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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

Editor-in-Chief:  Hakan Ulukan
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Research Article
Synergistic Effect of the Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Solenostemon monostachyus on Gram-negative Bacteria
Ikpesu Thomas Ohwofasa and Juliana Okwena Pondei
Background and Objectives: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of infections ailments because most of the synthetic drugs have side effects. A large proportion of the developing countries populations depend on herbal remedy for their physical and psychological health needs depend. Hence, the anti-bacterial activity of the mixture of the extracts of Solenostemon monostachyus and Vernonia amygdalina, common medicinal plants use in Africa, Asia and Europe on some Gram-negative bacteria was investigated. Materials and Methods: The plants that were cultivated in a well-drained soil and the bacteria, Salmonella typhii, Escherichi coli and Enterobacter aerogenes freshly isolated from clinical samples were used for this study. The plant leaves were grounded separately into a powder and analyzed quantitatively for phytochemical composition and extracted using acetone. Similarly, equal volume of the two plants was homogenized. The sensitivity of the bacteria isolates was performed using disk diffusion method and the antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameter zones of inhibition and for the sensitive measurement (inhibitory zones >20) and resistant measurement (inhibitory zones <17). Results: Analysis of the plants revealed their phytochemical composition. The plant’s extracts had high diameter zones of inhibition at the higher concentrations and the concoction treatment was more sensitive. In V. amygdalina, the zone of inhibition varied significantly between S. typhi and E. aerogenes (p<0.05, F = 7.2) and between E. coli and E. aerogenes (p<0.05, F = 6.7), while in S. monostachyus, it varid significantly between S. typhi and E. coli (p<0.05, F = 9.2) and between E. coli and E. aerogenes (p<0.05, F = 5.8). Conclusion: These plants were readily available at no cost therefore, they could be exploited to provide novel compounds that may be used as starting materials for the production of drug that can obliterate resistance bacteria.
Research Article
Protocol of in vitro Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) Callus Induction
Wael Fathy Shehata, Mohei El-Din Solliman Mohamed, Heba Allah Adel Mohasseb, Abdullatif Ali Al-Khateeb, Mohammed Ibrahim Aldaej and Saleh Mobarak Alturki
Background and Objectives: Presently, determination of optimum protocol for callus induction of any plant is an important issue in tissue culture technology. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to find out an optimum protocol for callus induction from in vitro cultured jojoba by determining the optimum explant and the best growth regulators mixture for callus induction. Materials and Methods: The study used three variant explants namely the leaf disks, seeds and nodal segments for callus formation. Different culture media containing basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium components supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid as an auxin (2,4-D) and Kinetin (Kin) as a cytokinin with various concentrations ranging from 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L1 were used. The total number of treatments were 16. The callus was induced from all explants on MS medium containing the lowest concentration of 2,4-D 0.5 mg L1 with any concentration of Kin. Results: The results showed that nodal segments were the best for callus formation followed by the leaf disks (leaves) and seeds, respectively. While, the best concentration of proliferation and development of the used explant was 2.00 followed in descending order by 1.00, 0.5 and 0.0 mg L1, respectively. Conclusion: The study find out that the best concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid as an auxin (2,4-D) and Kinetin (Kin) as a cytokinin was 2.00 followed in descending order by 1.00, 0.5 and 0.0 mg L1, respectively for callus induction.
