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eISSN: 1682-2978
pISSN: 1682-296x

Editor-in-Chief:  Akhtar Jamal Khan
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Research Article
Functional Properties of Bovine Bone Gelatin and Impact on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Organoleptic Quality of Set Yogurt
Fatiha Arioui, Djamel Ait Saada and Abderrahim Cheriguene
Background and Objective: Improvements in the shelf life of yogurt can be brought about by addition of gelatin not only increase its nutrient content but also improve its properties. The objective of this study was to extract the gelatin from bovine bone, characterize and understand their functional properties and to study the effect of its incorporation on the quality of yogurt. Materials and Methods: Gelatin was extracted from bovine bones after their characteristics and functional properties were analyzed in comparison with commercial gelatin (CG). The effects of bovine gelatin (BG) addition on properties of yogurt added with bovine gelatin (YABG) were studied. Results: The yield of BG was 6.32±0.20% and the pH of BG was 9.63±0.01. It was observed that BG and CG had higher solubility at low pH with a maximum value observed at pH 4. A significant effect (p<0.01) of ionic strength was observed. Increasing the NaCl concentration to more than 2% resulted in a significant decrease of the solubility. BG showed higher foaming expansion (FE) and higher foaming stability (FS) than CG. Increasing the concentration of BG and CG decreased the emulsifying activity index (EAI) but increased the stability index (ESI). Significant effects of BG rate on acidity and pH of YABG were observed. Viscosity of YABG was increased significantly (p<0.01) with increasing the BG rate. YABG added with 1.5% of BG recorded the highest viscosity. In addition, there was a significant effect of BG addition on Streptococcus thermophilus counts. According to sensory properties, addition of BG had significant effect on adhesiveness, cohesiveness and taste of the YABG. Sensory results indicated a preference for YABG with 1.5% of BG. There was no significant effect of BG on the odour and aftertaste of YABG. Conclusion: The bovine bone could serve as raw material for the extraction of gelatin with desired functional. The addition of 1.5% of this gelatin had a considerable effect on the physiochemical properties and the texture of YABG.
Research Article
Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Immature Embryos of Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench)
Rasha Adam Omer, Pauline Asami and Josephine Birungi
Background and Objective: Regeneration of plant through tissue culture technique is a critical process in transformation of plants. This study sought to establish the effect of genotype and auxin concentration on callus induction from different sweet sorghum genotypes (IESV92008DL, IESV92001DL, IESV92021DL, ICSV700 and ICSV93048). Materials and Methods: In this study, MS medium supplemented with five levels of the hormone 2,4-D (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 mg L–1) to assess the effect of the hormone 2,4-D on callus induction and regeneration was used. Results: The highest callus induction frequency was observed at 2 mg L–1 2,4-D for all the genotypes, IESV92008 gave the highest callus induction frequency among all the genotypes at 2 mg L–1 2,4-D. The lowest callus induction frequency was observed 0 and 6 mg L–1 for all the genotypes, the two genotypes ICSV700 and IESV92021 were observed to give the lowest callus induction frequency among all the genotypes used in this study. Embryogenic callus induction frequency was observed to be higher at 2 mg L–1 2,4-D and the genotype IESV92008 gave the highest callus induction frequency among all the genotypes used. Induction of shoots was achieved in MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L–1 6BA and 1 mg L–1 IAA, the highest regeneration efficiency was obtained from the three genotypes ICSV93048, IESV92008 and IESV92001, respectively. Conclusion: This study discovers the importance of the auxin 2,4-D on callus induction and regeneration of sweet sorghum and this will help the researcher to develop protocols for transformation of sweet sorghum.
Research Article
Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Chalcone isomerase (CnCHI) Gene from Chamaemelum nobile
Lanlan Wang, Xiaomeng Liu, Xiangxiang Meng, Guangxu Wu and Feng Xu
Background and Objective: Chamaemelum nobile (C. nobile) is a precious natural medicinal plant, with diverse functions. Chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene is one of the key enzyme genes in the synthesis pathway of flavonoids. Information on CHI gene in C. nobile is relatively lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize a Chalcone isomerase (CnCHI) gene from C. nobile. Methodology: In this study, a CHI gene was cloned from C. nobile, namely, CnCHI (GenBank accession No. MF784449). The expression level of CnCHI gene in different tissues of C. nobile was speculated by analyzing the FPKM value from the transcriptome data of C. nobile. Results: The sequence analysis and homologous alignment results showed that the CnCHI protein sequence was highly homologous with other CHI protein sequences. CnCHI protein has a Chalcone 3 superfamily conserved domain, highly conserved in evolution, indicating that CnCHI is a member of CHI gene family. CnCHI gene had the closest relationship with Chrysanthemum morifolium CHI gene. The analysis results of FPKM value showed that, the CnCHI expression in the flowers was much higher than in the roots, stems and leaves of C. nobile, indicating that CnCHI gene was a differentially expressed gene. Conclusion: CnCHI was expressed specifically in the flowers of C. nobile. CnCHI is a key enzyme gene in the synthesis pathway of flavonoids in C. nobile. This finding lays the foundation for the production of natural flavonoids.

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