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International Journal of Poultry Science
eISSN: 1994-7992
pISSN: 1682-8356

Editor-in-Chief:  Ibrahim Seker
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Research Article
Identifying Intra-Specific Variability in the Virulence of Eimeria tenella Using SCAR Markers
Mahmoud E. Sedeik, Nahed A. El-shall, Ashraf M. Awad, Hatem S. Abd-Elhamid, Hany F. Ellakany, Abeer F. El-nahas and Wael K. Elfeil
Background and Objective: Coccidia are major parasitic pathogens of poultry, with infection characterized by intestinal lesions, blood loss, body weight loss, a poor feed conversion ratio, increased susceptibility to other microorganisms and mortality. The present study was undertaken to identify intra-specific variability in the virulence of Eimeria tenella strains using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Materials and Methods: A single PCR-based assay was performed to detect and identify E. tenella using SCAR markers for four strains that represent four Egyptian governorates (Alexandria, Beheira, Gharbia and Kafr El-Sheikh). The Coccivac B<*sup>® vaccine was used as a source of E. tenella (wild type). Results: Sequencing and a phylogenetic tree of all E. tenella strains showed 100% identity, except for the Gharbia governorate strain, which exhibited 97.86% identity with the other governorate strains. However, these results did not correlate with an evaluation of strain virulence using 25×10<*sup>3 oocysts per chick, as the Alexandria strain was found to be the most virulent (60% mortality and a significant reduction in weight gain). The Beheira strain was the second most virulent strain (33.33% mortality), followed by the Gharbia and Kafr El-Sheikh strains (no mortality). Conclusion: These results indicate that the nucleotide variations identified between the Gharbia strain and other strains may occur infrequently or that the portion of the genome under study is not involved in the pathogenicity of E. tenella. Furthermore, the SCAR markers used in this study may be species specific (E. tenella) and may not reveal intra-specific variations.
Research Article
Coating Optimization Using Ashes and Salt for the Evaluation of Mineral Characteristics and Sensory Test Results of Salted Eggs
Deni Novia, Sri Melia and Indri Juliyarsi
Background and Objective: Salted eggs are famous for their salty flavour and high NaCl content. The salty taste originates from the salt and ash that are used as a salting medium which will affect the taste and acceptance of salted eggs. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the coating optimization using various ash and salt amounts to vary the mineral content and sensory value of the salted eggs. Materials and Methods: This study used a randomized block design of a 2×3 factorial pattern with three replications, where factor A is the type of ash, namely, either husk ash or wood ash and factor B is the addition of different amounts of salt, specifically, one, two and three parts salt. Observations about raw, salted eggs were made regarding albumen pH and water and ash content, as well as the NaCl, P, Ca, Mg and K content; observations about boiled, salted eggs were made regarding colour, aroma, texture and flavour. Results: This study found a possible inverse relationship between basicity and the amount of salt used in the coating process. The results of the study show that there is an interaction between ash type and the different amounts of salt with the albumen pH, NaCl, Ca, Mg, K content, aroma and texture but no significant effect was observed on colour and taste. Compared to wood ash, the use of husk ash with increased amounts of salt in conjunction with the salted egg coating method can decrease the NaCl and P content of the eggs and enhance the K content, albumen pH, aroma, texture and taste. Conclusion: The treatment of the salted eggs with the husk ash coating method and as much as three parts salt is optimal for producing salted eggs with low NaCl content, high mineral content and preferred sensory properties.
Research Article
Effect of Chili Leaf Powder on Laying Hen Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels
Kanda Lokaewmanee
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effect of chili leaf on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg yolk cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design involved evaluation of a control (no chili leaf powder) diet and experimental diets supplemented with chili leaf powder (CLP) at 1, 2 or 3%. One hundred and twenty laying hens (Charoen Pokphand Brown) at 61 weeks of age were divided into 4 treatments, each with 10 replicates (3 birds per replicate). Each group was randomly allocated to one of the treatments for 5 weeks. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Results: The results of the effect of supplementation with CLP at 0, 1, 2 and 3% showed that the body weight gain, egg yield, egg weight and cholesterol were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). However, supplementation with CLP at 0 and 1% resulted in a higher feed intake and feed conversion ratio than those obtain with CLP supplementation at 3% (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among treatments in egg quality, breaking strength, shell thickness, yolk color, yolk percentage, shell percentage, albumen percentage, Haugh unit, lightness (L*) of yolk color, redness of yolk color (a*) and yellowness (b*) of yolk color (p>0.05). Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with 3% CLP can be used as alternative feed additive for laying hens despite an adverse effect on feed intake and feed conversion ratio, as feeding 3% CLP had no adverse effects on egg quality.
Research Article
Comparative Evaluation of Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Intestinal Development of Indigenous and Commercial Chicken Strains
W. Al-Marzooqi, Z.A.S. Al-Maskari, E.H. Johnson, K. Al-Kharousi, O. Mahgoub, N.M. Al-Saqri and Y. El Tahir
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the growth performance, meat quality characteristics and intestinal development of indigenous and commercial chicken strains raised under an intensive management system. Materials and Methods: One hundred eighty birds of local Omani and Cobb500 broiler chickens were divided into two groups of15 replicates with each replicate containing 6 birds. The birds were fed a non-medicated conventional corn-soybean meal diet. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. At the end of the growth experimental period (35 days), 15 birds per breed were randomly selected for morphological analysis of the jejunum and ileum, carcass and organ weight. Blood was collected for hematological and serum biochemistry analysis. Results: Hematological and serum analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the Omani and Cobb 500 broiler chickens, suggesting that the birds were healthy. The Cobb 500 showed a significantly higher feed intake (63.8%) and body weight gain (72.1%) and a better feed conversion ratio than that of the Omani breed (1.5 vs 1.96). Morphological analysis showed that Cobb 500 broilers had a greater villi height compared to the Omani breed (p<0.01). Conclusion: Villus development has a profound effect on the growth performance of chickens.
Research Article
Effects of Different Phase-Feeding Programs with Different Feed Forms on Broiler Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Intestinal Morphology
N. Saveewonlop, S. Rattanatabtimtong, Y. Ruangpanit, O. Songserm and S. Attamangkune
Background and Objective: Modern commercial broiler strains were developed to exhibit rapid growth. Therefore, phase-feeding programs with appropriate feed forms must be developed for these strains. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different phase-feeding programs with different feed forms on broiler performance. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized block design. Eight hundred eighty male and female broilers (Ross308) were fed crumble or pellet diets in different phase-feeding programs: starter, grower, or finisher. The four dietary treatments (10 replicates per treatment) were as follows: Treatment 1 (control): crumble starter (CS), pellet grower (PG), or pellet finisher (PF) at 1-17, 18-33 and 34-37 days of age; Treatment 2: CS, PG and PF at 1-14, 15-33 and 34-37 days of age; Treatment 3: CS, PG and PF at 1-10, 11-33 and 34-37 days of age; and Treatment 4: CS, PG and PF at 1-7, 8-33 and 34-37 days of age, respectively. Results: No significant differences in body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, or mortality were observed (p>0.05) among the dietary treatments during the starter and overall periods. In addition, the different phase-feeding programs with different feed forms did not affect (p>0.05) carcass traits at 37 days of age. Similar results were observed for intestinal morphologies among the treatments at 33 days of age. Conclusion: Under the study conditions, changing the feed form from crumble to pellets at 8 days of age did not detrimentally affect broiler performance, carcass traits or intestinal morphology.

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