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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

Editor-in-Chief:  Hakan Ulukan
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Research Article
Published on September 18, 2019
The Combined Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency and Hyperparathyroidism on Postural Stability among Healthy Adult Males
Osama A. Kensara, Omar F. Helal, Ehab M. Abd El-Kafy, Khloud J. Ghafouri, Mazen M. Ghaith, Fatmah J. Alsolami, Alaa H. Qadhi, Hamed R. Takruri, Abdelelah S. Jazar, Mohammed O. Ibrahim, Awfa Y. Alazzeh and Firas S. Azzeh
Background and Objective: Vitamin D has been shown to improve muscle strength and bone health; consequently, be important for maintaining good balance. Possible risk factors related to postural stability in young adults still underdetermined. However, this study was designed to determine the effect of vitamin D status on postural stability. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 704 healthy young adult males were enrolled in this study. Dynamic balance was measured as overall stability index (OSI) using biodex balance system (BBS). Vitamin D deficiency was defined when its serum level <20 ng mL1. The effect size was measured for vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the interaction between vitamin D and PTH (VTD*PTH) with respect to the OSI values. Correlations between variables were examined according to the beta standardised coefficient (β) and the effect size was measured using the partial eta-squared (η2) test. Results: About 95, 3.8 and 1.2% of individuals had deficient, insufficient and normal vitamin D levels, respectively. Vitamin D had no significant effect to OSI, but PTH exhibited a significant correlation with OSI (adjusted β = 0.095, p = 0.038). A significant effect size was observed between OSI and PTH (adjusted partial η2 = 0.012, p = 0.038) and between OSI and VTD*PTH (adjusted partial η2 = 0.034, p<0.001). Conclusion: A significant interaction of vitamin D deficiency and high PTH on postural stability is detected among healthy adult males.
Research Article
Published on September 20, 2019
Effect of Proline on Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider under Salinity Stress
Saqer Alotaibi, Esmat Ali, Hadeer Darwesh, Abo-Taleb Ahmed and Emad Al-Thubaiti
Background and Objective: Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider grows as an important economic and medical plant in deserts. It suffers from salt stress during the first period of growth despite having to endure it after an advanced age. More than 30% of irrigated lands worldwide are destructively impacted by salt stress, which enormously influences the growth and productivity of several crops worldwide. Proline (Pro) aggregation has been correlated with salt tolerance. This treatise was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pro on the negative effects of salinity. Materials and Methods: In this experiment, sodium chloride (NaCl) (5 and 10 dS m1) and Pro treatments (10 and 20 mM) were examined and then growth parameters, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll and inorganic ion contents of jojoba plant were determined. Results: Salt stress significantly minimized the growth parameters (i.e., plant height, branch number/plant, leaf number/plant and dry weight), RWC, chlorophyll and N+ and K+ contents, whereas Na+ and Cl contents showed the opposite manner. Conclusion: Contrariwise, when Pro was applied at 10 and 20 mM, the adverse effects of salt stress on the previous parameters were mitigated; 20 mM Pro treatment showed superior effects compared with 10 mM treatment.

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