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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
eISSN: 1994-7984
pISSN: 1680-5194

Editor-in-Chief:  Reema Fayez Tayyem
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Research Article
Effect of Dietary Flaxseed Oil on Growth Performance and Serum Lipid Profiles in Broilers
Ali H. Al-Hilali
Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of flaxseed oil supplementation on broiler growth performance and serum lipid profiles. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred broiler chicks (age: 1 day) were randomly allocated to five experimental groups and fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10 g kg–1 flaxseed oil for 35 days. Blood was then sampled from the bronchial vein and the serum was isolated to examine serum lipid profiles. Results: Daily flaxseed oil supplementation decreased body weight gain and feed intake, but increased the feed conversion ratio. Flaxseed oil also decreased total cholesterol, triglyceride and very-low-density (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in serum and increased high-density lipoprotein) HDL (levels. Dietary flaxseed oil treatment significantly reduced the weight gain in broilers. Conclusion: Addition of flaxseed oil in broiler diets reduced weight gain, increased feed conversion ratios and improved serum lipid profiles.
Research Article
Consumption of Traditional Saudi Foods and Their Estimated Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load
M.Q. Al-Mssallem
Background and Objective: The consumption of traditional foods has recently declined worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of traditional Saudi foods and to estimate their glycaemic index and glycaemic load. Materials and Methods: A total of 480 Saudi females (aged 20.0±1.2 year) were recruited for the study. Height, weight and blood pressure were initially measured and body mass index was calculated. Additionally, the glycaemic index and glycaemic load of selected traditional Saudi foods were estimated. Results: The results revealed that the majority of students strongly believed that traditional Saudi foods are very healthy and nutritious, however, the average consumption of them was low. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between body mass index and the consumption of some individual foods, namely, Kabsa with Basmati and Hassawi rice. Results have shown that traditional Saudi foods, on average, had a low glycaemic index and a medium glycaemic load, with values of 55 and 12, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that traditional Saudi foods have a low estimated GI and GL, making them a good choice for losing and maintaining weight.
Research Article
Conjugated Linoleic Acid Synthesis in Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus casei Strain AG
Widodo , Ari Surya Sukarno, Kafaah Estancia, Donny Widianto and Indratiningsih
Background and Objective: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a bioactive compound that can be synthesized by probiotics. The goals of this study were to detect CLA production in milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei strain AG and to measure the transcription levels of CLA synthesis-associated genes. Materials and Methods: CLA in fermented milk was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The predicted homologous of the cla-hy, cla-dh and cla-dc genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification. For CLA analysis, bacterial cultures were grown in media with or without the addition of 0.4 mg mL–1 linoleic acid. Results: Amplification products of the partial cla-hy, cla-dh and cla-dc homologous of the L. casei strain AG were obtained. The addition of linoleic acid did not change the transcription level of these genes compared to the control (p>0.05). Conclusion: Lactobacillus casei strain AG produced CLA in fermented milk but the genes involved in CLA synthesis were not induced by linoleic acid.
Research Article
Dietary Quality and Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women in Sumenep Regency, Madura, Indonesia
Risti Kurnia Dewi, Ali Khomsan, Hadi Riyadi and Rian Diana
Background and Objective: It is important for pregnant women to have a good quality diet since it affects their nutritional status and that of the fetus. The present study analyzed the correlation between dietary quality and nutritional status of pregnant women in Sumenep Regency, Madura Island, Indonesia. Methodology: The present cross-sectional study assessed the nutritional status and the dietary quality of 145 pregnant women aged 18-49 years living in Sumenep Regency. The nutritional status was analyzed based on Gestational Weight Gain (GWG). Alternate Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy (AHEI-P) and Indonesian-adapted AHEI-P was used to analyze the dietary quality. A validity test was conducted on both AHEI-Ps by analyzing the Pearson correlation coefficient. Pearson analysis was also used to analyze correlations between dietary quality and GWG. Results: The result showed 62.15% of subjects had inadequate Gestational Weight Gain (GWG). Validity testing of the adapted AHEI-P showed a higher validity score compared to the unadapted version (0.804 versus 0.783). According to both AHEI-P analyses, the dietary quality of most subjects needed improvement. Subjects whose GWGs were inadequate had the lowest mean score for both AHEI-Ps but no significant correlation (p>0.05) was found between GWG and either AHEI-P. Conclusion: Overall, subjects needed to improve their dietary quality. Although AHEI-P scores increased with improvements in GWG, no significant correlations were found.