Research Article
Estrus Detection Through Vaginal pH in Saanen Etawah Crossbreed Goats
Diah Tri Widayati, Pradita Iustitia Sitaresmi, Sigit Bintara and Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto
Background and Objective: In goats, weak estrus behavior is potentially caused by a decline in reproductive efficiency. In the present study, aim was to measure the vaginal pH to determine the accuracy of lust detection in Saanen Etawah crossbreed goats. Materials and Methods: Thirteen Saanen Etawah crossbred does (Capra hircus) with body condition score of 2-3 were used. The dose were fed concentrate, provided forage and water ad libitum. The experiment was conducted during the natural estrous cycle. Vaginal smears were collected from each dose every day over a 60 days period to determine the time of each phase of the estrous cycle. The vaginal pH was measured using pH indicator paper; simultaneously, the blood was sampled from the caudal vein into anticoagulant-coated tubes following estrous cycle, covering estrus (E/day-0), metestrus (M/day-3), diestrus (D/day-12) and proestrus (P/day-15). The concentration of plasma estrogen and cortisol was determined by solid phase competitive enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay and the correlation between vaginal pH with each phase of estrous cycle and estrogen level was found. Results: The changes in vaginal pH were confirmed with estrogen and cortisol profile at each estrous phase. The highest vaginal pH and estrogen content were found during estrus, whereas, the lowest vaginal pH and estrogen content was found during diestrus. Furthermore, the cortisol level was significantly different in each phase of the estrous cycle; the highest level of cortisol was observed during proestrus. Conclusion: The correlation between vaginal pH and estrous phase indicates that the vaginal pH can be a useful parameter for estrus detection.
Research Article
Physiological and Biochemical Response of Winter Triticale Crowns at Different Soil Moisture Levels
Anatolii Pomortsev, Nikolay Dorofeev, Lada Sokolova, Svetlana Zorina and Natalia Katysheva
Background and Objective: The spring growth of winter cereals depends on the viability of the crowns as it is the key organ of the spring renewal of leaves, stems and roots. After the plants out of wintering, the impact of stressful conditions in the spring period negatively affects the viability of the crowns of winter cereals. The study was aimed at studying the physiological and biochemical reactions of the crowns of winter triticale, depending on the moisture level of the soil after wintering. Materials and Methods: The physiological and biochemical reaction of crowns of winter triticale to the change of the soil moisture-30, 60, 90 of the field capacity (FC) was studied under the controlled conditions of the vegetation experience. The viability of crowns winter triticale, water content, free proline, water-soluble carbohydrates and the qualitative composition of dehydrins were investigated. Results: Plant survival and steady water content during the first 10 days is associated with an increase in the concentration of free proline, high content of water-soluble carbohydrates and dehydrins in crowns, regardless of the soil moisture level. At later stages of spring growth resumption (20 and 30 days), a decrease in carbohydrates, dehydrins and proline was noted in the crowns of winter triticale at all the studied levels of soil moisture. These substances are likely playing an important role in the osmotic regulation and protection of the components of the cells of crowns at the initial stage (10 days) of the plants growth resumption. Conclusion: The higher content of proline and the low water content of the tissues of crowns were noted in plants in the variant with a lack of moisture. Water deficiency in the period of growth resumption after wintering has a negative effect on the survival of plants.
Research Article
Production of Healthy Functional Soft White Cheese Using Moringa oleifera Oil
Fatma A.M. Hassan, K.E. Ali, Mona A.M. Abd, El-Gawad , N.S. Abd Rabou, Hoda S. El-Sayed and Aboelfetoh M. Abdalla
Background and Objective: Moringa oleifera oil is composed of highly unsaturated fatty acids containing 80.4% polyunsaturated, mainly oleic acids 67.9% and had a low acid value and low free fatty acids composition, so it is acceptable for edible application. The objective of study was the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera oil in manufacture of cheese compared with other oils (olive, sun flower) and the effect of using Moringa oleifera oil in chemically; organoleptically and microbial content in cheese. Materials and Methods: Fat was mechanically separated from buffalo's milk to reach 3% fat. Then the resultant milk divided into four portions. First let as control, then, the rest milk divided into three portions and fat substituted with 1, 1.5 and 3% of olive, moringa and sunflower oils. The resultant milk manufactured to soft white cheese and the resultant cheese was analyzed chemically, microbiologically and organoleptically. Results: Findings showed that 1.5% of different oils are best ratio and had gained highest scores for appearance, body and texture and flavor. The soft white cheese manufactured by Moringa oleifera oil was a best treatment than control and other treatments and has antimicrobial properties. Acidity, fat, total nitrogen, soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) increased during cold storage at 5°C+1 for 3 weeks cheese with Moringa oleifera oil had lower (PV) peroxide value than other treatments and pH took an opposite trend. Conclusion: It was concluded that Moringa oleifera oil in soft cheese improved body and texture, flavor, than olive and sunflower oils and also increased the shelf life of cheese.
