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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
eISSN: 1994-7984
pISSN: 1680-5194

Editor-in-Chief:  Chih‐Hung Guo
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Research Article
Effects of Diet and Breastfeeding Duration on the Stunting Status of Children under 5 Years of Age at Maternal and Child Health Centers of the Palembang Regional Office of Health
Terati , Hana Yuniarti and Eddy Susanto
Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the effects of diet and breastfeeding duration on the stunting status of children under 5 years of age at maternal and child health centers of the Palembang Regional Office of Health. Materials and Methods: This non-experimental analytical study used a retrospective cohort (non-concurrent cohort) design. Both dependent and independent t-tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results: This study showed that 86% (n = 43) of children aged 48 and 60 months were stunted, 54% (n = 27) of whom were males. An adequate diet was noted among the age groups of 0-6, 6-7, 8-12, 12-24 and >24 months, with a prevalence of stunting 58% (n = 29), 60% (n = 30), 66% (n = 33), 98% (n = 49) and 98% (n = 49), respectively. Adequate breastfeeding duration was noted among 68% of participants (n = 34). A follow-up in 2016 showed changes in nutritional status among children who were stunted in 2013. Some of these children were either still stunted, normal, or tall in stature in 2016 based on their height-for-age measurements. There was a correlation between diet, breastfeeding duration and change in children’s stunting status. Conclusion: Stunting was common among male children aged 48-60 months. Diet and breast feeding duration was associated with stunting status.
Research Article
Molecular Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Starter Dough of Sudanese Sorghum Fermented Flat Bread (Kissra)
Kawthar, M. Aseel, Hanan, B. Eltahir, Yousif, F. Hamed Elnil and Ahmed, E. Elfaki
Objective: The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize LAB from fermented kissra dough by both classical and PCR-based molecular methods to identify the isolates to sub-species level which may help to formulate starter culture as well as in the biological preservation of foods. Materials and Methods: Both classical and PCR-based molecular methods were used to identify the LAB isolates. A total of 75 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates have been recovered from fermented kissra dough and characterized at strain level with molecular tools. RAPD analysis was performed initially to cluster the isolates using two different primers R2 and M13. Species identification was based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Nine cluster of LAB PCR products sequenced and subjected to nucleotide BLAST. Results: Four percent (4%) (3 isolates), (Group1L) showed 100% homology towards Pediococcus acidilactici and 6.7% (5 isolates), (Group 9L) showed 100% homology towards Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis strain SFL. Among the rest of the 67 lactobacillus isolates, 1.6% (1 isolate), (Group 2L) showed 100% homology towards L. murinus, also same percentage (1.6%) (Group 4L) reported as L. casei strain IMAU70007. 2.9% (2 isolates), (Group 5L) showed 100 homology towards L. plantarum strain KLAB4. The same percentage (2.9%) (Group 8L) were showed 100% similarity towards L. fermentum, 5.9% (4 isolates), (Group 7L) showed 100% homology towards L. casei strain SWU30436, 20.9% (14 isolates), (Group 3L) showed 100% similarity towards L. plantarum strain 1.0557CGMCC, while the majority of the isolates (64.2%) (43 isolates), (Group 6L) showed 100% homology towards L. plantarum strain CSI7. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using software MEGA 6.0. Conclusion: Several different species of lactic acid bacteria can be implicated in the fermentation of kissra. The starch-fermenting strains might be important to formulate starter cultures and for use commercially in the production of kissra.
Research Article
Effect of Temperature and Heating Time on Chemical and Proximate Characteristics of Laksan Sauce as a Palembang Traditional Food
Yuli Hartati, Gatot Priyanto, Kiki Yuliati and Rindit Pambayun
Background and Objective: Laksan is one of the traditional foods of Palembang, Indonesia. It is similar to pempek, but it is consumed with coconut milk sauce. It is usually consumed hot so reheating is sometimes required. Coconut milk is the main ingredient in laksan sauce and is susceptible to chemical change, especially the proximate content when heated. This chemical change obviously affects the chemical and proximate characteristics of the laksan sauce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and heating time on the chemical and proximate characteristics of laksan sauce. Methodology: A factorial completely randomized design was used in this study. Results: The results showed that the temperature and heating time had significant effects on the peroxide numbers, free fatty acids, protein content, lipid content, water content, ash content and carbohydrate content of laksan sauce. Conclusion: The best treatment for laksan sauce was found to be a heating temperature of 80°C for 20 min.
