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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

Editor-in-Chief:  Hakan Ulukan
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Research Article
Morpho-physiological Changes of Biodiesel Producer Plants Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) in Response to Gold-Mining Wastewater
Hamim Hamim, Muhammad Hilmi, Dibyo Pranowo, Deden Saprudin and Luluk Setyaningsih
Background and Objective: Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) is a non-edible biodiesel producer plant that has a good prospect due to the higher seed production capacity and oil content. In addition, it also able to grow well under unfavourable environment. The study aimed to analyze the response of Reutealis trisperma (R. trisperma) to gold mined wastewater. Materials and Methods: Five varieties of R. trisperma i.e., Kemiri Minyak-1 (KM1), Kemiri Minyak-2 (KM2), Kermindo-1 (KD1), Kermindo-2 (KD2) and Harapan (HR) grown in water culture, were treated with wastewater from gold mining industry with concentration of 0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mL for 2 weeks. Shoot and root growth, anatomy as well as some physiological characters were analyzed during the treatment. Results: Wastewater treatments for 14 days caused decrease of shoot growth and induced leaf yellowing of the plants. The treatments caused increase in malondialdehyde content up to 4 fold, while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll of the plants decreased significantly. TEM analysis indicated that the root cell of plants exposed to highest concentration of wastewater started to degenerate and had higher number of mitochondria and peroxisome vesicles suggesting that the cellular respiration and anti-oxidative mechanism presumably became more active due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: Gold mine wastewater treatment caused all the plants to undergo stress characterized by the increase of malondialdehyde and the decrease of chlorophyll content and leaf growth of R. trisperma, even though there was variation among the varieties. KM2 and KD2 had the best performance among all varieties in response to gold-mine wastewater.
Research Article
Effect of pH and Temperature on Bacillus subtilis FNCC 0059 Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity
Theresia Nur Indah Koni, Rusman , Chusnul Hanim and Zuprizal
Background and Objective: Bacillus subtilis is a bacterium that can produce the oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme. This enzyme decomposes oxalate. ODC enzyme activity is influenced by temperature and pH. This study was conducted to determine the optimum pH and temperature for ODC enzyme activity in B. subtilis FNCC 0059. Materials and Methods: B. subtilis was cultivated in oxalate medium at different incubation temperatures for 24 h. The tested temperatures were 25, 29, 33, 37, 41 and 45°C. In separate experiments, cultures were grown in oxalate medium at varying pH from 4-8.5. The cell growth assay and enzyme activity were performed and all the experiments were done with 3 replicates. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The optimum temperature of 37°C could produce maximum ODC enzyme activity (0.041 U mL–1) enzyme activity increased to the point of the optimum pH and then decreased 5.6% when the pH was increased 0.5 from the optimum. Maximum ODC enzyme activity (0.0413 U mL–1) was achieved at pH 5.5. Conclusion: Temperature and the pH of the medium affected ODC enzyme activity. Optimum medium condition of B. subtilis was reached at 37°C and pH 5.5.
Research Article
Glutathione-S-transferase, Superoxide Dismutase (GST, SOD) Levels, Protein Content and Lipid Peroxidation in Schizothorax plagiostomus under the Infection of Pomphorhynchus in Nallah Sukhnag of Kashmir Valley
Shafaquat Nabi, Syed Tanveer and Showkat Ahmad Ganie
Background and Objective: Presence of parasites in fishes has been reported to severely damage the status of antioxidants in them. Among helminth parasites, Pomphorhyncus an acanthocephalan parasite is commonly found in Schizothorax fish of Kashmir and is causing a considerable damage to fish health. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant status in muscle, intestine and liver tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus parasitized by Pomphorhyncus. Materials and Methods: For this, 9 fish specimens collected from Nallah Sukhnag (Budgam) were found to be infected only with Pomphorhyncus, an acanthocephalan parasite. Fishes having the infection of Pomphorhynchus and the same number of uninfected ones were then analyzed for enzymatic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation and protein content was also assayed for both infected and uninfected fishes. Statistically the whole data were represented as mean and standard deviation. Results: Results showed the reduction of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein content while increase in lipid peroxidation in infected muscle, intestine and liver tissues as compared to respective organs of the uninfected fishes. Conclusion: This study concluded that parasitic infections induce oxidative stress.
