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Asian Journal of Plant Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5697
pISSN: 1682-3974

Editor-in-Chief:  Sayyada Khatoon
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Research Article
In vitro Seeds Germination and Plantlets Growth of Hot Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) On Non-autoclaved Murashige and Skoog basal Medium
Suaib Suaib, Norma Arief, Gusti Ray Sadimantara, Ni Wayan Sri Suliartini, Tresjia Corina Rakian and Ardhi
Background and Objectives: In traditional plant tissue culture, the higher cost due to the expensive laminar air flow cabinet and autoclave. Time consuming in lengthy procedures of implementation and excessive electrical power due to unexpected power outage were the main obstacles in the success of modern plant tissue culture. By these obstacles, the use of active chlorine (NaClO) in the MS basal medium on effectiveness of contamination, seed germination and plantlet growth of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) in vitro culture was the objective of the research. Materials and Methods: Hot pepper seeds and MS basal medium were used as experimental materials and sterilized by 5.25% active chlorine contained in commercial household bleach in 13 various percentages of treatments ranged from 0.079-0.394% and arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). Observed variables were percentage of medium contamination, germination seed rate and percentage, plant height, leaf number, root length and root number. Results: The study indicated that the percentage of jar contamination during 30 days of incubation were 4 of 5 jars cultured or 80% in NaClO lower concentration (0.079%), whereas, in higher concentration (0.394%) was 1 of 5 jars cultured or 20%. Both of these concentrations had the same effect in the early of seed germination i.e., 2 days after incubation. The highest plant height was achieved in 0.394% and the highest number of leaves was noted in 0.368%, also the highest root length was in 0.105%. The root number was not of different significantly for all concentrations which range from 13.20-22.70. Conclusion: Hot pepper seeds germination and plantlets growth had successfully been achieved under non-autoclaved in vitro medium.
Research Article
Isolation and Molecular Identification of Fusarium Fungi from Some Egyptian Grains
Omaima A. Hussain, Hassan M. Sobhy, Amal Shawky Hathout and Ahmed Sayed Morsy Fouzy
Background and Objective: Fusarium sp. are considered one of the most important fungal genera; responsible for a broad range of plant diseases. The occurrence of Fusarium sp. in grains represents a problem in many countries around the world. Therefore, the aim of this work was to isolate and identify Fusarium sp. in several grains obtained from different Egyptian governorates by using the molecular technique. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty samples, 30 of each grain (wheat, white corn, yellow corn, feed corn, barley and rice) were obtained from different local markets from the following governorates; Cairo, Alexandria, Giza, Qena and Ghrbiya. Results: Data showed that all the grains were infested to various degrees with storage fungi. Fusarium sp., as well as several fungal species were isolated from different grains. Fusarium species were identified morphologically and then molecularly using polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that the first strain exhibited a high level of 18S rRNA similarity (99%) with Fusarium verticillioides isolate (GenBank accession No. KJ207389.1), whereas, the second fungal strain of the sequenced 18S rRNA gene was identified as a close relative (99%) to Fusarium sp. (GenBank accession No. KJ190248.1). Conclusion: The partial or total sequencing of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rRNA) gene showed a fast technique for fungal classification.
Research Article
Evaluation of Early Seedling, Root and Grain Yield Components of Spring Wheat Genotypes in Two Sowing Dates
Ankit Ojha, Madhav Prasad Pandey, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa, Bishnu Raj Ojha and Raju Kharel
Background and Objectives: Cultivars, time of sowing and good early seedling growth are important factors for successful wheat production. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability of heat adaptive traits along with important agronomic traits, among the elite wheat lines with special focus on root traits. Materials and Methods: A set of 30 elite spring wheat genotypes were evaluated for root traits, early vigor and grain yield and its attributes at the research farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal during the wheat growing season 2015/16 under normal (4th Dec, 2015) and late (25th Dec, 2015) sowing conditions. The experiment was conducted in split-plot design with sowing date as main plot treatment and wheat genotypes as sub-plot treatment. Early vigor and root traits were assessed at Zadok’s growth stage 12 (2 leaves unfolded). Results: There were significant genotypic effects for all the studied characters. Significant differences were observed between two sowing dates for root count, root length, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight and grain yield. For root count and length, there was no significant genotypic difference under normal sowing, while there was highly significant genotypic difference in the late sown crop. Vijay had maximum root length in normal sowing i.e., 8.13 cm and SUP152/QUAIU #2 (35th ESWYT115) had maximum root length in late sowing i.e., 7.30 cm. The mean grain yield was 2.23 t ha1 in normal and 1.13 t ha1 in late sown condition. ND643/2*WBLL1//KACHU (35th ESWYT114) had maximum grain yield i.e., 3.19 t ha1 in normal whereas Gautam had maximum grain yield (1.96 t ha1) in late sowing. Conclusion: Significant genotypic differences for root count and root length under late sowing indicated that genotypes exhibit significant difference at seedling stage when some stress conditions are provided rather than growing under normal condition. So, selection for seedling root traits under stress conditions should be prioritized in future breeding programs for developing moisture stress tolerant wheat cultivars.