Research Article
Glutathione Supplementation Reduces MMP-9 Levels and Infarct Area in Rats Models of Acute Ischemic Stroke
Churriyyatul Anam, Retnaningsih and Nyoman Suci
Background and Objective: Ischemic stroke occurs when blood vessels vascularizing the brain are blocked and unable to receive oxygen or glucose. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of stroke. MMP-9 is known as an early marker related to incidence of stroke. While standard therapy for stroke is unable to repair damaged brain tissues, glutathione (GSH) inhibits oxidative stress activity and reduces excess MMP-9 levels in order to avoid pathological angiogenesis in ischemic stroke. This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of GSH on MMP-9 levels and infarcted areas after acute ischemic stroke compared with standard therapy. Methods: This experimental study used a post-test only control group design. Twenty male Wistar rats were equally divided into 4 groups and orally treated with placebo, 0.72 mg aspirin/100 g body weight, 21.6 mg GSH/100 g body weight or GSH+aspirin for 7 day following induction of ischemic stroke by unilateral cerebral artery occlusion. Serum MMP-9 levels were measured by ELISA and infarct size (area) was measured by cresyl violet staining. Results: Both MMP-9 levels and infarct area were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in all treatment groups versus control group (placebo). GSH+aspirin therapy showed the greatest reductions. Conclusion: Combining GSH and aspirin significantly decreased MMP-9 levels and infarct area after acute ischemic stroke compared to standard therapy alone.
Research Article
Impact of Date-tempeh Biscuit on the Nutritional Status of Stunted and Wasted Toddlers
Background and Objective: The nutritional problems in stunted and wasted toddlers decrease cognitive development and child productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of date-tempeh biscuit consumption on the change in nutritional status of stunted and wasted toddlers. Methodology: A quasi-experimental design was used in a study conducted on 70 toddlers who consumed 50 g of biscuits for 90 days. Weight and height measurement done at pre-post study and bi-weekly. Nutrition education undertaken by research team in collaboration with integrated service post for under-five children cadres bi-weekly. Results: The nutritional status of children under five was stunted (31.4%), wasted (24.3%), normal (24.3%) and stunted-wasted (20%). Mean height per age (H/A) of stunted toddlers was -3.2±1.2, weight per height (W/H) of wasted toddlers was -3.1±1.7 and H/A and W/H of stunted-wasted toddlers were 3.3 for each measure. Wasted toddlers had a mean weight change of 1.9 kg and the highest increase in mean height of wasted toddlers was 2.5 cm. Wasted toddlers had the highest percentage of date-tempeh biscuit consumption (29%). Adherence to the recommendations for date-tempeh biscuit consumption affected the nutritional status of children under five in all groups (p = 0.015). Carbohydrate intake difference was correlated positively with weight changes (r = 0.26, p = 0.03). There was a significant relationship between the difference in fat intake with final weight (r = 0.254, p = 0.034). Conclusion: Date-tempeh biscuits can increase weight and height in wasted, stunted and wasted-stunted toddlers during 3 months of intervention.
Research Article
Water Spraying Prior to Transportation Reduces Transportation Stress and Maintain the Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens
Mohammad Hasil Tamzil, Budi Indarsih and I. Nyoman Sukatha Jaya
Background and Objective: Transportation of broiler chickens triggers the stress responses and reduces the quality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water spraying of broiler chickens prior to transportation on the hematological status and the quality of broiler meat. Methodology: The study was designed with a one-way completely randomized design using 45 female broilers aged 30 days. The broilers were divided into 3 treatment groups and each group consisted of 15 chickens. Treatment I (control) consisted of broilers chickens without water spraying and transportation. Treatment II consisted of broilers chickens without water spraying prior to transportation. Treatment III consisted of broilers chickens that were water sprayed prior to transportation. Experimental broilers chickens in Treatments II and III were transported using an open vehicle from 09.00 am-12.00 pm. Results: Transportation of experimental broilers chickens increased rectal temperature, erythrocyte level, leukocyte level, heterophile percentage and H/L ratio and decreased lymphocyte percentage, decreased meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss and meat tenderness (p<0.01). The water spraying of the broilers chickens shortly prior to transportation resulted in the same hematological status and meat quality as control broilers without water spraying and transportation (p>0.05). Conclusion: Transportation causes the experimental broilers suffer stress and water spraying of the broilers shortly prior to transportation minimizes the stress effect.
