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Asian Journal of Plant Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5697
pISSN: 1682-3974

Editor-in-Chief:  Sayyada Khatoon
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Review Article
Remote Sensing Derivation of Land Surface Temperature for Insect Pest Monitoring
Farrah Melissa Muharam, Siti Aisyah Ruslan, Siti Liyana Zulkafli, Norida Mazlan, Nur Azura Adam and Nor Azura Husin
Temperature has major influence in insect development and outbreak. At present, the common method of collecting temperature information mainly relies on ground weather stations. However, this method is unfeasible for a large-scale area as weather stations distributions are sparse. This, however, can be compensated by the temperature measured through remote sensing satellites known as Land Surface Temperature (LST). Hence, this paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of Thermal Infrared (TIR) and Microwave (MW) sensors for the acquisition of LST. This review will focus on the availability, suitability and adaptability of those sensors in providing LST for insect pest monitoring with the comparison being concentrated on their spatial and temporal characteristics, along with their accuracies.
Research Article
Evaluation of Seagrass Liquid Extract on Salt Stress Alleviation in Tomato Plants
Sadasivam Vinoth, Sundari , Packiaraj Gurusaravanan, Subiramani Sivakumar, Govindarajan Siva, Ganesan Prem Kumar, Manju , Kalamani Velmurugan, Vemuri Lakshminarayana and Narayanasamy Jayabalan
Background and Objective: Seagrass extract is a natural plant biostimulant which can be utilized for enhancing plant growth at various stages. The present study was undertaken to explore the application of Zostera marina seagrass extract as foliar spray on salt stressed tomato plants under green house conditions. Methodology: The one set of green house grown tomato plants were sprayed with seagrass extract and another set with water on 15th day of salt treatment. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and their physiological responses towards different concentration of salt stress were examined after the 3rd treatment. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software version 17. Results: The initial studies revealed that the salt stressed plants shown variation in physiology, Relative Water Content (RWC) and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the leaves. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) were found to have increased in seagrass extract sprayed plants when compared with the plants sprayed with water. In contrast to APX, SOD, CAT, the activities of peroxidase (POX) were declined in the seagrass treated plants. Conclusion: After 30 days, the plants sprayed with seagrass extract were more efficient in controlling the damage caused by the stress and it has shown enhanced activities of tolerance to the salt stressed plants compared to the control. Further, presence of functional groups and constituents were found in seagrass extract through FTIR and GC-MS analyses.
Research Article
Development of an Efficient Technology for Rapid Clonal Multiplication of Celastrus paniculatus–Willd, an Endangered Medicinal Plant
Anusha Tharayil Koonapra Sasidharan, Joseph Madassery and Kothanam Kuzhiyil Elyas
Background and Objective: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Celastraceae) is a large, woody climbing shrub commonly known as ‘Jyotishmati’, "Intellect tree" or ‘Bitter sweet’ is an important medicinal plant in India. Due its high pharmaceutical applications, this species has been over exploited and is now considered as endangered species. The present investigation was focused on development of an efficient shoot induction protocol for the large scale production of Celastrus paniculatus. Materials and Methods: The pathological screening of in vitro propagated progenies was done to ensure their disease free nature. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with varying combination of growth regulators such as Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and Kinetin (Kin) with a concentration ranging from 0.5-3.0 mg L–1 for shoot induction. To detect the presence of any microbial growth, the in vitro derived clones with 0.5 mm in size were transferred into Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) or Plate Count Agar (PCA) medium and the visual observation for the detection of endogenous and exogenous fungal and bacterial growth. A random sampling of 50% of in vitro propagated plants listed for microbial contamination. The results were recorded and expressed as Mean±SD for all the experiments. Results: The maximum number of shoots was induced in MS medium with 1.5 mg L–1 of BAP, it was 4.67±1.58 shoots. Subsequent culture on medium with 1.0 mg L–1 of BAP facilitated rapid multiplication and a mean of 30.52±2.64 shoots were developed. The developed shoots were healthy and a height of approximately 8 cm. Conclusion: The developed protocol was successfully employed for the large scale production of this endangered species. The pathological screening revealed the disease free nature of the developed shoots.