Research Article
Formulation and Evaluation of Functional Cookies for Improving Health of Primary School Children
Ahmed M.S. Hussein, Mona M. Hussein, Manal F. Salama, Ibrahim M. Hamed, Karem Aly Fouda and Rasha S. Mohamed
Background and Objective: School children especially in Egypt need a safe meal which is able to meet their daily nutrient needs and ameliorate cognition. So, the current study aimed to evaluate formula prepared as cookies to be served as a meal for primary school children. Materials and Methods: Wheat, roasted chickpea, milk protein concentrate, cinnamon and brewer's yeast were used to prepare cookies which have been exposed to sensory, chemical and biological evaluation. Peroxide number, amino acids, vitamins (D, B12, folic acid and E) and minerals (calcium, zinc, iron and selenium) were determined. Twenty four rats of weaning age were used, 12 rats to estimate the true protein digestibility and 12 rats to estimate the protein efficiency ratio and the effect of feeding on cookies (28 days) on hemoglobin, glucose, total protein, liver and kidney functions and antioxidant status. Results: Palatability and acceptability of cookies were insured via the sensory evaluation results. The value of peroxide number indicated that there is no possibility of rancidity during the storage. The cookies showed high contents of protein (14.88%), fat (16.83%) and carbohydrate (55.1%). Also cookies showed acceptable levels of amino acids, minerals and vitamins that meet a large amount of daily requirements of children. Results of the animal experiment declared the complete safety of the cookies and high nutritional and biological quality. Conclusion: Cookies can serve as a meal for the governmental school children to provide them with their needs from nutrients that reducing hunger and improving health benefits and scholastic achievement.
Research Article
Risk Factors and Microbiological Studies on Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Pneumonia Patients of Quetta Balochistan
Summaiya Baloch, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Imran Taj, Ghulam Muhammad, Abdul Aziz, Wajid Ali, Firdous Bugti, Nasir Ahmed Rind, Farooq Shehzad and Saeed Ahmed Essote
Background and Objective: Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan in children under 5 years of age and older adults. Therefore; the present research was design to study the different microbiological aspects of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Materials and Methods: A total of 480 sputum samples were collected from pneumonia patient at different government hospitals of Quetta. The detail of patient’s gender, age, economical status and educational status were taken on performa. Sputum samples were inoculated into selective strep agar Streptococcus pneumonia colonies were observed on plates and confirmed through different biochemical tests and PCR. Results: Total 480 samples were collected in which 36.6% were Streptococcus pneumoniae positive and 63.3% were negative. The sex wise ratio showed that female (24.10%) were more affected with pneumoniae as compare to male (12.50%). The pneumonia infection age wise distribution was 9% in 1-10 years old patients, 16% in 10-20 years old patients and 11% in 20-30 years old patients. The status wise distribution of pneumonia infection showed that lower class (16%) was more affected as compare to middle class and higher class of Quetta. The percentage of pneumonia infection in hazara race was 14%, in Pathan 8.30%, in Punjabi 7.60% and in Baloch 6.60%. It was seen that illiterate patients were more affected with pneumonia infection (28.3%) than literate (8.3%). The Streptococcus pneumoniae was confirmed through gram staining, different biochemical tests, different sugar fermentation tests and PCR. Whereas confirmed by PCR showed clear band of 329 kb of ply gene. Conclusion: It was concluded that the rate of pneumonia infection was high in female and lower class was more affected with pneumonia.

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