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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

Editor-in-Chief:  Hakan Ulukan
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Review Article
Identification and Management Challenges Associated with Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith), Causal Agent of Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato in Sub-Saharan Africa
Agatha Aloyce, Patrick Alois Ndakidemi and Ernest Rashid Mbega
Tomato is the world’s most consumed vegetable crop after potato and it is source of vitamins, minerals, fiber, lycopene, β-carotene and income. Despite its significant importance tomato can heavily be attacked by different pathogens including Ralstonia solanacearum that incites bacteria wilt disease. The disease is very devastating causing a considerable yield loss worldwide. The pathogen can survive in plant debris, infected plants and host weeds and spread from one field to another by irrigation or flood water, soil, farm equipment and workers and weeds which usually grow along waterways and it is difficult to manage due to complication in biology, nature of infestation and wide host range. In areas like the Sub-Saharan Africa where there exists a wide diversity of plant species, the pathogen becomes even more difficult to manage. It is on this basis that this review article, clearly discusses challenges for bacterial wilt disease identification and management in tomato farming systems with respect to the diagnosis methods used, pathogen genetic diversity and host range and pathogen survival mechanisms under different environment. The information will empower the responsible personnel involved in tomato production chain to have clear information about the pathogen and management options available against the disease in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Research Article
Quality Evaluation of Bakasang Processed with Variation of Salt Concentration, Temperature and Fermentation Time
Feti Fatimah, Johanis J. Pelealu, Sanusi Gugule, Hendrika V. Yempormase and Trina E. Tallei
Background and Objective: Production of bakasang in North Sulawesi has not been standardized. Local people still produce it without considering the optimal conditions and the fermentation is done in a simple way. The fish viscera is traditionally fermented inside a bottle with addition of salt and incubated under the sun for a few days until it turns into a liquid. In this present study, the quality of bakasang was assessed during various fermentation condition. Materials and Methods: The viscera of fresh cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis) fish was fermented under various temperatures (30, 50 and 70°C) for 5, 10 and 15 days with the addition of 10, 20 and 30% of salt. The property of quality included pH, moisture content, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) of the bakasang product. Results: The results of this study indicated that moisture content ranged from 16.42-77.98%. Moisture content decreased with increasing the salinity, fermentation temperature and fermentation time. The pH of bakasang ranged from 5.66-6.73. The pH of bakasang decreased with the increasing salinity. The FFA level ranged from 1.42-5.18, it increased with increasing fermentation time but decreased with increasing fermentation temperature and increased salt level. The TBA (expressed in malondialdehyde/MDA) level varied from 0.53-4.81 g/100 g, it decreased with increasing salinity and fermentation temperature but decreased with increasing fermentation time. Conclusion: The data revealed that based on the property of quality, the best product was bakasang produced using salt 20-30% at 70°C which was fermented for 15 days.
Research Article
Possible Protective Role of Parsley Extract on the Diabetic Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses
Mervat Ahmed Abd Rabou and Fatma Ahmed Eid
Background and Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one form of diabetes. It causes obstetrical complications and affects between 5-18% of all pregnancies and leads to congenital malformations and long-term postnatal disorders. Supportive therapy in treatment of diabetes during pregnancy takes place by anti-diabetic plants such as parsley. The current study has been undertaken to investigate the possible anti-diabetic and antioxidant role of aqueous parsley extract on streptozotocin (STZ) induced gestational diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty pregnant albino rats were categorized after mating into five groups: group C (control group), group D1 (pregnant rats injected with interperitoneally single dose of STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.) in the 1st day of gestation, group D1+P: Pregnant rats were treated with parsley extract (1 m/150 g b.wt.) from the 1st to the 19th day of gestation post injection with STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.), group D7: Pregnant rats were injected with STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.) on day 7of gestation, group D7+P: Pregnant rats were treated with parsley extract (1 m/150 g b.wt.) from the 7th to the 19th day of gestation post injection with STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.). The pregnant rats were dissected on the 19th day of pregnancy and the uterine horns were removed freshly and then photographed. Abnormalities or any morphological changes were recorded, weight of fetuses and placenta and placental index were determined. Blood samples were collected to estimate the glucose and biochemical parameters of the main kidney functions. Also, kidney samples of fetuses were taken for the histopathological study. Results: Fetuses of the diabetic mothers showed some developmental changes such as very thin skin, very thin muscle layer under the skin, absence of eyelid and ear pinna, exencephaly and kyphosis. On the other hand, fetuses of the diabetic mothers which were treated with parsley leaves extract showed somewhat normal morphological development. According to the biochemical histopathological observations, the parsley leaf extract succeeded to minimize the drastic changes, which were observed in the diabetic rats and their fetuses. Conclusion: Administration of the parsley leaf extract has the ability to minimize the damage of hyperglycemia.
