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Journal of Medical Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5727
pISSN: 1682-4474

Editor-in-Chief:  Parveen Bansal
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Research Article
Similarity of Adipocytokines Level in Radial and Coronary Artery Associated with Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness
Abdul Hakim Alkatiri, Syakib Bakri, Ilhamjaya Patellongi, Peter Kabo, Gatot Susilo Lawrence, William Horas and Mirnawati Mappiare
One of the most important anti-inflammatory protein is adiponectin. It acts to prevent the deleterious of TNF-α on endothelial cell by reducing level of adhesion molecules. To investigate the correlation between serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiponectin level in coronary artery (CA) and those in the radial artery (RA). This study also sought to investigate the association of those results with epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in coronary artery disease subjects. A cross-sectional study of 110 Indonesian subjects who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and diagnostic coronary angiography were studied. Blood samples from RA and CA were collected before coronary angiography. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between mean values and all statistical analysis was done by using SPSS. This study found forty three subjects with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and thicker EAT (8.5+6.9 vs 6.1+2.6, p<0.001). Analysis of the correlation between serum level of TNF-α in RA versus CA showed for linear correlation in non-severe CAD (r = 0.57, p<001), severe CAD (r = 0.67, p<001) and all subjects (r = 0.61, p<0.001). Serum level of hs-CRP showed strong correlation for non-severe CAD (r = 0.99, p<0.001), severe CAD (r = 0.98, p<0.001) and all subjects (r = 0.99, p<0.001). Furthermore, analysis of serum level of adiponectin for non-severe CAD (r = 0.87, p<001), severe CAD (r = 0.86, p<0.001) and all subjects (r = 0.86, p<0.001) also showed linear correlation in both sample site. A linear correlation between TNF-α, hs-CRP and adiponectin in RA and CA associated with EAT in CAD subjects.
Research Article
Evaluation of Caspase-3 mRNA Gene Expression Activity in Amyloid Beta-induced Alzheimer’s Disease Rats
Emma Kamelia, Andi Asadul Islam, Mochammad Hatta, Cahyono Kaelan, Ilhamjaya Patellongi, Muh Nasrum Massi, Jumraini Tammasse, Nasrullah , Marhaen Hardjo, Maria Bintang and Hadiyat Miko
Caspase-3 plays a role in cell death in experimental models of several acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders, caspase-3 activation has been proposed as an early neurodegenerative event in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by neuropathological deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, with the function as an extracellular signal molecule for caspase-3 activation in AD. Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is widely believed to play a central and etiological role in Alzheimer disease (AD). The overproduction of Aβ in the brain is a primary cause of AD and various research activities are conducted for inhibition of Aβ generation has become a hot topic in AD research. Therefore, in this study tried to make AD modeling through induction using Aβ, it is expected to increase the activity of caspase-3 mRNA which is the early sign of Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate caspase-3 mRNA levels in the wistar rat induced of Aβ. Twenty wistar rats were randomized into five groups K0: Without AD induction, K1: AD induction, K2: AD induction, K3: AD induction and K4: AD induction. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) induction was performed by Aβ1-42 (0.2 μg) injection at the intracerebroventricullary area. The mRNA Caspase-3 level measurements were performed by RT-PCR. The data caspase-3 mRNA gene expression was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. Paired t-test analysis showed no significant differences of caspase-3 mRNA level before induction among 5 groups (p>0.05). At 6 weeks post-induction, there was significant increased caspase mRNA in all groups except K0 (p<0.05). Increased caspase-3 mRNA gene expression in amyloid beta-induced AD rats in all groups except K0 (p<0.05).
Research Article
Genotoxicity Assessment of Fresh Khat Leaves Extract in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Lines
Adel Sharaf Al-Zubairi
Due to its stimulating and pleasurable effects, chewing the leaves of khat (Catha edulis) is a widespread habit among the people of East Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of the fresh khat leaves extract in CHO cell lines using two cytogenetic endpoints, Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay and Micronucleus test (MN). The chromosome aberrations and micronucleus induction test were performed without any metabolic activation system. Data were analyzed by Chi-square using SPSS version 24.0. High concentrations of fresh khat leaves extract (500 and 5000 μg mL–1) were found to reduce the mitotic index (MI) significantly (p<0.05), while only the highest concentration (5000 μg mL–1) was found to induce chromosomal aberrations. In contrast, the results of MN induction test showed no significant micronuclei formation after treatment with different concentrations, however, the cytochalasin-B proliferation index (CBPI) was found to be affected by the highest concentration of the fresh khat leaves extract. Only high concentrations of fresh khat leaves extract induced chromosomal aberrations and dicentrics, rings chromosomes, breaks and exchanges were the main types of aberrations induced by fresh khat leaves extract.