Research Article
Analysis of Plant Growth of Ten Varieties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Cultivated in Rainy Season
Eko Widaryanto and Akbar Saitama
Background and Objective: The response of each sweet potato variety that was planted during the rainy season was significantly different. Some varieties showed high response to the environment with the components of vegetative growth especially on stems and leaves as shown from the observation. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of 10 varieties of sweet potatoes that were planted during the rainy season through the analysis of their growth and yield. It was conducted to know which varieties were able to adapt well and produce a high yield in the peculiar environment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a Randomized Block Design with three replications and comprised ten varieties of sweet potatoes viz: Papua, Sollosa, Jago, Kidal, Antin-1, Sari, Sawentar, Beta-2, Antin-2, Antin-3 and Beta-1. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level and for a significant effect followed Fisher’s Least Significant Differences (LSD) test at the 0.05 probability. Result: The results showed that the optimum Leaf Area Index (LAI) of sweet potatoes were found when the sweet potatoes entered the age of 3 MAP. The LAI of Sawentar variety showed the value of 7.23, while varieties Sari and Beta-2 were in the optimum limit of LAI response. This is proved by the growth of vegetative organs which reached the highest when entering the age of 3 months after planting. To inhibit the crop growth rate of vegetative organs, shoots pruning at age of 3 MAP should be done, therefore the assimilates can be translocated to the tubers as generative organs. This study found some varieties having high production such as Sari and Papua Sollosa varieties. Conclusion: The yield of the sweet potato varieties on the experiment showed a negative correlation to the leaf area and LAI, in which to achieve high productivity, low LAI value is required. Sari variety is recommended to be grown at the dry land during rainy season, by using this treatment sweet potato yield could produce 44.76 t ha–1.
Research Article
Nitrogen Effects on Growth and Spectral Characteristics of Immature and Mature Oil Palms
Amiratul Diyana Amirruddin, Farrah Melissa Muharam, Tan Ngai Paing, Daljit Singh Karam Singh and Martini Mohammad Yusoff
Background and Objective: Nitrogen (N) plays crucial roles in sustain ability of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) production, environmentally and economically. Adequate nutrient supply especially N is the most important in producing high yield oil palm. However, assessing N status of tall perennial crops such as oil palm is complex and not straightforward in comparison to annual crops due to complex nitrogen partitioning and age. The objectives of this study were to examine growth and spectral responses of N fertilization on different oil palm’s growth stages; immature, young mature and prime mature and compare foliar N content and relative chlorophyll content as indicators of oil palm N status. Methodology: Nitrogen fertilization rates applied were varied from 0-2 kg N/palm/year according to the growth stages requirements. Growth and spectral parameters measured for this study included height, diameter, leaf area index (LAI) and spectral reflectance in visible and near infra-red (NIR) regions measured from a ground spectro radiometer and satellite images. For statistical analysis, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation analysis were conducted. Results: The results illustrated that growth and spectral parameters responses were age-dependent, primarily due to different allocation of nitrogen as the palms matured. Correlation analysis indicated that the spectral parameter was more sensitive to foliar nitrogen, especially ones that were acquired from satellite images and therefore have potential in predicting N nutrition status of oil palm. Conclusion: Foliar N content was found to be less influenced by the palm growth stages, while relative chlorophyll content measured using the SPAD meter should be carefully interpreted along the palm age.
Research Article
Screening of Japanese Rice Cultivars for Seeds with Heat Stress Tolerance under Hot Water Disinfection Method
Hadian Permana, Kazumasa Murata, Megumi Kashiwagi, Tetsuya Yamada and Motoki Kanekatsu
Background and Objective: Hot water disinfection is an easy and yet effective seed disinfection technique that does not require the use of agricultural chemicals. The typical condition of this method (60°C for 10 min) is not always sufficient to kill certain pathogens; however, the application of higher temperatures represses the germination rates of several rice cultivars, especially indica. This study was conducted to obtain applicable breeding materials that are extremely tolerant under treatment of hot water disinfection to facilitate the use of this useful technique in Japan and other countries in Asia. Materials and Methods: Four modern Japanese cultivars and thirty-nine cultivars of the Japanese rice landrace mini core collection were screened under hot water treatment at several high temperature conditions (60, 65 and 70°C) for 10 min. One-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-kramer multiple rang test and a Student’s t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Germination rate results showed that ‘Koshihikari’ was the most tolerant among the four modern Japanese cultivars. Meanwhile, among the Japanese core collection, ‘Aikoku’ and ‘Nagoya shiro’ cultivated in 2013 and 2015 showed the highest germination and seedling emergence rates, which were constantly higher than ‘Koshihikari’. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that in light of their high tolerance under the hot water disinfection method, ‘Aikoku’ and ‘Nagoya shiro’ are potential breeding materials that are fruitful for the trait introduction to other rice cultivars.
