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Trends in Bioinformatics
eISSN: 2077-2254
pISSN: 1994-7941

Editor-in-Chief:  Amir Feisal Merican
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Research Article
In silico Analysis of BRCA1 Gene and its Phylogenetic Relationship in some Selected Domestic Animal Species
E.V. Ikpeme, O.U. Udensi, M.E. Kooffreh, H.E. Etta, B.B. Ushie, E. Echea and M. Ozoje
Background: Breast cancer type 1 (BRCA1) gene also known as breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein homologue plays important role in DNA double-strand break repair, homologous recombination, chromatin remodeling, cell cycle regulation and transcription regulation. Objective: Considering the importance of this protein, the present study was undertaken to analyze BRCA1 gene of different mammalian species by assessing the identity and similarity, phylogenetic relationship, physicochemical properties, predict the motifs, secondary and the tertiary structures. Materials and Methods: Seventeen nucleotide and protein sequences of BRCA1 gene of different mammalian species were retrieved from National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Multiple sequence alignment was done using CLUSTAL W software, while identity and similarity was determined by constructing a pair wise comparison. Results: Results obtained at the end of the experiment showed that there was no percentage identity or similarity that was less than 70%. The phylogenetic relationship of BRCA1 gene of the mammalian species clustered into aquatic, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores, respectively. The highest time of divergence (95MYA) of the BRCA1 gene was observed between the BRCA1 gene of killer whale and human, while the least time of divergence (4.6MYA) was observed between the BRCA1 gene of cattle and American buffalo. Physicochemical properties of BRCA1 proteins in the five mammalian species (cattle, sheep, pig, American buffalo and human) were found to be unstable, hydrophilic and intracellular in nature. The following motifs were present at various positions in the BRCA1 gene of the five mammalian species; zinc finger RING, BRCT domain, N-myristoylation site, N-glycosylation, cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, tyrosine kinase phosphorylation, casein kinase 2 phosphorylation site, protein kinase C phosphorylation site and cell attachment sequence but leucine zipper pattern and microbodies c-terminal motifs were found in only human BRCA1 gene. The BRCA1 secondary structure contained the alpha helix, extended strand and random coil. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be deduced that BRCA1 gene has identical homologue, functional similarity and highly conserved in these mammalian species.
Research Article
Vision-based State Estimation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Lee Kian Seng, Mark Ovinis, Nagarajan , Ralph Seulin and Olivier Morel
Background and Objective: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have found widespread use in many applications due to its mobility and maneuverability. An important aspect in controlling the movement of these vehicles is its state estimation. State estimation is especially challenging for indoor applications, where Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are weak and have low accuracy. Methodology: This research proposed a vision based state estimation that is applicable even for indoor use. It is a low cost, low power and reliable state estimation approach using a monocular camera with a series of fiducial markers. When a marker is captured by the camera, its position and orientation with respect to the camera’s coordinate frame is determined based on its homography transformation. The pose of the camera and hence the vehicle, in world coordinate can then be inferred from known markers poses. Results: In this study experimental results showed that the proposed method is suitable for indoor navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles. The reliability of the state estimation was improved by increasing the number of markers captured. Conclusion: The experimental results verified that the vision based state estimation method for indoor UAV navigation a promising solution and had several advantages over traditional other methods.

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