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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
eISSN: 1994-7984
pISSN: 1680-5194

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Research Article
Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Proteases from Bekasam for use as a Beef Tenderizer
Afriani , Arnim , Yetti Marlida and Yuherman
Background and Objective: Proteases are important enzymes and have high economic value due to their wide applications in the food industry as a meat tenderizer. Protease use in the food industry necessitates an understanding of the capabilities and influencing factors of these enzymes to accelerate enzymatic reactions. This study aimed to isolate and characterize the proteases of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Bekasam. Methodology: The samples were obtained from the third, fifth, seventh, ninth and eleventh day of fermentation to isolate the proteolytic LAB. Characterization of proteases includes the incubation time, casein substrate concentration, optimum temperature and pH, metal ion contents and stability. The LAB with the highest protease activity is identified molecularly and isolated through 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on the Neighbor Joining method. Results: The results showed that the best isolate was BAF-715 because it had the highest protease activity (18.84 U mL–1) at 40 h of incubation. The optimum activity of this protease on a casein substrate at 2.5% occurred at an incubation temperature of 40°C at pH 7 and in the presence of Mg2+ and Mn2+ (5 mM) as activators. Based on molecular DNA identification, the BAF-715 isolate is determined to be Pediococcus pentosaceus. Conclusion: A protease produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus showed the highest proteolytic activity, making it the best protease for application as a beef tenderizer.
Research Article
In-vitro Digestibility of Palm Leaf Waste Treated with Different Processing Methods
Suyitman , Lili Warly and Evitayani
Background and Objective: Leaf waste from palm oil plants has not been widely utilized by farmers due to the low biological quality of the palm leaf midrib. Efforts to optimize the utilization of waste-derived feed include physical, chemical or biological processing or a combination of those techniques. This research was conducted to determine the best palm leaf processing method to increase the nutrient content and digestion of the palm leaf midrib. Materials and Methods: This study used completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Treatments were = A: Control (without treatment), B: Physical processing (steam), C: Chemical treatment (ammonia), D: Biological treatment (ensilage) and E: Chemical-physical combination (steam-ammonia). The parameters that were measured included the nutrient content, dry matter digestibility, organic matter, crude protein, in vitro fibre fraction and rumen fluid characteristics. Results: The processing of oil palm leaf pole with ammonia (treatment C) resulted in better nutrient contents and in vitro digestion for cut palm leaves than other treatment methods (p<0.05). Leaves in treatment C had the following nutrient contents: Dry matter (40.51%), organic matter (84.25%), crude protein (13.75%), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (54.76%), acid detergent fibre (ADF) (42.54%), cellulose (20.77%), hemicellulose (12.22%) and lignin (10.74%). In vitro digestion resulted in the following nutrient contents: Dry matter (34.53%), organic matter (41.65%), crude protein (45.32%), NDF (30.71%), ADF (24.28%), cellulose (31.39%) and hemicellulose (51.78%). The rumen fluid characteristics were as follows: pH (7.02), VFAs (135.93 mM) and NH3-N (58.90 mg/100 mL). Conclusion: Treating cut palm leaf poles with ammonia results in better nutrient contents and in vitro digestion than physical processing (steam), biological treatment (ensilage) or a combination of physical and chemical processing (steam-ammonization).
Research Article
Effect of Diets Containing Treated and Untreated Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Peels on the Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats Fed Gamba Grass
J. Oloche, E.I. Ameh and F. Inalegwu
Background and Objective: Feed shortage has been a major constraint to goat production in Nigeria particularly during the long dry season, thus supplementation to maintain animal weight during this period is required. Sweet orange peels are available all through the year and are reported to have calorie and protein values comparable with those of maize. Unprocessed sweet orange peels has been used in the diets of goats up to 50% level with no adverse effects. This study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the effects of diets containing treated and untreated sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peels on the performance and nutrient digestibility of West African dwarf goats fed gamba grass. Materials and Methods: Nine male West African dwarf (WAD) goats aged 7-9 months with an average weight of 9.60 kg were used to evaluate the effect of diets containing treated and untreated sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peels on the performance and nutrient digestibility of WAD goats fed gamba grass. Three diets, T1, T2 and T3 were formulated to contain 0% sweet orange peel meal (SOPM), 60% unfermented sweet orange peel meal (UFSOPM) and 60% fermented sweet orange peel meal (FSOPM), respectively and used as concentrate diets. The goats were randomly assigned to the diets in a completely randomized design (n = 3). Each goat was fed 200 g/day of the respective diet as supplement to gamba grass for a period of 77 days. Results: Results showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the treatments in all the performance parameters measured. The mean daily feed intake were 312.40, 297.70 and 312.50 g while the mean daily weight gain were 23.00, 16.96 and 14.59 g for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The dry matter (DM), nutrient digestibility and nutrient intake values were also not significantly different (p>0.05) among the treatments. Dry matter and all the proximate constituents showed similar trend of slight decrease in digestibility from T1-T3. The nutrient intake also followed a similar trend as the DM and nutrient digestibility. Conclusion: Treated or untreated sweet orange peels can be used to replace 60% of maize offal in concentrate supplement diets of West African dwarf goats.
