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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
eISSN: 1994-7984
pISSN: 1680-5194

Editor-in-Chief:  Reema Fayez Tayyem
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Research Article
Effect of Fiber Feed on Rabbits During the Postweaning Period
M. Sobri, K.G. Wiryawan, P.D.M.H. Karti and W.T. Wibawan
Background and Objective: This study was conducted to analyze the effect of the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and fiber particle size on mortality, hematology, stress status, immunity and number of E. coli in New Zealand white (NZW) crossbred rabbits during the postweaning period. Methodology: A total of 144 NZW crossbred rabbits were used in the study. The trial design was a completely randomized 3×3 factorial pattern, namely, 3 levels of the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (F1, F2 and F3) and 3 sizes of fiber particles (P1, P2 and P3). Each treatment was repeated 4 times and each replication consisted of 4 trials. Results: The average mortality up to 12 weeks was 19.44%. The treatment combinations of F3P2 and F2P2 had the lowest mortality rate (0%) and low rates of E. coli infection at 2.55 and 2.71×109 CFU mL1, respectively. The feed treatment affected the hematological values in rabbits during the postweaning period. The results indicated that there was a relationship between mortality and E. coli infection. Moreover, the F3P2 treatment was the best feed combination observed in this study. Conclusion: The feed treatment affected the mortality, immunity, hematology and stress status of NZW crossbred rabbits during the postweaning period.
Research Article
Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Adults with and Without Diabetes in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Razalee Sedek and Saziatul Nazirah Saari
Background and Objective: This study aimed to compare the level of knowledge on type 2 diabetes between adults with and without diabetes in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study included 202 UKM staff members including 101 diabetic respondents (DRs) and 101 non-diabetic respondents (NDRs) aged between 30 and 59 years. A questionnaire was used in this study to collect information on the respondents’ sociodemographics and knowledge about type 2 diabetes. Results: The overall mean age for the respondents was 49.6±6.4 years. This study revealed that the mean score of knowledge for DRs and NDRs was comparable, with 80.4±14.0 and 76.7±14.3%, respectively (p>0.05), responding in the good category. The percentage of respondents for DRs that answered correctly on a few individual questions was significantly higher compared with NDRs (p<0.05), such as diabetes is a condition of insufficient insulin, complications include loss of sensation in the arms and legs, tablets and capsules are available for the control of diabetes and diabetics should carry sweets when they are out. The highest mean scores were obtained by DRs (95.0±14.6%) and NDRs (94.6±1.4%) in the monitoring sections (p>0.05), while the lowest scores were found for the general knowledge section, with a mean score of 69.1±23.0 and 65.7±20.0%, respectively (p>0.05). There was a significant difference in the mean score for the treatment and management of diabetes section between the DRs (80.5±18.8%) and NDRs (74.3±17.7%) (p<0.05). Conclusion: The level of knowledge on type 2 diabetes for both groups was good. The information gained could subsequently be helpful for the Health Center of the UKM and Health Ministry of Malaysia to design and initiate comprehensive programmes for the detection and control of diabetes and its complications with self-care and community support as its major components.
Research Article
Slaughter, Carcass and Non-Carcass Characteristics of Local Cattle and Buffalo in Indonesia
R. Priyanto, H. Nuraini, Muladno , M. Ismail and H. Wijayanto
Background and Objectives: Local cattle and buffalo slaughtered in public abattoirs vary widely in body fatness and live weight. The study was aimed to characterise carcass and non-carcass parameters of local cattle and buffalo differing in breed, sex and body fatness score using a carcass dressing procedure based on the national standard carcass definition. Methodology: A total of 291 cattle and buffalo were slaughtered at 20 public abattoirs from ten provinces of Indonesia. The slaughtered animals were classified according to breed (Bali, Madura, PO, local crossbred cattle, PFH and buffalo), body fatness score (very thin, thin, medium, fat and very fat) and sex (male and female). Results: The results indicated that the local cattle and buffalo slaughtered at public abattoirs were dominated by local crossbred cattle (59%), followed by Bali cattle (14%), PFH cattle (10%), PO cattle (8%), Madura cattle (7%) and swamp buffalo (2%). The animals were mainly in medium (49%) and poor (36%) conditions, while only 15% of the animals were in fat condition. Variations due to breed, age, sex and body fatness score were observed in slaughter weight, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of local cattle and buffalo of various breeds, ages and sexes slaughtered at public abattoirs in Indonesia had low to medium carcass productivity, which could be improved by increasing their body fatness score.
