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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

Editor-in-Chief:  Hakan Ulukan
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Research Article
Non-traditional Oils Encapsulation as Novel Food Additive Enhanced Yogurt Safety Against Aflatoxins
Ahmed Noah Badr, Marwa M. El-Said, Tamer M. El-Messery and Adel G. Abdel-Razek
Background and Objective: Hibiscus oil (HO) and black cumin oil (BCO) are interesting oils which give a source for photochemical. Yogurt recognized for health benefits, but mycotoxin is a food problem. The aim was adjusting non-traditional capsulated oils for minimizing mycotoxins in food products and biological systems. Materials and Methods: Oils fatty acid composition were evaluated. Micro and nano-emulsion designed to achieve food safety and shelf-life extension. Encapsulated emulsions evaluated by in vitro and in vivo models for several aflatoxins reduction through yogurt fortification model, for in vivo model reduction estimated as enhancement of rat’s blood biochemical parameters. Concerning the in vitro model, changes of fortified yogurt properties were estimated. Results: Linoleic followed by oleic acid showed a high content in these oils representing omega fatty acids. Gamma fractions presented in considerable values (>50% of vitamin E). To evaluate encapsulated oils reduction on aflatoxins (AFs), it was estimated for in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) recorded 31.6 and 34.9%, respectively in plain yogurt. However, yogurt fortification by oil-capsules upgraded the ratio for AFB1 (63.9%) and AFM1 (66.4%). The best reduction recorded using BCO fortification. For in vivo study, supplementation of rat’s diet by BCO micro-capsule declared an enhancement of biochemical parameters against aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) effects. Fortified yogurt offered enhancement of viscosity and water holding capacity properties. Conclusion: Encapsulated emulsions recorded high AFs reduction in fortified yogurt and experimental rat’s model. Yogurt fortification enhanced its quality characteristics and shelf-life that give a recommendation for the application.
Research Article
Association of Fibrinogen Receptor (Integrin αIIbβ3) Polymorphism in Sudanese Ischemic Stroke Patients
Lamyaa Ali Elsidege Ali, Fathalrahman Mahdi Hassan and Salah Eldin Gumaah Elzaki
Background and Objective: The fibrinogen receptor the human platelet antigen (HPA1 and HPA3) have an essential role in Atherothrombosis. This study aimed to detect the association of αIIbβ3 polymorphism with ischemic stroke in Sudanese patients and its association with the common risk factors. Methodology: This is a case-control study. Fifty atherosclerotic with ischemic stroke Sudanese patients were included in present study and were compared to apparently 50 healthy Sudanese subjects at the same ages. The ages of both groups were >18 years. About 5 mL of venous blood sample was taken from each patient and control. The laboratory analyses were done for HbA1c, lipid profile and DNA genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by FokI and ScrFI digestion. Results: The result showed that, the risk factors (TRI.G, HDL, HbA1C, and body mass index were associated with the increased risk of ischemic stroke). None of the cholesterol levels and LDL increased the risk of stroke. The risk of ischemic stroke was higher with B/B genotype in HPA3 (p-value 0.009) and A/B genotype in HPA1 (p-value 0.041) and HPA1 (p-value 0.041). Conclusion: The αIIbβ3 polymorphism were with ischemic stroke in Sudanese patients.
Research Article
Effect of Caraway, Fennel and Melissa addition on in vitro Rumen Fermentation and Gas Production
H.A.F. Rahmy, H.M. El Bana, N.E. El-Bordeny, Adel E.M. Mahmoud and Wafaa M.A. Ghoneem
Background and Objective: Medicinal herbs and aromatic plants could be used to manipulate rumen fermentation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding herbal and aromatic plants at 1, 3, 5, 7% of total ratio DM supplementation of the incubation media of an in vitro rumen model. Materials and Methods: About 400±4 mg of feed sample (roughage and concentrate ratio of 45:55%) with each level, weighted into 125 mL glass bottles (6 bottles for each treatment), rumen fluid injected into these bottles and incubated at 39°C, after 24 h incubation digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), total gas production (TG) and metabolic energy (ME) were studied. Results: The differences among plants, added at different levels, were significant. Significant differences were also observed between highest level added compared with control in ammonia (NH3) and volatile fatty acids (VFA), IVDMD and IVOMD compared with control. Total gas (TG) was significantly higher at level 7%, especially with added Melissa compared with other plants. Metabolic energy (ME), was significantly higher in all treatments compared with control. Conclusion: It may be concluded that addition of different medicinal and aromatic herbal plants Caraway (Carum carvi), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Melissa (Melissa officinali)), especially at highest levels tested has a great potential in manipulating rumen fermentation, which may be of benefit when applied in ruminant nutrition.
Research Article
Evaluation of Anti-microbial Activity of Ex vitro and Callus Extracts from Commiphora gileadensis
Omar Mahmoud Al Zoubi
Background and Objective: Commiphora gileadensis a medicinal plant rare species. A large amount of plant materials were needed to produce secondary metabolite under in vitro culture. Therefore, callus is used in the in vitro culture, since it can proliferate quickly and continuously provide an appropriate amount of plant which used for extracting the antimicrobial compounds from C. gileadensis. Materials and Methods: Rapid protocol for optimum callus production has been assessed to overcome limitations of the conventional propagation methods. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration of C. gileadensis was investigated for callus induction experiment using a standard MS medium with various concentrations of 6-Benzyl adenine (BA), Kinetin (Kn), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0,1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg L1. Results: The result showed that the maximum regeneration of callus induced the fresh and dry weight were obtained 5675±1321 and 376.7±56.9 mg, respectively on MS media containing 2 mg L1 2,4D + 0.5 mg L1 BA after 12 weeks. The anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities of C. gileadensis were evaluated using the callus and ex vitro extracts, six bacterial species fungal genera were used the agar well diffusion method used of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μL methanolic or ethonlic extracts of ex vitro and callus had considerable inhibition effects on the tested bacteria and fungi. Conclusion: Callus culture technique may be an important tool to get the C. gileadensis quickly as compared to the natural growth phenomenon where it takes many years. Moreover, it’s give us an opportunity to get the active constituent without destroying the plant available in nature. The results of the present study can improve our understanding of the economic importance of C. gileadensis as activity ingredient antimicrobial agent and provided methods for its preparation.

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