Research Article
Biodegradation of Lignin by White Rot Fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus) to Decrease the Fibre Components in the Palm Midrib
Yurma Metri, Lili Warly and Suyitman
Background and Objective: Utilization of plantation waste, such as palm stems, is still limited due to its high lignin content and low digestibility. Therefore, it is necessary to apply technology to improve feed quality in terms of both nutritional value and waste digestibility. Such technology will ultimately improve the quality of animal feed. White rot fungi, such as the basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus), can degrade lignin by using lignases, which include lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Nutrition Laboratory of Andalas University. This study used completely randomized design with factorial pattern. Factor A is P. ostreatus dose (3, 5 and 7%) and factor B is the fermentation time (1, 2 and 3 months). Results: The results showed that fermentation of palm stem with P. ostreatus for 3 months could decrease NDF content up to 11.03%, ADF content up to 9.65%, hemicellulose content up to 1.39% and lignin content up to 7.24%. Conclusion: The dose of P. ostreatus and the fermentation time did not interact significantly. However, the fermentation time of 3 months significantly (p<0.05) decreased the contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and lignin in palm midribs and can be used to improve the quality of animal feed ingredients, especially feed used for ruminants.
Research Article
Use of Herbal Remedies, Conventional Medicine, Diet and Exercise for Weight Loss: Case Study of University Students in Jordan
Reem Issa
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the preferences of university students for use of herbal remedies, conventional medicine, diet and exercise for weight loss. Methods: This cross-sectional study applied a quantitative research approach using a self-administered questionnaire given to university students in Jordan. A literature review was conducted to search for clinical and experimental evidence concerning the effectiveness and side effects of herbal remedies and conventional medicines used for weight loss that appeared most often in the completed surveys. Results: The majority of university students in this study (83.0%) reported being overweight or obese, with a higher proportion among the male students. Of the obese or overweight students, 82% would prefer to use herbal remedies rather than conventional medicine for weight loss. Ten different types of herbal remedies and another 4 conventional medicines were found to be used by the students for weight loss. Of these, only 6 herbal remedies showed modest evidence to support effectiveness. The majority of students (76.6%) were on low calorie diet plans, while 64.9% declared they got adequate exercise, with significant differences between male and female students. Conclusion: This study highlighted that overweight and obesity are common issues faced by university students, that many students used herbal remedies for weight loss rather than diet or exercise. These findings indicate that universities should involve health-care professionals in discussions with their students about health risks associated with overweight and obesity and to advise them on safe and efficient treatments, as well as appropriate behaviors to achieve weight loss.
Research Article
Structural Changes in Adult Rat Liver Following Cadmium Treatment
Abdullah G. Alkushi, Mustafa M. Sinna, Mohammed EL-Hady and Naser A. ElSawy
Background and Objective: Cadmium (Cd) is a natural heavy metal with no known positive biological function in humans. Therefore, it is not normally found in body fluids or tissues. However, its presence in the body of humans and animals can produce acute and chronic poisoning, leading to bony lesions, liver damage and much more. Biochemical, histopathological and histochemical liver changes due to injection of CdCl2 in rats were examined as a model of chronic exposure and toxicity. In addition, possible recovery from the toxic effects of this heavy metal after withdrawal was also investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult male rats albino were divided into two groups and subcutaneously injected every other day with equivalent volumes of saline solution (control group, n = 16) or CdCl2 (experimental group, n = 32 total) for a total of 45 days. Experimental rats were further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 16 each). Rats in subgroup A were injected subcutaneously with 1/8 the median lethal dose of CdCl2, while subgroup B was given a double dose of CdCl2 (1/4 median lethal dose). On day 20, 30 and 45, 4 rats from each group were sacrificed and blood and liver samples were taken. The remaining 4 rats in each group were left for an additional 30 days without injection before blood and liver tissue were collected to evaluate possible signs of recovery. Functional, histological and histochemical examination of blood and liver tissue was conducted at each time-point. Results: Significant elevation of liver function was found in both experimental groups as indicated by increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels. Histopathologically, liver samples showed many displaced lesions, ranging from hydropic degeneration to cellular necrosis and most of the portal vein radicals were dilated and congested. The extent of damage was more severe in rats treated for a longer period of time and a higher Cd dose. Mild recovery was observed in specimens examined 30 days after CdCl2 withdrawal, especially in subgroup A. Histochemistry showed a gradual decrease in hepatocyte carbohydrate, DNA, RNA and total protein content over time, reaching a minimum by injection day 45 for subgroup B. While partial recovery of these factors was observed in hepatic cells 30 days after CdCl2 withdrawal, especially in subgroup A, they never returned to control levels. Conclusion: The present study revealed that chronic subcutaneous exposure to CdCl2 causes significant hepatotoxicity in less than a month. Therefore, workers dealing with Cd in industrial settings should use proper precautions and safety measures to avoid Cd exposure. Furthermore, cigarette smoke is known to contain Cd, antismoking programs should be implemented to reduce mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases associated with Cd toxicity.

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