noticed. Albumen weights of 28.2, 28.9, 29.8, 29.99 and 31 g were recorded respectively for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. The egg shell thickness were also 0.263, 0.298, 0.304, 0.334 and 0.314 μm for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. Roche color fan reading revealed that eggs from hens fed T1 diet had significantly (p<0.01) lighter yellow yolk color (1.66) than T2 (2.428), T3 (2.76), T4 (3.43) and T5 (3.33). Conclusion: Increasing dietary level of finger millet grain in layer ration has no negative impact on production performance, quality parameters of eggs and thus finger millet can completely replace maize in layers ration. Further, substitution of maize with finger millet grain up to 75% was found profitable because of the increased egg production.

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