Research Article
Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers for Genetic Characterization of North Sulawesi Local Rice Varieties, Super Win and Burungan
Marjam Magdalena Toding, Trina Ekawati Tallei and Dwinita Wikan Utami
Background and Objective: The genetic character of North Sulawesi’s local rice cultivated by local communities has not been extensively explored. Genetic character can be used as tool for rice varieties identification to complement the morphological characters. This study aimed at developing genetic character of North Sulawesi’s local rice varieties Burungan and Super Win using SSR and SNP molecular markers. Materials and Methods: Two local North Sulawesi varieties of rice from Bolaang Mongondow Regency, namely Super Win (Tropical Japonica) and Burungan (Japonica), were used. Control varieties included in this research were IR64 (Indica), Nipponbare (Japonica), Super Win Aromatik (Tropical Japonica) and Leukat Hitam (Tropical Japonica). The significant markers associated with agro-morphological characters were used, such as flowering date, panicle length, flag leaf corner, leaf length, panicle branches and the number of productive tillers. The SSR and SNP 384-chip which are mapped in the entire rice genome were employed. Results: The study showed that Burungan has alleles’ size range 108.7-148.8 with a mean size of alleles 118.97. The frequency of this allele is 33.33%. Alleles’ size range of Super Win is 109.2-148.8 with a mean size of alleles 119.50. The frequency of this allele is 22.22%. This diversity variation of allele size cannot be used as a genetic identifier for both varieties. The genetic distance between Burungan and Super Win varieties was quite high (0.461). It was due to they came from different sub species, Burungan was from Japonica while Super Win was from Tropical Japonica. Conclusion: Burungan and Super Win varieties are not a local rice of North Sulawesi.
Research Article
Effect of Different Hormonal Treatment on Stevia (rebaudiana Bertoni) Micro-propagation
Ali Haji Mohammadi, Reza Zarghami, Ali Kashani, Hossein Heydari Sharifabad and Ghorban Nour Mohammadi
Background and Objective: Stevia micro propagation method is an extensive and highly potential in vitro method use to accelerate plant propagation in compare to the other propagation methods. This study tried to examine the effect of different hormonal combinations for shoot and root development of stevia plant. Materials and Methods: In order to identify the best hormonal combination of establishment culture, three different media (MS1, MS2 and MS3) combine with three separate hormonal combinations for each were tested. For the proliferation and rooting culture, a media (MS2) combined with different hormonal combinations with different levels were tested. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with eight replicates in establishment experiment and factorial in base of completely randomized design with four replicates in proliferation and rooting experiment. Data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance using SAS. Results: The mean comparison data showed the lowest amount of kinetin and IBA added in selected medium from establishment phase (MS2) was more effective in proliferation traits. The highest number of lateral branches was observed in the IBA 0.25 mg L–1 (3.96) and kinetin 1 mg L–1 (3.91). The mean comparison of naphthalene acetic acid and IBA treatments in rooting study confirmed that the control treatment (no added NAA and IBA) had the maximum effect on the traits studied. The longest root length (1.68 cm) was observed in the control treatment culture. Conclusion: The Stevia (rebaudiana Bertoni) in vitro culture under effect of hormonal treatments showed a significant improvement on proliferation and rooting rate.
Research Article
Community Ecology of Metazoan Parasites in Two Species of Mystus from River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India
Anu Prasanna Vankara and Vijayalakshmi Chikkam
Background and Objective: Fishes of the genus Mystus are the members of Bagridae family which occupy an important place in Godavari fishery. Two commonly available species, Mystus vittatus Bloch, 1800 and Mystus cavasius Hamilton, 1822 of River Godavari, Rajahmundry Andhra Pradesh serve as significant hosts for metazoa\n parasites. The present study was aimed to ascertain the population dynamics, community characteristics and the faunal similarity of the two bagridae fishes, Mystus vittatus (n = 116) and Mystus cavasius (n = 94) at both infra and component community level during the 2008-2009. Materials and Methods: Standard statistical analyses were conducted to study the parasitic communities of both the fishes. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient was used to observe the faunal similarity of both the fishes. Various parameters such as Shannon-wiener index (H'), evenness (E) and Simpson’s diversity indices were applied to the fully sampled metazoan infracommunities of both fishes. Mean-variance ratio described the distribution patterns of the parasites within the host. The correlation coefficient (R) explained the correlation between the standard length of host and parasitic abundance for all parasites. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to both the fishes to observe the influence of host sex on the overall parasitic abundance. Jaccard’s interspecific association was used to find out the interspecific association between each pair of parasite species within a same host. Results: A total of nine metazoan parasites were obtained from both the fishes during the research study. The present investigation includes five species, i.e., Haplorchoides macrones, Bifurcohaptor indicus, Thaparocleidus tengra, Raosentis podderi and Raosentis thapari that are common to both the species. On the other hand, Metacercaria Isoparorchis hypselobagri, Raosentis godavarensis and Argulus striatus occurred specifically in Mystus vittatus and Lamproglena hospetensis occur exclusively from Mystus cavasius. There were no core and secondary species in the parasitic communities of both the fishes. Host length and rate of parasitisation showed very less correlation. There was no influence of sex on the parasitisation. Over-dispersed distribution is the generalized pattern of distribution of macroparasites and all the parasites showed over-dispersed distribution patterns except Argulus striatus, which displayed a random distribution pattern. The higher JI values indicate that there is very less competition among species as they occupy different niches within the same host. Conclusion: Though, the faunal similarity of both the fishes was high but the parasitic communities of these fishes are less diverse, depauperate and non-interactive.

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