Research Article
Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Sunflower Growth and Yield Attributes
Kwizera Chantal, Basil T. Ongor, Denis Bandushubwenge, Ndihokubwayo Soter and Shabani Felix
Background and Objective: Controlled application of Nitrogen fertilizer to the soil improves growth and yield of crops. However crops are sensitive to the amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied. Excessive nitrogen fertilization results in reduced sunflower yield, whereas proper nitrogen application optimizes seed yield and quality. The objective of the current study was to determine the optimum nitrogen level which could effectively improve the sunflower growth parameters and yield attributes in Burundi. Methodology: A field experiment was undertaken in a randomized complete block design using nine treatments of nitrogen different levels viz. T1: NPK (0-0-0), set as control treatment, T2: NPK(30-50-30), T3: NPK(40-50-30), T4: NPK(50-50-30), T5: NPK(60-50-30), T6: NPK(70-50-30), T7: NPK(80-50-30), T8: NPK(90-50-30) and T9: NPK(100-50-30), with three replications for each. Results: The results indicated that treatment T9 i.e., NPK (100-50-30) significantly improved and enhanced sunflower head diameter, plant height, stem girth, total grain yield weight, number of pair leaves, total grains number and full grains number. There was a significant correlation between these parameters, the highest was recorded between full grains number and total grains number (R2 = 0.988) with a p<0.01. Conclusion: The treatment T9 was the most effective treatment in improving sunflower growth parameters and yield attributes.
Research Article
Effects of Total Mixed Rations Containing Treated or Untreated Soybean Meal on the Energy Utilization of Kacang Goats
Kustantinah , I.G.S. Budisatria, Rusman and R. Adiwinarti
Background and Objective: There have been many efforts to improve the low productivity of Kacang goats. Feeding a total mixed ration (TMR) containing sources of energy and protein could improve the performance of the goat. Soybean meal is one of the protein sources that are palatable but highly degradable in the rumen, therefore, it was treated with formaldehyde. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy utilization, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and acetate-propionate acid (A/P) ratio of Kacang goats fed TMR diets containing different treatments of soybean meal. Methodology: Fourteen yearling Kacang bucks, weighing 17.6±1.2 kg, were arranged in a completely randomized design consisting of 3 different treatments that included an SBM control (n = 5): Untreated SBM, SBM50 (n = 5): 50% untreated SBM+50% formaldehyde-protected SBM and SBM100 (n = 4): 100% formaldehyde-protected SBM. The TMR consisted of 30% Pennisetum purpureum, 30% gliricidia leaves, 19.2% cassava waste product, 13.8% wheat bran, 7% SBM and 1% mineral mix that were mixed and resulted in 14-15% crude protein and 56-60% TDN. The goats were weighed weekly over 70 days and the average daily gain (ADG) was calculated using linear regression. Data were analyzed by an analysis of variance using the SPSS statistics software version 19. Results: The energy intake and digestible energy (DE) of the SBM control group (13.0 MJ and 7.7 MJ, respectively) were higher than those of the SBM50 group (10.2 MJ and 5.8 MJ, respectively) but they were relatively similar to the SBM100 group (11.3 MJ and 6.7 MJ, respectively). The energy conversion ratio (energy intake, DE and metabolizable energy [ME]) also had the same pattern. Digestible energy (% energy intake), faecal production, urine production, methane energy loss (MJ) and ME were similar between the treatments. Intake, digested and metabolizable energy (MJ kg–1 BW0.75) were also the same between the treatments. Total VFA and the A/P ratio before feeding were also similar between the treatments. In fact, the A/P ratio of the SBM control at 3 h and 6 h was higher than that of SBM50 but it was relatively similar to SBM100. Conclusion: Energy utilization of untreated SBM was better than that of 50% formaldehyde-protected SBM but it was similar to that of SBM100. The control group had an A/P ratio that was higher than the SBM50 group. In fact, total VFA was similar between the treatments.