Research Article
Association of Typhoid Fever Severity with Polymorphisms NOD2, VDR and NRAMP1 Genes in Endemic Area, Indonesia
Ressy Dwiyanti, Mochammad Hatta, Rosdiana Natzir, Sutji Pratiwi, Muhammad Sabir, Yadi Yasir, Rizki Amelia Noviyanthi, Ade Rifka Junita, Nataniel Tandirogang, Masyhudi Amir, Matius Fias, Juhri Saning and Burhanuddin Bahar
Only small proportions of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), in endemic areas, exposing individuals develop typhoid fever symptoms. Identification of polymorphisms NOD2, VDR and NRAMP1 genes is mandatory for a better understanding of typhoid fever molecular pathogenesis and thus to the development of novel strategies for the prevention of infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide oligomerization binding domain 2 (NOD2), vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) genes are involved in host susceptibility to severity of typhoid fever. The genotyping of eight regions were applied in the genes; NOD2, VDR and NRAMP1, using PCR-RFLP. A multivariate analysis on 426 mild and 35 severe state of typhoid fever patients. All patients living in the geographically isolated village of South Sulawesi, Middle Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, East Borneo and Papua islands which was an endemic areas in Indonesia. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Stata 9.2. The G/C and C/C alleles of exon 8 in NOD2 gene were strongly associated and more frequently found in the patients with severe typhoid fever than in mild typhoid fever (p= 0.027and 0.014, odds ratio = 16.7and 27.9, 95% confidence interval = 3.4 - 25.7and 2.6 - 37.1in G/C allele and C/C allele), respectively. In contrast, No evidence for the association of VDR and NRAMP1 genes polymorphisms with severity state of typhoid fever. The polymorphism of exon 8 in NOD2 gene; heterozygotes or homozygotes for a G→C change in codon 2722, was related to susceptibility to typhoid fever in clinical severity of this disease. Polymorphisms of exon 8 in NOD2 gene; heterozygotes or homozygotes for G/C in codon 2722 were related to susceptibility to typhoid fever in clinical severity.
Research Article
Impact of Giardiasis on Hematological Profile of Infected Children
Iram Abdullah, Hidayatullah Tak and Fayaz Ahmad
Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease caused by protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. It is known to infect a wide range of mammals including humans. The present study was carried out to study the impact of Giardiasis on hematological parameters of children in district Anantnag of Kashmir valley, India. The study was carried out on 268 children of both gender whose stool samples were processed through Direct Smear method and Formol Ether concentration technique. After confirming their results for Giardiasis, certain examinations of blood parameters were then carried out for 44 children which included total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, Hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Hemoglobin value and hematocrit values were estimated by Sahli’s Acid Hematin method and Wintrobe’s method, respectively. The white blood cell (WBC) count was done with the help of hemocytometer and differential counting was done by using Leishmann’s staining method. Finally data was analysed by Minitab software and Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean values in each group. The results showed a significant decrease in mean values of hemoglobin from 11.15±1.23 to 10.05±2.04 in males and 11.36±1.15 to 10.08±0.80 in females. The mean values of hematocrit also showed a decrease in their values between infected and uninfected children from 36.2±1.72 to 32.6±2.80 in males and 36.14±1.19 to 32.22±1.62 in females. In case of WBC count, a significant increase in the total number of WBCs was observed in case of infected children from 7.96±0.33 to 9.38±0.61. With respect to differential leukocyte count, eosinophils showed a marked increase in their number in infected individuals (5.0±0.71) in comparison to uninfected ones (3.2±0.44) while slight differences were noticed in case of other white blood cells which were not statistically significant. The results showed that Giardiasis is responsible for decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit values and increase in total leukocyte count in infected children.
Case Study
Patient’s Perspectives on Endoscopic SMR with Spurectomy and Post-operative Synechia Formation
Soumitra Nath and Kripamoy Nath
The present study aimed to discuss the patient’s perspectives on recurrent epistaxis and post-operative synechia formation. Endoscopic SMR with spurectomy was performed after detailed evaluation of etiology and anatomical variations of the patient. The CT scan showed a mucosal thickening in left maxillary sinus and the bilateral inferior turbinates were hypertrophied. Following a successful surgical procedure with nasal packaging for two post-operative days, the patient developed synechia after 15 days and thus silicon splints were applied in both nostrils and kept for 7 days. The patient was reviewed regularly and after 1 month, his nasal obstruction had improved significantly with no further epistaxis. Endoscopic submucosal resection (SMR) is an easier and widely used method to correct the nasal deviation. However, the patient’s discomfort and distress in endoscopic SMR with spurectomy, nasal packaging and post-operative complications arises many questions from the patient’s perspectives.

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