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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

Editor-in-Chief:  Hakan Ulukan
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Research Article
Dynamic of Bacterial Diversity in Ileum Digesta Under Water Supplements of Antibiotics and Probiotics
Raed MahmoudAl-Atiyat
Background and Objective: Intestinal bacteria plays an important role in the physiological and immunological status of birds. The present study investigated the diversity of intestinal bacterial of broilers that were fed corn-soy diet and supplements of antibiotics and probiotics. Materials and Methods: The supplemented treatments were water, water with antibiotics, water with probiotic and water with antibiotics and probiotic. Eight randomly sampled broilers were slaughtered and their ileum digesta taken. The total of 32 samples was then subjected for DNA extraction. Subsequently, bacterial tag-encoded 16 FLX ampliconpyro sequencing (bTEFAP) procedures were performed. Results: Nearly all treatments samples contained Lactobacillus, with the majority related to water with probiotic treatment. In contrast, different pathogenic bacteria along with Lactobacillus observed for other three treatments. Conclusion: The probiotics supplements made a shift towards useful bacterial species; Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus aviarius. This study promoted for replacing the probiotics as a prophylaxis in gastrointestinal infection and diseases instead of antibiotics.
Research Article
Morphometric Characteristics of Asian Catfish, Hemibagrus wyckii (Bleeker, 1858) (Bagridae), from the Riau Province of Indonesia
Netti Aryani, Saberina Hasibuan, Ainul Mardiah and Hafrijal Syandri
Background and Objective: Asian Catfish (Hemibagrus wyckii) is an important fish having both food and a high price in the market. These species are categorized as a carnivorous freshwater finfish native in Indonesia and is vulnerable to endangered status. This study was carried out to identify the morphometric characteristics of Hemibagrus wyckii (H. wyckii) from the Koto Panjang Reservoir, Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri rivers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five fish were collected from each sampling site. The morphometric characteristics were analyzed using the truss morphometric method. Twenty-nine characteristics were measured to obtain the morphometric characteristics of this species. Morphometric data of H. wyckii were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (SPSS version 17.0). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between different factors and morphometric characteristics. The distribution across different habitats was measured by component canonical analysis (CCA) and genetic distance was analyzed by hierarchical cluster. Results: The average standard lengths of H. wyckii from the Koto Panjang Reservoir, Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri rivers (Mean±SD) were 428±15.78, 432.52±66.11 and 425.86±50.41 mm, respectively. Twenty-nine morphometric characteristics were measured. There was a 68.96% difference obtained in samples collected at the Koto Panjang Reservoir and Kampar Kanan river. There was a 95.55% difference obtained in the Koto Panjang Reservoir, Kampar Kiri river and a 100% difference obtained in the Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri rivers. The main differences in morphometric characteristics included inter orbital distance, length of adipose-fin base, predorsal length, length of front dorsal fin-front pelvic and depth of caudal peduncle. The Mahalanobis distance between fish from the Koto Panjang Reservoir and Kampar Kanan river demonstrated that both types originated from a single population. Conclusion: It was concluded that more favorable morphometric characteristics of H. wyckii were found in the Kampar Kanan river compared to those from the Koto Panjang Reservoir and Kampar Kiri river.
Research Article
Hematological and Mineral Profiles of Reproductive Failure of Exotic Breed Cattle in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Yuherman , Reswati , Yulianti Fitri Kurnia, Indahwati and Khalil
Background and Objective: Female exotic breed cattle raised by traditional small farms are susceptible to reproductive disturbances that result in failure or delay to produce calves. The present research investigated the hematologic profiles of exotic breed cattle having reproductive troubles versus heifers and pregnant cows raised by small farms. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted to identify the reproduction performance of 160 female Simmental cows raised at 15 smallholders in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Samples of blood were collected from 15 female Simmentals comprised of three different reproductive statues (heifers, pregnant and reproductive failure, n = 5 animals each). Blood plasma was then separated and analyzed for hematological parameters [hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, red and white blood cell, mean corpuscular Hb concentration], total protein and mineral content (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn). Samples of fodder feed were collected from 15 farms for determination of dominant species and mineral composition. Data were statistically analyzed in a completely randomized 3×5 design for blood parameters and 4×3 design for forage minerals. Results: About one-third of female cows found to have reproductive problems. Anestrus was found to be the most important causal factor for reproductive failure, followed by postpartum infertility (poor fertilization). The reproductive failure group had significantly lower (p<0.05) Hb levels, hematocrit, red and white blood cell and protein but higher mean corpuscular Hb concentration. Considering the critical levels in the blood and feed, the animals were deficient in protein, Ca, P, Mn and Cu. Conclusion: Anestrus and repeated insemination were found to be the major causes of reproductive disorders in exotic breed cattle under small farm conditions that results in delay or failure to produce calves. Reproductive disturbances in Simmental cows were most likely associated with nutrient deficiencies.
Research Article
Polymorphism of Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Subunit Catalytic (GCLC) Gene in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients
Ari Yuniastuti, R. Susanti and Dewi Mustikaningtyas
Background and Objective: The biomarker of oxidative stress in pulmonary tuberculosis patients has not been found. Oxidative stress occurs due to the low level of antioxidants. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutamate-cysteine ligase subunit catalytic (GCLC) gene namely -129C/T GCLC has been reported to have an association with a risk factor of oxidative stress’ susceptibility. The Objective of this study was to determine the GCLC polymorphism in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patient. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 225 pulmonary TB patients were taken from the central public health in Semarang city. The genetic test was carried out using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The isolation of DNA from 225 blood samples was performed using DNA extraction kit (Promega DNA purification kit) following the manufacturing procedure. The amplification of GCLC fragment was performed by a master mix from Thermo Scientific. Data was analyzed descriptively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square test. Results: The results showed the existence of polymorphism-129C/T in the 5’-flanking region of GCLC genes. The frequency of C/C and C/T genotype were 63.6 and 36.4%, respectively. The C/T gene in the GCLC -129C region is a T gene promoter. There was a significant different between C/C and C/T frequencies with the value of significance of p = 0.000 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Therefore it was concluded that the frequency of C/T polymorphism genotype of GCLC gene in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is 36.4%.

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