Research Article
Genetic Variation of Three Bruguiera Species from Karimunjawa Islands Detected by Using RAPD Molecular Markers
Susilo and Meitiyani
Background and Objective: Bruguiera is a mangrove species which commonly lives in the mangrove forest of Kemujan Island, Karimunjawa, Indonesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetics of three morphologically similar brugueira and to determine the genetic relationship of the species. Methodology: Three morphologically similar species of Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Bruguiera lyliadica were analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. DNA amplification was performed using five specific primers (OPA-01, OPA-02, OPA-03, OPA-04, OPA-05), PCR products were then analyzed using a Gel Analyzer and a dendogram generated numerically by the SIMQUAL association (Similarity for Qualitative) coefficient grouping method covered by UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) and computed with the NTSYSpc (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System) programme. Results: Fifteen DNA polymorphism types were obtained, ranging from 100-400 bp, with primers OPA-01 and OPA-03 generating the most RAPD products, ranging in size from 154-384 bp. Conclusion: This study makes the first attempt to broaden existing knowledge of the three Bruguiera on the island of Kemujan are genetically different. The dendogram patterns of the three species could be grouped into two clusters, with B. cylindrica and B. gymnorrhiza being more closely related than B. lyliadica.
Research Article
Root Characteristics of Sugarcane Cuttings Derived from Different Stalk Parts and their Relationships with Plant Growth
Juthamas Khruengpatee, Jidapa Khonghintaisong, Patcharin Songsri and Nuntawoot Jongrungklang
Background and Objective: Seedling uniformity is an important factor in crop growth. In sugarcane cultivation, the position of the cutting impacts cane emergence and biomass accumulation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate shoot and root traits of sugarcane cuttings derived from different stalk portions and their relationships with above-ground parts. Materials and Methods: A 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design with four replications was used. The different stalk parts, namely bottom, middle and top, represented factor A, while factor B was represented by three different commercial sugarcane cultivars available in Thailand, namely KK3, LK92-11 and K88-92. Emergence was observed daily from planting up to 45 DAP. Cane height and stem diameter were measured at 3-day intervals from 21-45 DAP. Shoot dry weight, root length, root average diameter, root volume and root surface area were measured at 45 DAP. Results: Cuttings from different stalk parts differed in emergence date, with cuttings from the higher parts showing a good performance in shoot dry weight and rooting traits, similar to cuttings from the middle part. The three cultivars differed in terms of root and shoot traits and showed a correlation between germination date and rooting traits. Shoot traits and rooting traits were positively correlated. Conclusion: To obtain uniform seedling growth, cuttings should be taken from the same position.
Research Article
Nano-titanium Dioxide-induced Synthesis of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cysteine Augment Drought Tolerance in Eruca sativa
Mohammad Nasir Khan and Fahad Mohammed Alzuaibr
Background and Objectives: In recent years nano-materials have emerged as an important tools in manipulating crop performance worldwide. Also hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has gained substantial attention of plant biologists. Present study was planned to investigate the effect of nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2) on the synthesis of H2S and their role in the tolerance of Eruca sativa plants to drought stress. Materials and Methods: Three week old plants of Eruca sativa were sprayed with 20 mg L1 nTiO2 and 1 mM hypotaurine (HT, an H2S scavenger) then plants were subjected to drought stress by withholding water and nutrient supply for one week except for the control which received double distilled water (DDW) only. The treatments were given as: (1)DDW (Control), (2) nTiO2, (3) Drought stress (DS), (4) nTiO2+DS, (v) nTiO2+HT+DS. Plants treated with DDW only were considered as control. Results: Results showed that drought stress induced the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), electrolyte leakage (ELKG) and caused reduction in leaf relative water content (LRWC). At the same time drought-stressed plants also showed enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT)] and accumulation of osmolytes [proline (Pro), glycine betaine (GB)]. Moreover, drought-stressed plants pre-treated with nTiO2 showed further enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of osmolytes that resulted in reduced H2O2 content, TBARS, ELKG and improved LRWC. Furthermore, nTiO2 also enhanced the synthesis of H2S and cysteine. Role of H2S in drought stress tolerance was confirmed using H2S scavenger hypotaurine (HT). Conclusion: Results showed that application of HT along with nTiO2 to drought stressed pants suppressed H2S content and plants showed weak tolerance against drought stress. Therefore, these results suggest that nTiO2-induced synthesis of H2S induces drought tolerance capacity of plants through enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of osmolytes.

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