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Asian Journal of Plant Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5697
pISSN: 1682-3974

Editor-in-Chief:  Sayyada Khatoon
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Review Article
Impact of Crop Production Inputs on Soil Health: A Review
Yayeh Bitew and Melkamu Alemayehu
External crop production inputs such as mineral fertilizers, organic amendments, microbial inoculants and pesticides are applied with the ultimate goal of maximizing productivity and economic returns, while side effects on soil health are often neglected. This study summarized the current understanding of how crop production inputs affect soil health (soil physical, chemical and biological properties). Mineral fertilizers have limited direct (such as soil physical property) effects but their application can enhance soil biological activity via increases in system productivity, crop residue return and soil organic matter. Another important indirect effect such as N fertilization is soil acidification, with considerable negative effects on soil health such as on amount, activity and diversity of organisms. Organic amendments such as manure, compost, biosolids and humic substances provide a direct source of C for soil organisms as well as an indirect C source via increased plant growth and plant residue returns. Non-target effects of microbial inoculants appear to be small and transient. Among the pesticides, herbicides have few significant effects on soil health, whereas negative effects of insecticides and fungicides are more common and their application warrants strict regulation. The sound management of crop production inputs must attempt to ensure both an enhanced and safeguarded environment; therefore, an Integrated Pest and Nutrient Management (IPNM) strategy that combines the use of chemical, organic crop production inputs together with cultural practices must be developed and evaluated as suggested by Integrated Pest and Nutrient Management Protocols (IPNMP).
Review Article
Roles of Glycinebetaine on Antioxidants and Gene Function in Rice Plants Under Water Stress
Badrul Hisyam, Md Amirul Alam, Noor Naimah and Md Sarwar Jahan
Antioxidants activities and gene expression in rice up-regulated during water stress condition. The activation of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) such as glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in plants is related to the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation in plant under stress conditions. Glycine betaine, however, plays a pivotal role as an osmoprotectant in response to water stress. Exogenous application of glycine betaine improves the activities of antioxidants and expression of gene, which might lead to the improvement and sustainability of rice production during climate change conditions. Understanding the association of antioxidant enzyme activities and its expression in response to water stress is essential for further understanding the molecular mechanisms by which controlling antioxidant defense for drought tolerance. This also will be useful information on theory basis for drought resistance breeding and cultivation of rice as an effort to sustain rice production. In this review, literatures for the potential of glycinebetaine to improve antioxidants defense activity and gene expression during the water stress condition in related to sustainable rice production have been discussed.
Research Article
Phosphate Solubilization Agents in Increasing Potatoes Production on Andisol Sinabung Area
Mariani Sembiring, Deni Elfiati, Edi Sigit Sutarta and T. Sabrina
Background and Objective: Andisols has relatively low phosphorus availability due to its adsorption by allophane. Microbial phosphate solubilization and organic matter are capable of producing organic acids that play a role in increasing the phosphorus (P) availability. Phosphorus-solubilizing activity is determined by the ability of microbes to release metabolites such as organic acids, which through their hydroxyl and carboxyl groups chelate the cation bound to phosphate, the latter being converted to soluble. This study was aimed to obtain the best type of phosphate solubilization agents (microbe and the organic matter) to increase P uptake and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in Kutarayat village, Naman Teran District with a thickness of ash <2 cm (thin) and the altitude of 1400 above sea level. The design used was factorial randomized block design. Factor I was microbial phosphate solubilization (Burkholderia cepacia, Talaromyces pinophilus and Burkholderia cepacia+Talaromyces pinophilus). Factor II was fresh organic matter/undecomposed (chicken manure, cow dung, paddy straw and Tithonia diversifolia) applied 2 t ha–1. Parameters observed were dry weight to plant, P uptake were measured at the end of vegetative phase and crop production weighed. Data was analyzed using SAS computer programs and comparison of means were tested for significance using Least Significant Difference (LSD ) (p<0.05). Results: Production of potato tubers (g per plant) increased 2.4% caused by application of T. pinophilus alone without cow dung compared to control. Application of cow dung alone increased potato production and quality. The applications of organic matter increased the mass of potato tubers in category A by 17.15-41.45%. Cow dung increased number of tuber size category A (100 g per tuber) 41.45% higher than controls. Tuber weight category D (<15 g per tuber) at treatment of cow dung was lower 30.37% compared control. Meanwhile, application of both treatments increased tuber production and quality higher than the single treatment either T. pinophilus or cow dung. Conclusion: It is concluded that application of T. pinophilus and cow dung increased P uptake (62.88%), growth and yield of potato (53.73%) higher than without applying microbe and without adding organic matter.
Research Article
Impact of Water Use on Paprika (Capsicum annum) by Using Fertigation and Autopot System Combined with Numerous Growing Media
Nurpilihan Bafdal, Sophia Dwiratna and Dwi Rustam Kendarto
Background and Objective: In dry season crop tends to lack of water. The effort was done to supply water needed by plants instead of water loss through evapotranspiration (ET). Collected rainfall harvesting in the wet season is one of an alternative for irrigation resources. Self watering fertigation system using autopot could optimize the use of various growing media of paprika’s plant. The study aimed to determine the impact of physical characteristic media to water use and paprika’s yield. Materials and Methods: Investigation method used was descriptive analysis with three treatment of growing media namely husk charcoal and compost (m1), husk charcoal and humus (m2) and husk charcoal and cocopeat (m3) Results: The Results showed the highest paprika’s yield found in the growing media of husk charcoal and humus (m2) as many as 1.32 kg per plant. The reasoning due to the growing media of husk charcoal and humus be able to optimize the paprika’s yield. Water use by paprika plant in one cropping period of 488.18 or 17.435 L per plant. Conclusion: It was concluded that the combination of husk charcoal and humus is the best growing media for paprika cultivated by using fertigation and autopot system.

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