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Asian Journal of Plant Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5697
pISSN: 1682-3974

Editor-in-Chief:  Sayyada Khatoon
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Review Article
Review on Quality Enhancement of Bamboo Utilization: Preservation, Modification and Applications
Aminudin Sulaeman, Rudi Dungani, Nuruddin Nurudin, Sri Hartati, Tati Karliati, Pingkan Aditiawati, Anne Hadiyane, Yoyo Suhaya and Sulistyono
The properties of bamboo are unique compared to solid wood and other ligno- and non-lignocellulosic materials especially for manufacturing, designing and construction usages. Recent technological advancements for bamboo processing has proven the positive advantages of bamboo for various interior and exterior applications including furniture, bio-composites, packaging, transport, building and so on. The variability in size, length and diameter of bamboo, its growth and production is a big challenge for their applications as bio-based material along with durability. Since bamboo has a low durability, protection against biotic and abiotic degradation. Since it has vital importance for its longer service life. Preservation and modification treatment of bamboo are therefore regarded as a necessity. Those preservation and modification techniques would ensure the quality and durability of bamboo resulting sustainability and advanced engineering utilization of bamboo. This article reviews the preservation and modification techniques of bamboo which are crucial for advanced products manufacturing and utilization. The article also summarizes the importance of preservation and modification process, its principles and the challenges in quality and durability enhancement of bamboo products. At the end of the article, applications specially the modern one has also been discussed along with its further advancement.
Research Article
Micropropagation and Assessment of Genetic Variability of Cyclanthus bipartitus
Nur Fauzana Mohd Kasim, Hanis Nadia Yahya, Saleh Kadzimin and Yahya Awang
Background and Objective: Cyclanthus bipartitus is an indoor ornamental plant. It’s fertilization relies on Cyclocephala sp. (Scarabaeidae). The absence of these pollinators could lead to lack of production of seed and therefore its vegetative propagation is obligatory. This study was carried out to determine the optimum concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP), alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and sucrose to be used in the Murashige and Skoogs (MS) media for in vitro propagation of Cyclanthus bipartitus and to evaluate the variation in DNA sequence of regenerated plants. Materials and Methods: Explants were cultured on sterilized MS medium containing different combinations of BAP, NAA and sucrose. The preparations were cultured for 10 weeks at temperature 25-28°C under 16 h of photoperiod with light intensity of 30 μmol m–2 sec–1 and the growth of the plantlets were monitored. Somaclonal variation amongst mother plants, daughter plants and the plantlets generated from the following three subculturing at the DNA level and was analyzed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using PROC GLM of SAS software. Results: Multiple adventitious shoots of Cyclanthus bipartitus were induced from lamina explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations of BAP, NAA and sucrose concentrations. The highest number of shoots, tallest shoots, highest number of roots and longest root were recorded in medium with a combination of 1.0 mg L–1 BAP, 0.5 mg L–1 and 30 g L–1 sucrose. Results of DNA analysis showed that 18 out of 26 score able bands were polymorphic and eight were monomorphic, which gave 69.2% polymorphism frequency. Conclusion: Optimum concentrations of BAP, NAA and sucrose for shoot and root development in vitro propagation of Cyclanthus bipartitus was 1.0 mg L–1 BAP, 0.5 mg L–1 NAA and 30 g L–1 of sucrose. 69.2% polymorphism was detected in regenerated plants indicating genetic variation had occurred amongst somaclones.
Research Article
Phylogenetic Relationship and Genetic Variation among Thaumatococcus daniellii and Megaphrynium macrostachyum Ecotypes in Southwest Nigeria
Shalom Nwodo Chinedu, Opeyemi Christianah Emiloju, Franklyn Nonso Iheagwam, Solomon Oladapo Rotimi and Jacob Olagbenro Popoola
Background and Objective: Thaumatococcus daniellii (T. daniellii ) and Megaphrynium macrostachyum (M. macrostachyum) are perennial, understorey herbs with similar morphological and vegetative properties. Genetic relatedness and variation among and within ecotypes of the plant species in Nigeria were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Materials and Methods: Plant samples were collected at random from 24 sites across 5 states in Southwest Nigeria. The DNA was extracted from the leaves by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method and amplified with respective PCR-based primers. Genetic variation within and between the populations was determined by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), cluster analysis was performed using unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Results: The RAPD and ISSR markers generated clear reproducible bands, polymorphic bands (PPD) produced by RAPD and ISSR markers were 86.7 and 91.3%, respectively. Genetic variation among the two plant populations was 93.68 and 77.87%, respectively with RAPD and ISSR markers, variation within each plant population was 6.32 and 22.13%, respectively for the RAPD and ISSR primers. The cluster analysis indicated that genetic differentiation occurred more among the population than within population of T. daniellii and M. macrostachyum. Conclusion: This study showed that T. daniellii and M. macrostachyum species are genetically distinct from each other. However, the genetic variation within each of the two species is low, thus, management and conservative approaches are required to preserve and develop the plants for future commercial exploitation.