Research Article
Postprandial In vitro Protease-Specific Activity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Digestive Organs
Thatsanee Anukoolprasert, Khajornkiat Srinuansom, Thanasorn Rukdontri, Sataphon Nonkhukhetkhong and Rakpong Petkam
Background and Objective: Protease-specific activity varies postprandially. This study aimed to identify the optimum time after feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) to collect digestive organ samples (stomach, proximal intestine, distal intestine and liver) to obtain maximum protease-specific activity values. Materials and Methods: One hundred Nile tilapia (average weight 55.19±1.78 g/fish) were acclimatized and fed two times per day for 14 days. At the beginning of the experiment, 6 fish were randomly taken from the tank before feeding (0 h) and then 6 fish were also randomly taken after feeding at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h for digestive organ collection. Homogenized organ pH was measured and extracted for a protease-specific activity assay using azocasein as a substrate. Results: The pH values of all organs differed (p<0.05) after feeding and the pH changes were related to chyme movement in these organs. The protease-specific activities of the stomach and proximal intestine were highest at 24 h after feeding (p<0.05) but the protease-specific activities of the distal intestine and liver were not significantly different (p>0.05) between time points. Conclusion: Postprandial digestive organ sample collection was recommended at 24 h to maximize protease-specific activity for further protease characterization.
Research Article
Value of Metabolizable Energy and Digestibility of Nutrient Concentrate from Fermented Shrimp Waste for Domestic Chickens
Abun , Tuti Widjastuti and Kiki Haetami
Background and Objective: Improving the quality of waste containing high levels of chitin through bioprocesses that utilize the services of the microbes Bacillus licheniformis, Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces cereviseae can generate a high-quality product that can meet the requirements of domestic chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal bioprocessing conditions to make a nutrient concentrate, as well as to describe its biological quality for the domestic chicken. Materials and Methods: This study utilized experimental methods in the laboratory that consisted of a completely randomized design with six treatment rations (R0, R1, R2, R3, R4 and RS) that were replicated five times. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the differences between treatments were tested by Duncan's multiple range test. Results: Bioprocessing shrimp waste with Bacillus licheniformis for two days, followed by Lactobacillus sp. for two days and finally, Saccharomyces cereviseae for two days resulted in the best nutrient content (48.50% crude protein, 7.81% crude fat, 7.57% calcium and 3.14% phosphorus), The metabolizable energy value and protein digestibility of the nutrient concentrate for the domestic chicken were 2613.90 kcal kg1 and 72.91%, respectively. Conclusion: Processing shrimp waste for poultry feed, especially for domestic poultry, can be achieved through multilevel fermentation technology that uses microbial services to produce a nutrient concentrate with good chemical and biological qualities.
Research Article
Effectiveness of Self-Help Group Program for the Management of Type-2 Diabetes Patients in Rural Thailand
Kantapong Prabsangob, Ratana Somrongthong, Ramesh Kumar and Fozia Anwar
Background and Objective: A Self-Help Group (SHG) program was designed based on the concept of social cognitive theory. This program applied an action research approach for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in community based-care. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an SHG program on health literacy, self-care behaviors and blood sugar levels in T2DM patients in a rural Thai community. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study design was used through validated and reliable questionnaires. Seventy T2DM patients between 50 and 80 years living in a rural Thai community were included in this study. Patients were assigned to the intervention or control group (n = 35 each) to test the effectiveness of an SHG program across three months. Descriptive statistics and independent paired t-test was used to compare baseline and intervention effects. The study was approved by Chulalongkorn University in Thailand. Results: Health literacy, self-care behaviors and HbA1c levels were similar across both groups at baseline. Following three months of intervention, health literacy, self-care behaviors and HbA1c levels were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: This SHG program is effective and may help T2DM patients improve their health literacy and self-care behaviors to control their blood sugar levels.
