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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

Editor-in-Chief:  Hakan Ulukan
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Research Article
Investigation on Inhibitory Potential of Myrmecodia tuberosa on Quorum Sensing-related Pathogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I Strains
Triana Hertiani, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Maya Indra Rihardini and Putri Khaerani Cahyaningrum
Background and Objectives: Tuber of Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack (Rubiaceae) has been widely used as herbal remedy in Indonesia. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of M. tuberosa Jack on quorum-sensing related pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Material and Methods: Following delipidation with petroleum ether, pulverized tuber was macerated in methanol. After evaporation to obtain methanol extract, liquid-liquid partition was perform on the extract to yield hexane, ethyl acetate and water fractions. The extract and fractions were screened for the effects on the planktonic growth of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Inhibition of pigment production was observed on cetrimide Agar following sample treatment on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples were prepared as 2-0.0625 mg mL–1 concentration. The effects on swimming, swarming and twitching motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 following sample application were observed. All experiments were done in triplicate. Results: Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction caused a prominent effect on quorum sensing inhibition which might explain its biofilm inhibition effect on P. aeruginosa. Significant inhibitory effect in a concentration dependent manner towards pigment production inhibitor and motilities were observed over control. Conclusion: Despite being active as planktonic growth inhibitor towards S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, M. tuberosa ethyl acetate fraction is recommended to be investigated further as anti-infective against P. aeruginosa.
Research Article
Effect of Partial Substitution of Ration’s Soybean Meal by Biologically Treated Feathers on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics (in vitro)
Siham A. Ismail, Azza M. Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed A. Emran, Hossam H. Azzaz, Mamdouh S. El-Gamal and Amal M. Hashem
Background and Objective: Feather wastes are the most abundant keratinous material in the nature and its accumulation causes multiple environmental problems. Nutritive value upgrading of such wastes through biological treatments may provide ruminant's rations with high quality and cost effective source of protein. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential uses of biologically treated feathers (BTF) as a feedstuff for ruminants through in vitro experiments. Materials and Methods: Keratinase production time course was performed by ten microbial isolates (3 fungal, 3 actinomyces and 4 bacterial isolates) under static and shaking conditions using turkey feather- synthetic medium. The chemical composition and amino acid analysis for the crude feathers, BTF and soybean meal were determined according to AOAC methods. Two in vitro experiments were conducted to study the effects of crude feathers, BTF and modified ruminant rations (in which soybean meal were substituted by the BTF in 10, 20 and 30%) on rumen fermentation characteristics. Ration’s Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and Acid detergent Fibre (ADF) degradability by rumen microorganisms were tested using batch culture technique. Ruminal final pH, ammonia-nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids and short chain fatty acids concentrations were determined after 24 h of incubation. The total gas production volume was determined using 100 mL glass syringes. Results: Bacillus licheniformis ALW1 was the most potent keratinase producer strain under static condition at 37°C for four days of incubation. Feather biological treatment by Bacillus licheniformis increased its content of some of essential-sulphur amino acids. The degradability of BTF by rumen microorganisms was 4 folds higher than crude feather degradability. There were no significant differences between control and partially substituted (R10 and R20) rations in all of rumen fermentation characteristics. Conclusion: The utilization of BTF as substitute for costly soybean meal in ruminant’s rations up to 20% had no negative effect on all rumen fermentation characteristics.
Research Article
Cq1 Exon Polymorphisms in Caucasian and African American Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients
Fawzi Irshaid Irshaid and Daniel Joseph Birmingham
Background: C1q protein is composed of three protein chains (A, B and C) that are the products of separate genes. Genetic deficiencies in C1Q genes are important factors influencing the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of the C1Q genes with SLE. Methods: To search for potential SNPs in the encoding regions of C1q A, B and C chains, Cq1 exons were initially amplified and directly sequenced from leukocyte DNA from a subset of Caucasian and African American SLE patients and healthy controls. The sequences were analyzed by the Phrap and Phred software analysis system and the SNPs were identified by visual inspection. To test if any of these SNPs were linked to susceptibility to SLE, they were measured in 210 SLE patients ((59 African Americans and 151 Caucasians) and 129 matched healthy controls (55 African Americans and 74 Caucasians) by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results: The sequencing phase of the study identified three synonymous SNPs: Nucleotide 276G>A in C1QA, 66C>A in C1QB and 129G>A in C1QC. Statistically, no differences were found in genotype or allele frequencies between patients and controls for the 276G>A or 66C>A SNP. However, in Caucasians, the frequencies of the 129G>A genotypes were significantly different between SLE patients and controls (P = 0.005), specifically with the GG genotype being over represented in the controls (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The results show that the homozygous 129GG genotype is associated with protection against SLE onset. This protection is race dependent, being observed in Caucasians but not African Americans. The mechanism of this association is currently unclear.
Review Article
Health Implications Associated with Aspartame Consumption: A Substantial Review
Ab Qayoom Naik, Tabassum Zafar and Vinoy K Shrivastava

Aspartame, an artificial sweetening agent belongs to dipeptide chemical category with a very strong sweetening potential. Although research findings in humans and non-human primates have demonstrated numerous negative effects of aspartame (biochemical, histological, neurological, behavioral, genetic etc)., the status of aspartame is still debatable. Present manuscript is a critical review of the substantial research findings related to aspartame intake on different research models. Purpose of this review was to spread the awareness about adverse effect of aspartame intake to outline the occurrence of health issues among the population. The process of uptake, storage, compartmentalization and distribution of aspartame within the body is associated with metabolic disorders and various clinical conditions. Available research literature indicates that higher amount of aspartame ingestion should be monitored carefully to avoid health implication within society.

Review Article
Immunotherapy a New Hope for Cancer Treatment: A Review
Fatemeh Nouri Rouzbahani, Mohammad Shirkhoda, Feridon Memari, Hassan Dana, Ghanbar Mahmoodi Chalbatani, Habibollah Mahmoodzadeh, Nasim Samarghandi, Elahe Gharagozlou, Mohammad Hosein Mohammadi Hadloo, Ali Reza Maleki, Ehsan Sadeghian, ElhamZainali Nia, Nedazainali Nia, Farimah Hadjilooei, Omid Rezaeian, Saeed Meghdadi, SeyedRohollah Miri, Fatameh Jafari, Elham Rayzan and Vahid Marmari
Cancer is a major burden of disease worldwide with considerable impact on society. The tide of immunotherapy has finally changed after decades of disappointing results and has become a clinically validated treatment for many cancers. Immunotherapy takes many forms in cancer treatment, including the adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T cells, oncolytic viruses, natural killer cells, cancer vaccines and administration of antibodies or recombinant proteins that either costimulate cells or block the so-called immune checkpoint pathways. Recently, cancer immunotherapy has received a high degree of attention, which mainly contains the treatments for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed death 1 (PD-1), chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Here, this paper reviewed the current understandings of the main strategies in cancer immunotherapy (adoptive cellular immunotherapy, immune checkpoint blockade, oncolytic viruses and cancer vaccines) and discuss the progress in the synergistic design of immune-targeting combination therapies.

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