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Asian Network for Scientific Information is a leading service provider to the publishers of Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) in Asia. Currently Asian Network for Scientific Information is serving more than 37 peer-reviewed journals covering a wide range of academic disciplines to foster communication among scientists, researchers, students and professionals - enabling them to work more efficiently and intelligently, thereby advancing knowledge and learning.

Biotechnology
eISSN: 1682-2978
pISSN: 1682-296x

Editor-in-Chief:  Akhtar Jamal Khan
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Research Article
Induction of Potato Resistance Against Bacterial Wilt Disease Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Zeiad Moussa, Mohammed Saad El-Hersh and Ayman Yahya El-Khateeb
Background and Objective: Potato, the fourth important commercial crop in the world, is infected by brown rot disease, which is one of the most important bacterial plant disease worldwide. The present investigation aimed to study the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Ralstonia solanacearum and potato plant resistance to control bacterial wilt disease of potato. Methodology: The ability of S. cerevisiae to inhibit the growth of R. solanacearum in vitro was investigated. In pots experiment, potato slices were soaked in the three different treatments of S. cerevisiae (whole culture, cell-free extract and yeast cells), then cultivated in soil infested with R. solanacearum. The disease rating was recorded. Different systemic induced resistance parameters were estimated. The increase of the weight of tubers and the decrease of the percentage of infected tubers were calculated. The total count of bacteria, fungi and yeast of soil microflora of potato plant rhizosphere were enumerated. The one-way randomized blocks design was applied in pots experiment. Data were analyzed with the statistical analysis software packages CoStat. Results: The S. cerevisiae did not inhibit R. solanacearum in vitro. It was found to produce indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid and cytokinin in the amounts of 81.57, 464.56 and 4.37 μg mL–1, respectively. In pots experiment, the three studied treatments of S. cerevisiae significantly increased (p<0.05) the plant height and decreased the disease rating. The total phenols, flavonoids, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, ABTS, DPPH, reducing power and gibberellic acid were significantly increased (p<0.05) as a response to the three studied treatments after 40 and 70 days of planting. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity, starch content were significantly increased (p<0.05). While sugar contents of potato tubers were significantly decreased (p<0.05). The rhizosphere microflora showed various responses. Conclusion: It was concluded that the cell-free extract was the best treatment that could be recommended as a safe and economic bio-agent for the management of bacterial wilt disease of potato.
Research Article
Impact of Amino Acids, Nitrogen Source and Buffering System on Xanthan Yield Produced on Hydrolyzed Whey Lactose
H.A. Murad, Sahar H. Mohamed and Asmaa G. Abu-El-Khair
Background and Objective: Huge amount of whey and permeate are produced annually and can be used as substrate for production of valuable products. The purpose of this work was to employed hydrolyzed lactose of whey as a cheaper carbon source for reducing the cost of production of xanthan gum on submerged culture and solid agar medium. Methodology: Whey basal medium supplemented with different growth nutrient involved carbon, nitrogen (organic and inorganic) and amino acids and were used for xanthan production. Lactose of whey was acid hydrolyzed or partially hydrolyzed through preculturing process with Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 24-48 h before inoculating the production medium with Xanthomonas campesteris pv. campestris for xanthan production. Data were statistically analyzed by SAS software. Results: Acid hydrolyzed whey supplemented with 1% sucrose supported production of 28 g L–1 of xanthan gum. The precultured lactose mineral medium with Lactobacillus rhamnosus produced 17.6 g L–1 of xanthan on a medium precultured for 24 h. Diammonium phosphate was the best inorganic nitrogen source whilst peptone was the best organic nitrogen source supported production of 20 and 36 g L–1 of xanthan gum, respectively in submerged culture compared with 4.2 and 4 g L–1 of xanthan on solid agar medium, respectively. Cystein, alanine and histidine yielded a good yield of xanthan especially cystein which gave a yield reached 35 g L–1. The buffering system exhibited profound effect on xanthan yield which reached its maximal value at pH 7. Conclusion: The hydrolyzed lactose can be used successfully for production of xanthan gum with employing microbial biotechnology techniques including acid pretreatment of lactose medium and preculturing of production medium with lactic acid bacteria which contribute for reduction of pollution resultant from dairy waste disposal.
Research Article
Optimized Extraction of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Lentinus edodes by using Response Surface Methodology
Shujing Meng, Zhili Xu, Xinpeng Dai, Jianfeng Sun and Zhuo Yang
Background and Objective: Stalk of Lentinus edodes, which often discarded in large amounts after Lentinus edodes process is a kind of material that is rich in dietary fiber. The objective of study was to obtain a suitable way to extract Soluble Dietary Fiber (SDF) from the stalks of Lentinus edodes and provide theoretical basis for further processing of it. Methodology: According to single-factor and response surface methodologies, suitable conditions for extracting SDF were determined through enzymatic hydrolysis based on extraction yield of water-SDF and one-way-analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Least Significant Difference test (LSD) and Duncan’s multiple range test (Duncan) at p<0.05 were used to verify significant differences in evaluated parameters. Results: The optimal conditions for the SDF extraction rate are 52°C extraction temperature, 87 U g–1 enzyme concentration, 100 mesh number and 50 min extraction duration. On this condition, the SDF extraction rate is 14.33%. Water holding capacity and swelling property of SDF from stalks of Lentinus edodes measured 10 g/g and 0.93 mL g–1, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that stalks of Lentinus edodes serve as good sources of SDF. Reliable and feasible optimization of SDF extraction from stalks of Lentinus edodes can be achieved through response surface method.
Research Article
Identification of Fungal Community in Citrus Rhizosphere by ITS Gene Sequencing
Pan Sun, Yi- Can Zhang, Yun- Lou Shen, Chang -Qing Feng and Qiang- Sheng Wu
Background and Objective: Citrus is one of the most predominant fruit trees in Southeast Asia, where soil environments are relatively bad. The soil fungal community plays a huge role in maintaining soil ecosystem balance and soil fertility. The present study was conducted to analyze the diversity of fungi community in citrus roots and soils. Methodology: The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) fragment sequences were used to evaluate the fungal diversity in 29 years old Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on Poncirus trifoliata. In the 97% similarity level, Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were clustered by the UPARSE-OUT algorithm. The ITS sequences was used to analyze the alpha diversity. Results: There were 579 and 566 OTUs in plant roots and rhizosphere soils, respectively, whilst 462 OTUs were overlapping, confirming that many of the fungi in soils colonized plant roots. At the class, Glomeromycetes, Orbiliomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Saccharomycetes, Incertae sedis, Leotiomycetes, Tremellomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Agaricomycetes and Dothideomycetes existed. In the genus level, OTU 1, 3, 4 and 11 were in the top four of fungal community with roots and OTU 1, 5, 6 and 10 in soils. Conclusion: The results obtained here suggested that citrus roots exhibited greater fungal diversity than citrus soils, which provides a new highlight to enhance root growth.

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