Research Article
Use of Fiber Cracking Technology to Improve the Nutritive Quality of Corn and Sugarcane By-products for Ruminant Feeds
Sari P. Dewi, Muhammad Ridla, Erika B. Laconi and Anuraga Jayanegara
Background and Objective: Both corn and sugarcane by-products have high fiber content but low nutritive quality, which leads to decreased livestock productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the use of fiber cracking technology (FCT) to improve the nutritive quality of corn and sugarcane by-products. Feeds used in this experiment included corn straw, corn husks, corn cobs, sugarcane tops and bagasse. Materials and Methods: The feeds were combined with 5% urea and added to the FCT operated at a temperature of 135°C and a pressure of 2.30 atm for 2.5 h. The treatments tested in this study included the following: T1 (untreated corn straw), T2 (corn straw+FCT+5% urea), T3 (untreated corn husk), T4 (corn husk+FCT+5% urea), T5 (untreated corn cob), T6 (corn cob+FCT+5% urea), T7 (untreated sugarcane top), T8 (sugarcane top+FCT+5% urea), T9 (untreated bagasse) and T10 (bagasse+FCT+5% urea), with each one replicated 4 times. A Van Soest analysis was performed to determine the fiber fraction and in vitro analysis was used to measure the digestibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to confirm the decrease in the fiber fraction in the samples. Results: The FCT+5% urea treatment decreased the fiber fraction (NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin) content of corn and sugarcane by-products. Through SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis, it was shown that the FCT+5% urea treatment destroyed the cell wall structure, decreased the cellulose crystallinity index and broke down the fiber fraction bonds. In addition, the treatment generally increased the IVDMD, IVOMD and ruminal ammonia concentration (p<0.05), decreased the propionate proportion (p<0.05) and elevated the methane emission and the ratio of acetate to propionate (p<0.05). However, the treatment did not affect the acetate, butyrate, valerate or total VFA concentrations. Conclusion: The combination of FCT+urea treatment can effectively improve the quality of corn and sugarcane by-products.
Research Article
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Levels Regarding Anaemia Among Pregnant Women in Putrajaya, Malaysia
Siti Nur` Hidayah Adznam, Razalee Sedek and Zalifah Mohd Kasim
Objective: This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice levels regarding anaemia among pregnant women in Putrajaya. This study was also conducted to identify the associations between knowledge, attitude and practice and socio-demographic and antenatal characteristics. Methodology: A total of 370 pregnant women participated in this study. Socio-demographic information and antenatal characteristics and knowledge, attitude and practice in relation to anaemia were collected using questionnaires. The Sysmex Haematology Analyser was used to measure the Full Blood Count (FBC). Results: The mean age and haemoglobin level of respondents were 30.2±4.2 years of age and 12.1±4.8 g dL–1, respectively. The median for the total knowledge score was 84.2 and the mean score for attitude and practice were 72.4±6.7 and 69.9±13.1, respectively. The subjects’ knowledge score was higher among the group of second trimester (p<0.05), the number of children three or more (p<0.01) and a pregnancy distance of one to two years (p<0.001). The attitude score was higher among the working subjects (p<0.05) but there was no significant difference in practice scores according to sociodemographic and antenatal characteristics (p>0.05). Knowledge had a moderate and significant relationship with attitude (r = 0.317, p<0.01) but no significant relationship with practice. Meanwhile, attitude had a significant positive and moderate relationship with practice (r = 0.330, p<0.01). Conclusion: Positive attitude regarding anaemia influences the high level of knowledge and good practice concerning this condition. Increasing the level of awareness of anaemia among pregnant women is seen as an important step in improving knowledge, attitude and practice levels regarding anaemia.
