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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
eISSN: 1994-7984
pISSN: 1680-5194

Editor-in-Chief:  Chih‐Hung Guo
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Research Article
Assessment of Counselling Outcomes on the Improvement of Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Makassar, Indonesia
Sri Syatriani
Background and Objective: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continually increases in Indonesia and has shown an ascending trend in the last five years, as indicated in several Indonesian basic health survey reports. It increased from 1.5% in 2010 to 2.1% in 2013 and rose to 5.8% in 2014 and 9.1 million cases in 2015. This study aimed to assess counselling outcomes on the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the coastal areas of the Makassar municipality. Methodology: The study used a non-randomized pre-test and post-test control group design. The samples assessed in this study were patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were from the coastal areas of the Makassar municipality, leading to a total sample size of 80 respondents. Data from the sample were processed and analysed using a paired t-test. Results: The results of the assessment indicated that the health intervention involving counselling could improve HRQoL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant difference before and after the intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.000). The number of patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus showed that poor HRQoL could be improved, as shown by the mean value of 21.77. Conclusion: A health intervention involving counselling could improve HRQoL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the coastal areas of the Makassar municipality.
Research Article
Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antimicrobial Effect of Orange (Citrus sinensis) Ethyl Acetate Extract Silage
Ucop Haroen, Agus Budiansyah and Nelwida
Background and Objective: Secondary metabolites are complex compounds. Many citrus fruits contain such compounds in the skin, seeds and pulp that act as phytochemicals with bacterial growth-inhibiting, anti-fungal and anti-cancer activities. This study was designed to identify phytochemical compounds in ethyl acetate extracts of orange and assess their antibacterial activities. Methodology: An ethyl acetate extract of orange silage (EAEOS) at 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm was fermented for 28 days. Treatments were replicated four times. The samples were placed in a jar serving as a silo under anaerobic conditions. At the end of fermentation, phytochemical screening was performed. Data were analysed using analysis of variance under a completely randomized design. Results: The EAEOS contains alkaloid, flavonoid, steroid, triterpenoid, phenolic, saponin and coumarin compounds. The antibacterial activity of EAEOS was assessed using disc and MIC (minimum inhibition concentration) methods with Escherichia coli (E. coli ), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi ) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The extract inhibited the growth of all test organisms, with zones of inhibition ranging from 9.75±0.00 to 16.75±0.14 mm (E. coli ), 8.00±0.23 to 12.50±0.24 mm (S. aureus), 8.50±0.24 to 11.75±0.00 mm (S. typhi ) and 7.75±0.11 to 11.75±0.12 mm (B. subtilis). The MICs were 38.72±0.23 to 59.54±0.23% (E. coli ), 15.08±0.54 to 23.25±0.59% (S. aureus), 10.46±0.12 to 19.65±0.02% (S. typhi ) and 9.64±0.45 to 11.28±0.44% (B. subtilis). Conclusion: The tested EAEOS compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against both gram-positive (S. aureus, B. subtilis) and gram-negative (E. coli and S. typhi ) bacteria.
Research Article
Effects of Storage Periods and Temperature on Mold Prevalence and Aflatoxin Contamination in Nuts
Amnah M.A. Alsuhaibani
Background and Objective: Nuts are highly exposed to fungi contamination in the field during transport or storage and this can result in the production of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and level of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), the mold and yeast counts in pistachios, cashews, walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts and the effect of different storage conditions (temperature and storage period) on aflatoxin formation and mold and yeast counts. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five samples of dehulled raw nuts (pistachio, cashew, walnut, almond and hazelnut) were purchased randomly from retail shops in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were first analyzed to obtain an estimation of the aflatoxin levels, mold and yeast counts prior to storage. The nut samples were then stored for 3 and 6 months at three temperatures: Room temperature (25°C), 45°C and under refrigeration (4°C). At the end of the storage periods, the samples were again analyzed for aflatoxin content (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and mold and yeast counts. Results: All of the nuts in the study were found to have safe aflatoxin levels before storage according to the European Union, Iranian and Australian/New Zealand food standard codes (<15 μg kg–1). The aflatoxin levels rose above safe limits in all of the experimental nuts stored for 3 or 6 months at room temperature (25°C) and 45°C. However, storing the experimental nuts under refrigeration (4°C) allowed the pistachio, cashew and walnut aflatoxin levels to remain within the safe limit for up to 6 months. Both the almond and hazelnut aflatoxin levels exceeded the standards by 3 months of storage at 4°C and could not be considered safe. Conclusion: Storing nuts at a low temperature (refrigeration) reduces aflatoxin levels and mold and yeast counts for 3-6 months.
Research Article
Influence of Different Protein Levels and Protein to Energy Ratios on Growth, Feed Efficiency and Survival of Bonylip Barb (Osteochilus vittatus Cyprinidae) Fingerlings
Niagara , Muhammad Agus Suprayudi, Mia Setiawati and Hafrijal Syandri
Background and Objective: Bonylip barb Osteochilus vittatus (O. vittatus) is a freshwater fish with economic value. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of protein levels and energy levels on the growth, feed efficiency and survival of O. vittatus fingerlings. Materials and Methods: A 3×2 factorial feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the production response of bonylip barb fingerling fish (O. vittatus). Six diets containing 3 protein levels (28, 30 and 32%) and 2 protein-energy ratios (12 and 14) were formulated and fed to triplicate groups of O. vittatus fingerlings (3.77±0.02 g/fish) for 60 days. The formulated diets were P28E12, P28E14, P30E12, P30E14, P32E12 and P32E14 (P-protein and E-energy). Results: Fish fed diets with the lowest protein and highest energy combination (P28E14) had the lowest growth performance. The percent weight gain, specific rate growth, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of O. vittatus fingerlings was highest with the 32% crude protein feed and a protein-energy ratio of 12 (P32E12). Meanwhile, the best fat retention was found in the P28E14 treatment. The protein retention and survival rate showed no significant effect (p>0.05) between treatments. Conclusion: Feed with 32% crude protein and a protein-energy ratio of 12 is good for growth, feed efficiency and survival of O. vittatus fingerlings.
