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eISSN: 1682-2978
pISSN: 1682-296x

Editor-in-Chief:  Akhtar Jamal Khan
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Research Article
Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Flowering Gene FRIGIDA (GbFRI) from Ginkgo biloba
Jingjing Liao, Xiaomeng Liu, Xian Zhou, Zexiong Chen, Junpin Tan, Jiabao Ye, Weiwei Zhang and Feng Xu
Background and Objective: Ginkgo biloba is a precious medicinal plant and has a long juvenile phase and spends 15-20 years in the vegetative phase before turning to reproductive phases, which makes breeding and cultivation of Ginkgo especially challenging. The FRI gene can regulate the FLC gene which inhibits flowering and further causes the late flowering of G. biloba. Therefore, the cloning and analysis of FRI gene can regulate the flowering time of G. biloba. Materials and Methods: The GbFRI gene and the protein sequence were analyzed using the online website of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ProtParam and bioinformatic software of Clustal X2.0, Vector NTI 11.5 and MEGA6. The expression of GbFRI gene in different tissues of G. biloba was studied by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA using SPSS11.0 for Windows. Results: The full length cDNA of GbFRI gene was 1702 bp (GenBank accession no. KY662058) and the open reading frame (ORF) covered 1602 bp, which encoded a 534 amino-acid protein. The predicted protein showed that a FRI superfamily and contain coiled-coil domains in two positions (between amino acids 55-100 and 405-450, respectively). The expression analysis results displayed that the highest GbFRI expression was in the male flowers. The GbFRI expression was higher in female flowers, stems than in the roots and fruits. The lowest relative expression of GbFRI was in the leaves. Conclusion: The GbFRI gene was isolated and characterized, laying a foundation for further study of vernalization pathway in G. biloba.
Research Article
Effect of Somaclonal Variation in Musa acuminata cv. Berangan Through Micropropagation Using RAPD
Muslim Razani, Fatimah Kayat, Raimi Mohamed Redwan and Dwi Susanto
Background and Objectives: Banana cv. Berangan is among the most important fruit plants in Malaysia. The study aimed to use benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the laboratory using a long cycle of time to detect somaclonal variation on morphological and genetic changes of banana cv. Berangan. Materials and Methods: Scalps culture from 15 mg L1 of BAP at 20th subculture were cultured into MS medium with different concentrations of BAP (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg L1) until the 5th cycle to analysis the morphologies and number of shoots. Fourteen RAPD primers were used to detect between different BAP concentrations. Results: The result showed that the scalp culture was able to revive to normal shoot and had the highest number of shoots in control treatment after 5th cycles. Similarly, RAPD analysis suggested that there were genetic variations exist after the scalp developed into normal shoot in comparison to the other treatments. Conclusion: This study showed that BAP can produce morphological different such as rosette-like structure and scalp morphology after 20th subculture. Four of the 14 RAPD primers showed polymorphism between control and BAP treatment that BAP can lead to genetic variation in banana cultivar Berangan.
Research Article
Functional Analysis of SBPase Gene Promoter in Transgenic Wheat under Abiotic Stresses
Saqer Alotaibi, Hatim Alyasi, Ahmed El-Shehawi, Ahmed Gaber, Mohamed Hassan, Bandar Aljuaid, Andrew Simkin and Christine Raines
Background and Objective: This study focused on evaluation of SBPase promoter in driving transgenes under drought, high light intensity and salinity as major abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and production in various areas of the world. Wheat production has remained constant despite the rapidly growing population around the world. Materials and Methods: This had made it necessary to develop other varieties with higher yield in order to satisfy the future demand. When elite wheat varieties’ photosynthesis is genetically manipulated, it gives a high possibility for yield increase. Lack of a properly defined molecular tool-box promoter for driving gene expression for manipulation of photosynthesis, hinders the progression of this field. Gus histochemical staining and quantitative PCR were used to examine the function of Brachypodium distachyon sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) promoter to drive the expression of GUS in the stably transformed wheat plants under various stresses conditions. Results: Results revealed that B. distachyon SBPase promoter fully drive the GUS expression in the stable wheat transformants (cv. Cadenza) in the leaf tissues under normal and high light conditions. It also drove GUS gene expression under drought and salinity stress conditions. In addition, the promoter responds to light/dark/light alternation as light responsive genes. Conclusion: The Bd SBPase promoter provides innovative molecular tool to drive genes in wheat leaves under natural, drought, high light intensity and salinity conditions as well as to allow for multigene photosynthetic manipulation for yield increase under various abiotic conditions.