Research Article
Mangampo: A Traditional Method from West Sumatra to Extract Gambir from Uncaria gambir
Tuty Anggraini, Neswati and Alfi Asben
Background and Objectives: This study is the first to explain in detail the process to extract gambir from Uncaria gambir. The aim of this study was to identify the process used to produce gambir. The process is called ‘mangampo,’ which yields dried gambir extracts. This unique traditional process can be useful for researchers to understand the conventional processing of natural resources with beneficial compounds. Materials and Methods: The materials used in this research were the leaves and branches of Uncaria gambir. This study conducted a survey of gambir processing methods in Pesisir Selatan and Lima Puluh Kota, the central regions of gambir production in West Sumatra. Results: The results of this study showed that the procedure of ‘mangampo’ consists of harvesting the leaves and branches, steaming until condensed water appears on the leaves and branches, pressing the steamed leaves and branches, collecting the extract, thickening the extract (until a paste forms), forming the gambir paste and drying the paste. Conclusion: In both regions (Pesisir Selatan and Lima Puluh Kota), the same principle of extracting gambir is used and ‘mangampo’ is a unique traditional method to produce gambir.
Research Article
Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Leaves and Seeds of the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) on the Production and Egg Quality of Kamang Laying Ducks
Erman Syahruddin, Rita Herawaty and Azhar
Background and Objective: This study aimed to reduce the use of imported feed ingredients and feed ingredients that are competitive with human needs through a transition to local conventional feed. Thus, the potential of fermented leaves and seeds of the rubber tree (FLSRT) as a substitute for soybean meal in Kamang laying duck rations without adverse effects on Kamang laying duck production was assessed. Methodology: This experiment used 240 Kamang laying ducks aged 20 weeks. A completely randomized design with four replications was used and the six treatments replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of soybean meal with FLSRT. The variables measured were feed intake, feed conversion and income over feed cost (gross profit), as well as variables related to egg production (hen-day production and egg weight) and egg quality (eggshell thickness and yolk color index). The data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and if the result showed a marked influence, then Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) was applied. Results: The performance of Kamang laying ducks was not affected significantly by substituting FLSRT for soybean meal. Feed intake, feed conversion and egg production were also not altered. Conclusion: FLSRT can be substituted for up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of Kamang laying ducks.
Research Article
Effect of Supplemental Feeding on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Treated at the Mandala Community Health Centre (Puskesmas) of Medan
Ginta Siahaan, Dini Lestrina and Efendi Nainggolan
Background and Objective: Malnourished pregnant women often have low energy and anemia and are at increased risk for spontaneous abortion or stillbirth. Moreover, offspring of malnourished women are more likely to have low birth weight and stunting due to nutritional insufficiency. Supplemental feeding can reduce the risk of maternal malnutrition. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a supplemental feeding regimen for pregnant women in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 pregnant women between 20 and 35 years-old treated at the Mandala Community Health Centre of Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia, were enrolled in this cohort study. Patient characteristics were assessed, including gestational age and parity. Study subjects were given a supplemental feeding regimen that included cookies made with high protein tempe flour and juice made from papaya and passion fruit. Differences in anthropomorphic measurements, including body weight and upper arm circumference, as well as hemoglobin and albumin blood levels, were measured pre and post-treatment and the differences were analyzed for statistical significance. Results: A statistically significant increase in body weight and upper arm circumference was seen at the end of the supplemental feeding period. Hemoglobin levels were also significantly increased after supplemental feeding, whereas pre and post-treatment albumin levels were similar. Conclusion: Supplemental feeding with high protein cookies and vitamin C-rich juice can enhance the nutritional status of pregnant women, as evidenced by increased weight gain and hemoglobin levels. This improved nutritional status can help increase the rate of favorable pregnancy outcomes.