Research Article
A Simple Nutrition Screening Tool for Detecting Stunting of Pre-Schoolers: Development and Validity Assessment
Haripin Togap Sinaga, Alfridsyah , Berlin Sitanggang and Abdul Hadi
Background and Objective: Routine height measurement for school children has been conducted for 110 years. However, the validity of height measurement tools are questionable and have resulted in varying practices and data of stunting prevalence. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity of the wall growth chart for use as a nutrition screening tool in kindergarten schools. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. A total sample of 180 pre-schoolers were involved and recruited from eight kindergarten schools in Deli Serdang district. Each child was measured using a wall growth chart and the gold standard. A validity test was conducted to determine six validity indices; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false negative and true positive. Results: The height measurements from the wall growth chart and the gold standard were quite similar. The validity indices showed that the wall growth chart had strong sensitivity and specificity, at 91.0 and 92.0%, respectively. The prevalence of stunting detected by both tools ( 21.7 vs 19.4%) was not significantly different (p<0.00). Conclusion: Wall growth charts demonstrate high validity and reliability for use as a nutrition screening tool. In future use, this tool has an ability of at least 81.5% to correctly detect stunted and normal children. The use of this tool may assist the Indonesia Education Act to conduct growth monitoring and properly prevent stunting in school children.
Research Article
Influence of Sports Participation, Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Toward Vision Care on Vision Performance of Elementary School Students: A Comparison of Athletes and Non-athletes
Chia-Ming Chang, Li-Wei Liu, Huey-Hong Hsieh and Wui-Chiu Mu
Objective: This study examined the visual performance of elementary school students in Taiwan by investigating knowledge, attitude and behavior toward vision care of students who participate and did not participate in athletics. Methodology: Variance and predictive analyses of relationships between vision performance and geographic variables as well as variables of knowledge, attitude and behavior toward vision care for 350 elementary school students in Taiwan were performed. Results: A significantly higher percentage of athletes who played non-ball games had normal vision than non-athletes. There were no significant differences in variables for visual knowledge, attitude and behavior toward vision care between athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, when geographic variables were processed and analyzed with hierarchical regression, four intervals could be sequentially incorporated into the model to identify indicators of student’s visual performance. The results of this analysis showed that geographic and variables of knowledge, attitude and behavior toward vision care did not predict student’s visual performance. Conclusion: Researchers recommend that school administrations promote vision care programs and outdoor activities to prevent vision loss.
Research Article
Effect of Sargassum hystrix Powder on the Biochemical Profile of Diabetic Wistar Rats
Abdu Rohman Nurfahmi, Amir Husni and Alim Isnansetyo
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect Sargassum hystrix (S. hystrix) powder on the levels of glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic profile of diabetic wistar rats. Methodology: S. hystrix powder (SHP) was made by grinding and sieving to obtain a 120 mesh sized powder. The diabetic rats were administered 450, 600 and 750 mg kg–1 doses of SHP orally every day for 15 days. Glucose, lipid profile and weight of rats were measured when in the normal state (baseline) and on days 0 (diabetes), 5, 10 and 15. The histology of the pancreas was observed on the 15th day. Results: The 750 mg kg–1 dose of SHP was significantly able to reduce the level of preprandial glucose and postprandial glucose and did not have significant differences compared to the positive control. SHP did not affect the level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLc and LDLc. Necrosis was found in all of the streptozotocin-induced rats. Conclusion: The SHP has the potential effect that can be beneficial for streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Research Article
Non-communicable Diseases and its Association with Body Composition and Nutrition among General Population in Subnag Jaya, Selangor: Community-Based Study
Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Maged Elnajeh, Mohammed A. Abdalqader, Mohammed Faez Baobaid and Indang Ariati Ariffin
Objective: The aim of the present study was to measure the association between non-communicable diseases, body composition and nutrition among the general population of Subang Jaya, Malaysia. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires with anthropometric measures and collection of blood pressure and glucose levels. Results: Of the 518 respondents, the majority were female (60%), of Malay ethnicity (74.9%) and currently employed (59.7%). Most respondents had up to a secondary school education (45.9%) and exhibited a moderate ability to self-regulate their eating (65.1%). However, there was no association between dietary habits and development of hypertension (p = 0.368), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.5888), heart disease (p = 0.496), or cancer (p = 0.656) in this sample population. Most of our respondents had normal stress levels (69.5%) and there was no association with development of hypertension (p = 0.747), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.300), heart disease (p = 226), or cancer (p = 0.702). Conclusion: Majority of respondents had normal stress levels and moderate self-regulation of eating. While there was an association between body fat percentage, visceral fat and diabetes status, no association was found between eating regulation behavior and both hypertension and diabetes.

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