Research Article
Interprofessional Collaboration Practices: Case Study of the Handling of Malnutrition in Three Public Health Centers in South Sulawesi
Risnah , Veni Hadju, Ida Leida Maria and Werna Nontji
Background: Complicated health problems require the involvement of all healthcare professions. Nutritional status is one of the most important aspects in preparing healthy generations. The purpose of this research was to examine interprofessional collaborations in the efforts of handling nutritional problems in toddlers. Method: This qualitative research study was completed in three public health centers in Jeneponto Regency. A total of 22 informants (19 females and 3 males) participated in this study. The professionals consisted of three doctors, seven nurses, five midwives, four nutritionists, two sanitarians and one health promotion officer. Results: The results of this research revealed various definitions of malnutrition by the health officials, including the characteristics and causes of malnutrition. Various actual activities were performed as joint efforts in handling nutrition problems and a good understanding of interprofessional collaborations was indicated by the health officers. Many activities showed a form of interprofessional collaboration in the daily healthcare services. One of these activities was the integrated health center activity. However, at the time of implementation of the activities, there was not yet an interprofessional collaboration as a whole. Supporting documents showed that the implementation of interprofessional collaborations in the form of written rules was also not available. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the implementation of interprofessional collaborations in South Sulawesi has not been optimized.
Research Article
Influence of Nutrition Education and Provision of Instant Chayote to Change in Blood Pressure
Jamaluddin M. Sakung, Saifuddin Sirajuddin, Andi Zulkifli, Stang Abdul Rahman, A. Arsunan Arsin, Masni , Nurhaedar Jafar and Bohari
Background and Objective: Current efforts to overcome hypertension have been predominantly based on medical treatment. Nutritional education and local food use are still limited in efforts to lower blood pressure. This study was conducted to analyze the effect of nutritional education intervention and the provision of chayote on changes in blood pressure of pre-diabetic high school teachers. Methodology: This research study is an experiment consisting of a sample of high school teachers (SMA) with pre-diabetes in Palu city. The number of subjects per group was 25 people and they were categorized as the following: Group I = Intervention of instant chayote, Group II = Nutrition education intervention and Group III = Nutrition education intervention and provision of chayote. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured before and after intervention. Data analysis were performed using pairwise t-test and Wallis crucial test and significance was considered at p<0.05. Results: Change in the mean and standard deviation of systolic blood pressure after intervention with instant infusion of chayote was 15.24±10.54 mm Hg (p = 0.00), after nutrition education intervention was 3.12±12.34 mm Hg (p = 0.190) and intervention in combination of nutrition education and instant chayote were 14.48±12.00 (p = 0.00). The change in diastolic blood pressure after intervention with the administration of siam gourd was 11.24±8.29 mm Hg (p = 0.00), nutritional education intervention was 1.88±10.33 mm Hg (p = 0.253) and intervention in combination of nutritional education and chayote was 6.84±11.76 mm Hg (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Instant chayote interventions combined with nutritional education may significantly decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pre-diabetic high school teachers.