Research Article
Effectiveness of Front-of-Package Traffic Light (FoPTL) Labels in Selected Young Adults’ Acceptance and Comprehension
Hafizhah Fadhillah and Fatmah
Background and Objective: Many studies have examined the impact of Front-of-Package Traffic Light (FoPTL) labels on consumers’ acceptance and comprehension of nutritional information; however, very few have focused on Indonesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate young adult consumers’ acceptance and comprehension of nutrition facts using FoPTL nutrition labels. Methodology: A quasi-experimental design was used for a three-week study that included 18 female employees as its treatment group. The participants’ initial comprehension of nutrition was measured prior to the intervention via the use of fictitious packaging for yoghurt, instant noodles and wafer products. Subsequently, the participants attended two educational sessions as part of the intervention. One week following the second educational session, a posttest of the subjects’ acceptance and comprehension of nutrition using FoPTL nutrition labels was conducted. The difference between the two variables before and after the study was analyzed using a paired t-test. Results: The findings revealed an improvement in the participants’ comprehension of nutrition labels after the intervention (87.0±9.0), which was significantly higher than their initial comprehension rate (51.5±19.1). Although, subjects with high levels of label acceptance had better comprehension of nutrition labels, no significant relationship was found between the two variables. FoPTL labels enable consumers to comprehend nutrition facts disclosed on the labels. Meanwhile, labels containing a nutrition facts panel (NFP) ranked below FoPTL labels in this study. As evidenced by the t-test results, there was a significant difference between use of the FoPTL and the use of NFP labels (p<0.05). Conclusion: As such, the National Agency of Drug and Food Control of the Republic of Indonesia (BPOM RI) and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia should consider complementing the use of FoPTL labels with NFP labels.
Research Article
Relationship Between Expenditures for Food Purchasing and Adolescent Anemia in Indonesia
Ratu A.D. Sartika, Isna A. Fajarini and Lia Fitrianingsih
Background and Objective: Anemia associated with nutritional deficiency in adolescents is a public health problem that continues to be a concern in developing countries, including Indonesia. The rate of adolescent anemia is increasing and can lower productivity. This study aimed to determine whether differences in expenditures for iron-rich food and residence in rural or urban areas is related to the prevalence of anemia in adolescents aged 15-19 living on Sumatera Island, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional approach was used to analyze data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey that was administered to 731 adolescents by the RAND Corporation in 2007. Results: In 2007 adolescents living on Sumatera island had an average hemoglobin level of 13.96±1.86 g dL1 (Girls: 12.7±1.48 g dL1, Boys: 15.1±1.56 g dL1) and the overall anemia prevalence was 11.7% (Girls: 26.1%, Boys: 2.4%). The highest level of family expenditure for food purchasing was for fresh fish [15,000±31,765.38 Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)]. Expenditures for meat, poultry, vegetables, fruit, eggs and milk were significantly lower in rural areas compared to urban areas (p<0.05), whereas those for fresh and dried fish were significantly lower in urban areas (p<0.05). Anemia was significantly associated with sex [p <0.001; OR = 14.55 (7,2129,37)] and consumption frequency of red meat [p = 0.034, OR = 2.44 (1.11-5.35)] but not with expenditures for iron-rich foods. Conclusion: Expenditures for food purchasing by families in Sumatera Island, Indonesia vary based on food type and area of residence (rural vs. urban). Food expenditure was not associated with the frequency of adolescent anemia. Overall, in this study anemia was more prevalent among female adolescents, adolescents living in rural areas and adolescents who consumed less red meat.