Research Article
Photosynthetic Apparatus of Soybean Exposed to Drought Due to Application of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza
Nasaruddin and Ifayanti Ridwan
Background and Objective: Water shortage is a common condition in most rainfed area in the tropics especially when irrigation is limited. Response of plants to water shortage is related to physiological, biochemical and morphological adjustments. A study aimed to investigate the changes in physiological behaviour of drought stressed soybean plants applied with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Screen House Faculty of Agriculture, University of Hasanuddin in Makassar, Indonesia. Three water supply levels were used consisted of 80-90, 60-70 and 40-50% of field capacity and four dosages of mycorrhizal fungi were applied consisted of 4 levels, control, inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 g/pot, respectively. Data were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA and least significance difference (LSD) test. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed to observe the relationship between parameters. Results: Results showed that drought decreased photosynthetic capability of soybean in terms of leaf chlorophyll index, the rate of light intensity acceptance and the percentage of energy absorption. In addition, stomatal density also declined in the stressed plants when water supply was limited to 40-50% of field capacity. However, application of the fungi as much as 0.15 g/pot in the stressed plant can retard the decline of leaf stomatal density. Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that application of mycorrhiza fungi improve photosynthetic capability of soybean experiencing drought stress.
Research Article
Effect of Temperature, Light and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Celosia argentea L.
Oluwafunmilayo Dorcas Adegbaju, Gloria Aderonke Otunola and Anthony Jide Afolayan
Background and Objective: Celosia argentea is an annual leafy vegetable that has gained prominence for its role in combating nutritional challenges and as a herb of therapeutic importance in many parts of the world. Despite the reported nutritional and pharmacological applications of C. argentea in most countries of the world, it is little known or not recognized in many other countries like South Africa, where there is a dearth of information on its utilization in any form whatsoever. In an effort to improve and encourage the domestication of this neglected nutraceutical plant, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of temperature, light and sowing depth on seed germination of Celosia argentea in order to put forth the best environmental condition necessary for its germination and domestication in South Africa. Methodology: Seed viability was tested using triphenyltetrazolium chloride, seed germination under different light, temperatures and sowing depths were evaluated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and MINITAB was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results revealed that the average seed weight of 100 seeds was 78.4 mg and the viability of the seeds was 88.0±2.6%. The optimum condition for germination were 25°C, alternating light and dark and a sowing depth of 1 cm. Although, maximum cumulative percentage germination was recorded at the temperature range of 20-30°C, seeds of Celosia argentea showed remarkable tolerance at the low temperature of 15°C. Conclusion: It is evident from this study that the seed germination of the species is solely dependent on appropriate temperature (25°C), alternating light and dark and a sowing depth of 1 cm. Therefore, this species has the potential of thriving under varying environmental conditions.
Research Article
Identification of DNA Barcode Sequence and Genetic Relationship among Some Species of Magnolia Family
Ha Van Huan, Hoang Minh Trang and Nguyen Van Toan
Background and Objective: Magnoliaceae is one of the arguable botanist families in classification by conventional taxonomic methods. DNA barcoding has been proposed as a powerful tool for identifying, confirming species and genetic relationship among species. Using DNA barcoding can overcome problems of morphological-based species identification. The objective of this study was to isolate, analyze and determine the DNA barcode regions for species identification and analysis of genetic relationship among some species of Magnolia family. Materials and Methods: The leaf specimens were collected and dried in situ with silica gel and then stored in -20°C freezer. Total DNA extraction and PCR amplification were performed with standard chemicals and Kit and these DNA fragments were sequenced by Sanger method. The data analysis was supported by software programs such as Mega6, BioEdit, GeneDoc. Results: In this study, four candidate DNA barcode sequences including matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and ycf 1b were isolated and sequence analysed. The result showed that their size were 714, 553, 509-514 and 909-962 bp, respectively. The result of genetic distance analysis showed that only trnH-psbA fragment is best discrimination between four studied plant species. The combinations of ycf 1b+trnH-psbA, matK+trnH-psbA or matK+ycf 1b+trnH-psbA also were potential choices to be used as DNA barcode for these four species. The phylogenetic trees were built based on trnH-psbA sequences and the combinations above revealed the genetic relationship of these four species, in which Magnolia chevalieri (Dandy) V.S.Kumar was closer with Michelia braianensis Gagnep. than Michelia tonkinensis A.Chev and Michelia baillonii (Pierre) Finet and Gagnep. Conclusion: Among 4 candidate DNA barcodes in this study, the psbA-trnH region is the most efficient DNA barcode sequence. Furthermore the combinations (matK+trnH-psbA, rbcL+trnH-psbA, ycf 1b+trnH-psbA, matK+ycf 1b+trnH-psbA, matK+rbcL+ycf1b+trnH-psbA) could be used as the DNA barcode for species identification and analysis of genetic relationship among some species of Magnolia family.

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