Research Article
Induced Chlorophyll Mutations, Comparative Mutagenic Effectiveness and Efficiency of Chemical Mutagens in Lentils (Lens culinaris Medik)
Mohammad Rafiq Wani
Background and Objective: Chlorophyll mutants are used as markers in genetic, physiological and biochemical investigations. The selection of effective and efficient mutagen(s) is very essential to recover high frequency and spectrum of desirable mutations. Present investigation was undertaken to understand the response of lentil variety Pant L-406 to various chemical mutagens for identifying such mutagenic-treatment causing maximum chlorophyll mutations which could eventually be exploited for inducing viable and economically useful mutations in subsequent generations. Materials and Methods: Seeds of lentil were treated with chemical mutagens namely methylmethane sulphonate (MMS), hydrazine hydrate (HZ) and sodium azide (SA) for 6 h. Three replications of 100 seeds per treatment were sown in complete randomized block design (CRBD) to raise M1 generation. The M1 plants were harvested separately and seeds sown in next season in plant progeny rows to raise M2 generation. Chlorophyll mutations were observed in M2, when seedlings were 8-15 days old. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations, mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were determined as per the standard formulae. Results: Different types of chlorophyll mutants viz., albina, xantha, chlorina, maculata and virescent were observed in the field when seedlings were 8-15 days old. All these chlorophyll deficient mutants were lethal except maculata and virescent which produced few seeds at maturity. The MMS treatments induced the highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations followed by HZ and SA. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations was dose dependent and increased with increasing concentrations of the mutagens. ‘Chlorina’ followed by ‘xantha’ outnumbered the other types of chlorophyll mutants in all the mutagens. Higher effectiveness was recorded with HZ treatments, whereas SA was found to be the most efficient mutagen compared to HZ and MMS. Conclusion: Chlorophyll mutations, although do not have much economic importance due to their lethal nature, such a study could however, be useful in identifying the threshold dose of a mutagen that would increase the genetic variability and number of economically useful mutants in subsequent generations.
Research Article
Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction in Parasponia andersonii Planch
Knyazev Aleksey, Kuluev Bulat, Vershinina Zilya, Yasybaeva Gulnar and Chemeris Aleksey
Background and Objective: A comparative analysis of a unique Parasponia-rhizobium symbiotic system can help to define strategies for transferring nitrogen-fixing ability to non-legume crops. Hairy-root cultures and transgenic plants of Parasponia andersonii (P. andersonii) containing various target genes regenerated from them may become one of the model systems for the investigation of Parasponia-rhizobium symbiosis. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to generate Parasponia hairy roots carrying lectin pea psl gene and regenerate transgenic shoots from these roots. Materials and Methods: Stem segments of P. andersonii were transformed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A. rhizogenes) strain A4 containing the binary vector pCambia 1301, which is carrying the GUS (β-glucuronidase) reporter gene with catalase intron, a selective hpt gene (hygromycin) and pea lectin psl gene. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out using silicon carbide whiskers. Hairy roots cultures co-transformed with rol-genes and T-DNA of pCambia 1301 were selected using histochemical GUS and PCR analyze these roots. Student’s t-test using the GraphPad Software(2.03) was also used to analyze the data. Results: Parasponia andersonii hairy roots showed vigorous growth and abundant lateral branching in Lloyd and McCown Woody Plant Medium (WPM) without phytohormones. Spontaneous shoot regeneration in cultures of co-transformed hairy roots growing on hormone-free medium was observed with an extremely low frequency, under both light and dark conditions. The frequency of shoot regeneration increased with the addition of thidiazuron in the medium. Conclusion: Silicon carbide whiskers increase the effectiveness of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Parasponia. The P. andersonii hairy roots expressing the pea psl gene can be used as a model system for studying the molecular bases of Parasponia-rhizobium symbiosis.
Research Article
Phenotypic Parameters Clustering Based Screening of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces for Salt Tolerance
Md. Tahjib-Ul-Arif, Sonya Afrin, Mirza Mofazzal Islam and Md. Afzal Hossain
Background and Objectives: Center of origin possesses the largest diversity of any germplasm. Bangladesh is a reservoir of diverse rice germplasm with unique and important traits. Characterization of these landraces can suggest how they survive in saline soils and their potential use in breeding programs. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to find out potential salt tolerant rice landraces. Materials and Methods: Twenty one rice genotypes were selected and among them salt tolerant genotypes were screened out at seedling stage based on phenotypic parameters. Rice seedlings were grown in the hydroponic nutrient medium in 0 and 8 dSm–1 conditions in completely randomized design with three replications. Calculations and data analyses were performed using the Minitab 17. Results: Salinity stress reduced phenotypic parameters and also reduced stress tolerance index (STI) for different parameters. The maximum stress tolerance index value for shoot length, root length and total dry weight were noticed in BINA dhan-8, Bolonga and BINA dhan-10, respectively. Compiling all phenotypic data in Pearson absolute correlation coefficient distance based cluster analysis, Gajor Goria, Bolonga, Bina sail and Nakraji were identified as highly salt tolerant and Dud Sail, Tal Mugur, Gota, Sona Anjul, Kolmilota, Konkacur and Panbra were identified as moderately salt tolerant rice landraces. Conclusion: Gajor Goria, Bolonga, Bina sail and Nakraji can be used for the breeding of high yielding salt tolerant rice varieties.

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