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Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Journal of Medical Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5727
pISSN: 1682-4474

Editor-in-Chief:  Parveen Bansal
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Research Article
Expression of MSH2 in Head and Neck Lymphomas (A Study Utilizing Immunohistochemistry and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Safa Fathy Abd El-Ghani, Rehab Fawzi Kasem, Dina Soliman Khater and Olfat G. Shaker
Background and Objective: Lymphomas are malignant neoplastic proliferations that cause major health problems worldwide. However, the precise pathogenesis and underlying molecular mechanisms of both Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) are not fully elucidated. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to detect the expression of MSH2 at the gene and protein levels in HL and NHL of the head and neck. Materials and Methods: Expression of MSH2 on gene and protein levels were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. A total of 26 archival specimens were selected including normal lymph nodes (6 cases) which were used as a control group, lingual tonsils with lymphoid hyperplasia (6 cases) and 14 cases of lymphomas of submandibular and sublingual lymph nodes. Lymphomas were classified into of HL (6 cases of mixed cellularity type) and NHL (8 cases of diffuse B cell lymphoma). Results: Lower expression of MSH2 in NHL than HL was also observed. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between the expression of MSH2 protein and its mRNA among the examined groups. Conclusion: Lower expression of MSH2 in NHL than that of HL suggested a more aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in this lesion. The reduced expression of MSH2 could be considered as a molecular biomarker for loss of MMR activities and it might serve as a prognostic biomarker for head and neck lymphomas.
Research Article
Effects of Smoking and Body Mass Index on Serum Liver Enzyme Levels in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients on Hemodialysis
Fawzi Irshaid Irshaid, Sabah Mohammad Khaleel, Abdulrahman Mohummad Al-Shudifat and Ahmed Saad Abood
Background and Objective: A markedly elevated liver enzyme levels (GGT, AST and ALT) are commonly associated with liver disease but recently has also been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study was carried out to measure the serum levels of GGT, AST and ALT in Iraqi adult patients with CKD. Materials and Methods: The levels of GGT, AST and ALT were measured in 30 controls and 30 CKD patients before the hemodialysis session. The effects of age, gender, smoking status and body mass index (BMI) on the levels of liver enzymes were investigated. Results: Compared with the controls, CKD patients had a significantly higher level of GGT (p<0.05), whereas, no significant associations between the levels of ALT or AST and risk of CKD were observed. There were no significant differences between male and female with regard to GGT, ALT and AST levels in patients or the controls. The GGT levels were significantly reduced with age in patients and the controls (p<0.05). The GGT levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers for patients and the controls. For patients and the controls, the GGT levels were significantly higher in overweight and obesity subjects than in normal BMI subjects (p<0.05). By contrast, the age, cigarette smoking and BMI did not significantly affect the ALT and AST levels in patients or the controls. Conclusion: The GGT level was elevated in CKD patients on hemodialysis without the elevation of other liver enzymes in the middle-aged and elderly in Iraq. Smoking and BMI were positively associated with elevated levels of GGT in CKD patients. Therefore, these findings suggested that maintaining a healthy weight and smoking cessation might reduce the GGT level and may also prevent or delay the onset of CKD and improve health overall.
Research Article
Therapeutic Effects of a Polyherbal Formula on Some Coagulation Indices in Haemoglobinopathy
Akinbo B. David, Bamisaye E. Oluwaseyi and Nimi-Johnson E. Ebietein
Background and Objective: Hypercoagulability, inflammation, cardiovascular problems and stroke are common complications of haemoglobinopathies and a leading cause for hospital admission among patients. The influence of a polyherbal formula on endothelial dysfunction, coagulation indices and inflammation was investigated in 2-butoxyethanol-induced experimental model of haemoglobinopathy in adult rabbits. Materials and Methods: A total number of 20 healthy rabbits were randomly selected for this study and divided into groups. Twelve rabbits were administered 2.5 mL kg–1 of 2-butoxyethanol per os (p.o) and 1 mL kg–1 of 100 mg mL–1 polyherbal formula for 15 days, respectively pre- and post-2-butoxyethanol administration while the remaining six (6) were grouped as non-exposed/control. The levels of coagulation indices, inflammation marker and platelets were then evaluated. Tissue histology was used to assess the expression of microvascular occlusion and ischaemia. Results: Polyherbal formulation treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced circulating C-reactive protein level as well as the platelet dyscrasias and associated endothelial dysfunction by reducing the levels of coagulation indices. There was also down-regulation of the expression of tissue necrosis in the liver and spleen of rabbits treated with 2-butoxyethanol as a result of Polyherbal treatment. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation was found not to have any metabolic toxicity and was able to prevent 2-butoxyethanol-induced hypercoagulability and circulating thrombose as well as endothelial and inflammatory perturbation in rabbits when administered for 15 days before and after exposure to the 2-butoxyethanol induced haemoglobinopathy complications.

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