Research Article
Persistency and Seed Breaking Dormancy on Local Upland Rice of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
Gusti Ayu Kade Sutariati, Norma Arif, Muhidin , Tresjia Corina Rakian, La Mudi and Nuralam
Background and Objective: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a very important food crop in Indonesia. The development of upland rice becomes an alternative solution to meet the national rice needs. Upland rice productivity is lower than wetland rice, one of the causes is the use of low-vigor seeds. The seeds derived from previous harvest seed and newly harvested rice seedlings have physiological dormancy. Physiological dormancy relates to seed persistency. The study aimed to evaluate the persistence and development of invigoration technique to break seed dormancy of upland rice. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted at the Agronomy Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Halu Oleo University. Research was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 6 treatments namely: A0 (without treatment), A1 (KNO3 1%), A2 (ground brick matri-conditioning+Bacillus sp., CKD061), A3 (ground burned-rice husk matri-conditioning+Bacillus sp., CKD061), A4 (ground brick matri-conditioning+Bacillus sp., CKD061+KNO3 1%) and A5 (ground burned-rice husk matri-conditioning+Bacillus sp., CKD061+KNO3 1%). Results: The results showed that upland rice cultivars from Southeast Sulawesi have varying dormancy. The persistence of seed dormancy evaluated are Pae Parigi 2 is 8 weeks, Pae Parigi 1 is 9 weeks, Pae Kulibungka is 10 weeks, Pae Masaraha is 12 weeks and Pae Rowu is 16 weeks. Conclusion: Application of seed bio-invigoration treatment was able to break seed dormancy of local upland rice of cv. Pae Parigi 2 with the best treatment was using KNO3 1%+ground brick+Bacillus sp., CKD061.
Research Article
Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Sarcocolla Gum Resin
Ibtisam Mohammed Ababutain
Background and Objective: Searching for a new antimicrobial agent is a significant challenge because of increasing resistance of microbes to antibiotics. Because plants are an inexpensive source of rich metabolic substances that are highly efficient, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Sarcocolla gum resin extracted from Astragalus sarcocolla root and its phytochemicals. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the antimicrobial activity of Sarcocolla gum resin has not previously been reported. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of Sarcocolla gum resin was evaluated using a well diffusion assay. The effect of water and ethanol extracts in various concentrations (20, 40 and 60%) against the growth of pathogenic bacteria and yeast were tested. Results: The results showed that the lower concentration (20%) of water and ethanol extracts had no inhibitory effect on any of the tested microbes except Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 29213. However, an antimicrobial effect of water and ethanol extracts was observed on most tested microbes at higher concentrations (40 and 60%). The S. aureus ATCC 29213 was resistant to all ethanol extract concentrations. In contrast, S. aureus ATCC 29213 was inhibited by water extracts at all concentrations tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were estimated using a 2-fold dilution method and MIC values were between 12.5-25 μg mL–1. Phytochemical screening was performed using standard procedures that showed the presence of sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins. Conclusion: This study showed that Sarcocolla gum resin extract possesses high antimicrobial activity that depends on the solvent type, the concentration of plant extract and the microbe type. These results provide a new source of antimicrobial that may be useful in the manufacture of antibiotics.
Research Article
Study of Genetic Diversity on Six Species of Indonesian Coelogyne spp. Based on ISSR Markers
Sri Hartati
Background and Objective: Almost all of Coelogyne species from Indonesia are epiphytic. Some of these are facing the extincion and need to be conserved through plant breeding programs. Unfortunately, there are not many research reports on the genetic diversity of orchids which are substantial for genetic conservation and plant breeding program. The study aimed to identify the genetic diversity of some important species of genus Coelogyne spp., performed using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular marker. Materials and Methods: The DNA of six orchid species from the genus of Coleogyne spp. was separated and served as samples in the PCR amplification reaction using 10 ISSR primers. Results: This study found that using six orchid species from the genus of Coelogyne spp. (C. pandurata, C. massangeana, C. mayeriana, C. asperata, C. celebensis and C. rumphii ), the ISSR primers yielded as many as 106 amplified fragments which varied in size from 250-3000 bp. Conclusion: Moreover, this study showed that the polymorphic amplification bands reached as high as 98.9% and the similarity coefficient of the six orchid species studied revolved between 0.32-0.70, meaning that the genetic diversity of the orchid species studied was spread out between 0.30-0.68.

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