Research Article
Determining Dietetics Students’ Readiness to Practice: an Exploration of Student Perceptions
Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng and Anis Farhana Ahmad Najlan
Background and Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the readiness to practice of final-year dietetics students at UiTM, Selangor campus and to identify the factors that influence readiness to practice as a dietitian. Material and Methods: Thirty students participated in this cross-sectional study. We administered a set of validated questionnaires to assess both readiness and factors that influence readiness. Results: Most of the students (63.3%) were ready to become dietitians. However, most of the students had a low level of readiness in the areas of communication with other professionals (p<0.05) and charting (p<0.05). This study also found that the scope of the profession has a great influence on students' readiness to practice (p<0.05). In addition, the chance to help others was highlighted as the significant factor that motivates the students to continue in the field. Conclusion: The results of the current study illuminate the need for academics to consider and address the issues students face during the transition phase and the urgent need to revise and improve the curriculum.
Research Article
In vitro Evaluation of Oil Palm Fronds Fermented with Produren: A Durian Probiotic
Mardalena and E. Musnandar
Background and Objective: Increasing ruminant productivity requires a protein source not only from feed but also from rumen microbial activity. An increase in the activity of rumen microbes can be accomplished with arumen modifier, which is the role of produren (a durian probiotic). The current study aimed to determine the effect of produren on the in vitro fermentation of oil palm fronds in beef cattle rumen fluid. Methodology: The study used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and4 replications. The treatments consisted of oil palm fronds without fermentation (NPF/control), oil palm fronds fermented with 2.5% produren (PF1), oil palm fronds fermented with 5% produren (PF2) and oil palm fronds fermented with 7.5% produren (PF3). The parameters measured were dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, N-NH3, pH, the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and the acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations. The data were analyzed by Duncan’s multiple range test. Results: The oil palm fronds fermented with produren had a higher (p<0.05) dry matter digestibility (8.9%) and concentration of total VFAs, (21.6%) than the control but fermentation with produren did not affect (p>0.05) organic matter digestibility, pH or NH3 in the rumen fluid from beef cattle. Conclusion: Fermentation of oil palm fronds with produren at 7.5 g% DM improved dry matter digestibility and the total VFA concentration in the rumen fluid from beef cattle.
Research Article
Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hypochlorite on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Jack Bean Skin (Canavalia ensiformis)
Chrysanta Aurelia, Agnes Murdiati, Supriyanto and Andriati Ningrum
Background and Objective: Jack beans are one of the most underutilized legumes in Indonesia and they are rich in protein. In Indonesia, several traditional products have been developed using jack beans as the raw material but the skin is not used, even though it contains dietary fiber, e.g., cellulose, that can be beneficial to human health. The valorization concept is a trending topic that uses byproducts, such as jack bean skin, to increase the value of the raw material. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of the concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on several physicochemical characterizations of cellulose from jack bean skin. Materials and Methods: Cellulose isolation was carried out by delignification using NaOH at several concentrations (4, 6, 8, 10 and 20% NaOH), oxidation bleaching using NaOCl at different concentrations (0, 3 and 6% NaOCl) and reduction bleaching using 3% sodium bisulfite. The isolated cellulose from jack bean skins was analyzed and its physicochemical characteristics, e.g., yield, cellulose content, color (lightness), water holding capacity and oil holding capacity, were examined. Then, jack bean skin cellulose was analyzed to determine its functional groups using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: The highest yield of cellulose (46.40%) was obtained by using 4% NaOH. The highest cellulose content [76.79% (%db)] was obtained by using 10% NaOH. Increasing the NaOCl concentration helped lighten the cellulose color. Conclusion: The optimal sample treatment consisted of a combination of 10% NaOH and 3% NaOCl to produce a high cellulose content, light cellulose color and FT-IR peaks similar to commercial cellulose.

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