Research Article
Studying the Heavy Metals Composition and the Impact of Different Common Solvents on the Extraction Efficiency of Phytochemical Secondary Metabolites from the Leaves of Ziziphus spina-christi Grown in Jordan
Sabah M.J. Khaleel
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different common solvents on the extraction efficiency of phytochemical secondary metabolites and to determine the heavy metals composition of Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) medicinal plant available in Jordan. Methodology: The dry leaves from Z. spina-christi were extracted using different solvents like water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. Then the extraction yield, the total of flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents and heavy metals concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Co were investigated. Results: The highest extract yield was obtained from water extract (46.2%). Ethyl acetate has the highest flavonoids content (145.3±2.3 mg QE g–1 DW extract) while methanol extract has the highest concentration of tannins (57.2±5.8 mg GAE g–1 DW). The crude powder of Z. spina-christi leaves has appreciable amount of alkaloids (10.1±0.02 mg g–1) with permissible heavy metals concentrations. Conclusion: The yield and extraction efficiency of secondary bioactive compounds from Z. spina-christi leaves were solvent dependent. The leaves extracts of Z. spina-christi plant could be a potential source of food products and useful drugs.
Research Article
Production and Quality of Etawa Raw Milk Using Palm Oil Industry Waste and Paitan Plants as an Early Feed
Arief , Elihasridas , Simel Somen, Elly Roza, Roni Pazla and Rizqan
Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the influence of palm oil industry by-products (palm kernel cake and palm oil sludge) and Paitan (Tithonia diversifolia, TD) as roughage on the production and quality of Etawa crossbreed (EC) goat milk. Materials and Methods: Eighteen EC dairy goats on their second lactation month were used in this study. This study utilized a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) that consisted of 6 treatments and 3 replicates. The treatments were as follows: (A) 50% roughage+50% soybean meal waste (SMW)+0% palm oil concentrate (POC), (B) 50% TD+50% SMW+0% POC, (C) 50% TD+37.5% SMW+12.5% POC, (D) 50% TD+25% SMW+25% POC, (E) 50% TD+12.5% SMW+37.5% POC and (F) 50% TD+0% SMW+50% POC. The variables observed in this study were the production and quality of Etawa crossbreed milk (protein and lactose). Results: Results showed a milk production rate (1.44-1.85 kg/head/day) with a milk protein concentration (3.48-3.76%) and a lactose concentration (4.01- 4.16%). Using palm oil industry by-products and TD as an early feed can significantly increase milk production (p<0.01), but there was no effect on milk quality (p<0.05). Conclusion: The TD and palm oil industry by-products can be used as an alternative feed for animals. The optimal feed for dairy goats was 50% TD+25% SMW+25% POS (treatment D).
Research Article
Prebiotic Effect of Inulin Extract from Dahlia Tubers (Dahlia Pinnata L.) On the Growth Performance of Intestinal-origin Lactobacillus Casei AP.
Nur Kusmiyati, Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih and Widodo
Background and Objective: A prebiotic is a non-digestible food component that supports the growth of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract, thus providing beneficial effects to the host. One commercially available prebiotic is inulin, produced from Jerusalem artichokes and chicory. A previous study reported that the inulin from dahlia tubers is of better quality due to the presence of soluble and insoluble fibres. Due to its potential, inulin from dahlia tubers has been increasingly tested for its capability as a prebiotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the prebiotic effects of inulin and inulin extract from dahlia tubers on the viability of Lactobacillus casei AP and representative Enterobacteriaceae and to measure the prebiotic index and production of short-chain fatty acids. Methodology: This study focused on the combined effect of a prebiotic (inulin or inulin extract from dahlia tubers) and a probiotic, L. casei AP, which originated in a human gastrointestinal tract. This combination resulted in the growth suppression of pathogenic bacteria, the growth promotion of the probiotic and a high prebiotic index. The combination of L. casei AP and inulin/inulin extract, which was defined as a synbiotic, was also evaluated for the growth suppression of H. pylori and S. dysenteriae. Results: The L. casei AP had a higher growth rate in the presence of inulin extract or inulin than MRS did. Co-culturing E. coli and L. casei AP in media containing inulin extract suppressed the growth of E. coli and simultaneously resulted in the highest prebiotic index, at 4.70. The synbiotic effect of inulin extract together with L. casei AP was stronger in suppressing the growth of S. dysenteriae than of H. pylori. This inhibition was concomitant with the production of short-chain fatty acids, lactate, propionate, propionate and butyrate, which contributed to lowering the pH in the media. During fermentation, lactate was produced at the highest concentration (33.83-35.53%), followed by acetate (9.83-10.35%), propionate (0.05-0.45%) and butyrate (0.03-0.49%). Conclusion: Inulin extract from dahlia tubers acts very well as a prebiotic by supporting the growth of probiotic L. casei AP and suppressing the growth of the pathogens S. dysenteriae and H. pylori, resulting in a high prebiotic effect.

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