Research Article
Plumbagin, a Plant-derived Naphthoquinone Production in Tissue Cultures of Drosera spatulata Labill
Hung-Chi Chang, Chia-Yung Lu, Chia-Chen Chen, Chao-Lin Kuo, Hsin-Sheng Tsay and Dinesh Chandra Agrawal
Background and Objective: Drosera spatulata ‘Sundew’ is a carnivorous plant valued for its pharmaceutical properties. Indiscriminate use of D. spatulata by herbal industries has made the species highly vulnerable and resulted in the dwindling wild population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a simple micro propagation system and to carry out HPLC analysis of plumbagin in tissue cultured plants and in vitro shoots. Materials and Methods: Leaf explants from previously grown aseptic shoots were cultured on ½X Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) salts and vitamins (MS basal medium) supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (0.1-2.0 mg L–1) or kinetin (0.1-2.0 mg L–1), 3% sucrose and 0.35% gelrite. For rooting, four different basal media, i.e., B5, N6, WPM and Murashige and Skoog were tested. Finally, HPLC analysis of plumbagin in tissue cultured plants and commercial crude drug samples was carried out. Results: The maximum adventitious shoots (6.4/leaf explant) could be induced on ½X MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin (0.1 mg L–1), 3% sucrose and 0.35% gelrite. Induction of rooting in cent percent in vitro shoots with an average number of 48.9 roots was achieved on ½X MS basal medium without any growth regulator. Out of 10 potting mix tested, a mixture of sphagnum: scrap of cyatheaceae (1:1, v/v) was found to be the most suitable with a plant survival rate of 90%. HPLC analysis results showed that in vitro derived greenhouse plants contained plumbagin comparable to a commercial crude drug. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the production of precious plumbagin, a plant derived naphthoquinone in tissue cultures of Drosera spatulata species.
Research Article
Effects of Mycorrhiza and Drought Stress on the Diversity of Fungal Community in Soils and Roots of Trifoliate Orange
Jia-Dong He, Qiang-Sheng Wu and Ying-Ning Zou
Background and Objective: Citrus is highly dependent on soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for vigor growth. Either drought stress (DS) or AMF modifies soil fungal diversity, a bio-indicator towards the maintenance of soil ecosystem and soil fertility. The present work was to explore the effects of both AMF and drought stress on fungal communities in rhizosphere soils and roots of host plants. Materials and Methods: In this study, trifoliate orange seedlings in pots were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae and subjected to well-watered and DS for 8 weeks. The internal transcribed spacer fragment sequencing was used to analyze fungal diversity in soils and roots. Results: The results showed that a significantly higher operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number was found in roots than in soils. The AMF colonization increased root OTU number under both well-watered and DS and soil OTU number under DS. The AMF inoculation promoted the increase of Sordariomycetes in roots and the relative abundance of Chytridiomycota in rhizosphere soils and Ascomycota in roots. The stability of the fungal community in rhizosphere soils was better than in roots. The AMF and DS had a much less impact on the abundance and diversity of the fungal community in soils than in roots. Conclusion: It concluded that AMF modulated superior fungal diversity in roots, but not in soils, to enhance plant tolerance to drought.
Research Article
Effects of Indigenous and Exotic Rhizoglomus intraradices Strains on Trifoliate Orange Seedlings
Hui-Qian Cheng, Qing-Feng Fan and Qiang-Sheng Wu
Background and Objective: Citrus plants are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and strongly depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. The present work was to evaluate the effect of indigenous and exotic Rhizoglomus intraradices strains on trifoliate orange for comparing the capacity of mycorrhizal fungi in citriculture. Materials and Methods: Two ecologic R. intraradices strains from China (indigenous) and Canada (exotic) were inoculated into potted trifoliate orange for 130 days. The root mycorrhizal colonization, root morphological traits, plant growth performance, soil glomalin concentrations, chlorophyll concentration and tissue nutrient levels were measured. Results: Mycorrhizal plants with indigenous R. intraradices strain had significantly higher root mycorrhizal colonization and entry points than those with exotic R. intraradices strain. Two R. intraradices strains collectively significantly increased plant growth performance, root morphology, chlorophyll concentrations and mineral nutrient levels compared with non-AMF treatments, whilst indigenous R. intraradices strain had superior effects than exotic R. intraradices strain. The AMF inoculation notably increased glomalin-related soil protein concentrations, whilst exotic R. intraradices strain had superior effects than indigenous R. intraradices strain. Conclusion: Indigenous R. intraradices strain conferred a superior role in trifoliate orange than exotic R. intraradices strain.

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