Research Article
Effects of Complex Carbohydrate from White Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis L. DC.) Flour after Autoclaving-Cooling Cycles on Short Chain Fatty Acids, Digesta Cholesterol Content and Bile Acid Binding in Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Atina Rahmawati, Agnes Murdiati, Yustinus Marsono and Sri Anggrahini
Background and Objective: Complex carbohydrate is a mixture of dietary fibre and starch present in food. The maximum complex carbohydrate content of white jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) can be achieved by treating white jack bean with three autoclaving-cooling cycles. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of complex carbohydrate from white jack bean following autoclaving-cooling on hypercholesterolemic rats and to assess its bile acid binding ability (in vitro). Methodology: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 6 groups: K1, a healthy control group; K2, a negative control group (hypercholesterol); K3, a positive control group (simvastatin); K4, a group administered a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour (5%), K5: a group administered a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling (5%) and K6, a group administered a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling (10%). The intervention lasted 4 weeks. The parameters observed were body weight, lipid profile, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile, digesta cholesterol and bile acid binding ability (in vitro). Results: The hypercholesterolemic rats of the K6 group, which were fed a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling, exhibited maintained body weight and an improved lipid profile equivalent to those of the K3 positive control group (simvastatin). The rats of the K6 group could produce SCFAs with an acetic:propionic:butyric molar ratio of 50:39:11. The complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling was able to bind 17.54% of the cholic acid and 32.43% of the deoxycholic acid. The K6 group was able to bind 100.36 mg/100 g digesta cholesterol. Conclusion: The K6 group achieved the best results in terms of maintaining the body weight and improving the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats to levels equivalent to those of the K3 positive control group (simvastatin). The K6 group also exhibited an improved SCFA molar ratio with the ability to bind bile acids (in vitro) and digesta cholesterol.
Research Article
Influence of Environmental Factors on the Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Well and Borehole Water in Rural Communities of Udenu Lga of Enugu State, Nigeria
Obeta Michael Chukwuma and Mamah Kingsley Ifeanyichukwu
Background and Objective: The influence of environmental factors on well and borehole water quality in rural communities in Nigeria was investigated in this study. The objectives were to characterize/contrast the pollutants, determine the influence of environmental factors on the water quality and highlight the health implications of the findings. Methodology: Water samples were collected from ten boreholes and ten hand-dug wells in ten rural communities. Fifteen physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters including: pH, Temperature, Electrical conductivity, Turbidity, Nitrate, Iron, Total dissolved solids, Sulphate, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, Total coliform count and E. coli were analyzed. Results: The results of the analysis were reported based on the WHO standard. The analysis showed borehole samples exhibit higher concentration of natural pollutants while well samples exhibit higher concentration of anthropogenic pollutants. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reduced the fourteen environmental variables influencing the water quality to five underlining components which explained 84.5% of the data matrix leaving 15.5% to other variables not used in the study. The extracted components included extent of source water protection, mineral properties of rocks and influence of vegetal cover. Conclusion: It is concluded that to avoid contamination, regulatory authorities should closely monitor well/borehole development in the area.
Research Article
Fatty acids and Macroelements of Moringa (M. peregrina and M. oleifera) Seed Oils
F.A. Al-Ghamdi
Background and Objective: Recent years have shown increased interest in cultivating Moringa and producing its oil in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to determine the fatty acids and macroelements in oils from two species of Moringa [M. peregrina (MP) and M. oleifera (MO)] seeds. Methodology: MP oils were extracted using solvent- and pressing-based methods and MO oils were extracted using a solvent-based method. The fatty acid composition and macroelement contents in the oil samples were determined through gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Results: The approximate chemical composition of Moringa seeds showed that the MP seeds exhibited a higher oil content (49.19%) than the MO seeds (33.69%), whereas the MO seeds had significantly higher contents of protein (37.78%), fiber (5.10%) and ash (3.69%) than the MP seeds (27.67, 4.86 and 2.56%, respectively). The dominant fatty acids in Moringa oils were saturated palmitic acid and monounsaturated oleic acid, which were present in content ranges of 8.99-78.05% and 9.86-77.33% in the solvent- and press-extracted MP oils, respectively. These amounts were considered significantly higher than the amounts found in solvent-extracted MO oil (6.18-74.87%), which has significantly higher potassium and magnesium contents (36.67 and 5.86 ppm) than solvent-extracted MP oil (9.07 and 0.95 ppm) and the determined macroelements were found at undetectable levels in the press-extracted MP oils. Conclusion: This study spotlights the possibility of producing edible oil from local Moringa seeds that contains a high monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) content and satisfactory concentrations of potassium and magnesium and can thus be used in different applications.

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