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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5735
pISSN: 1028-8880

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Research Article
Published on July 09, 2019
Comparative Study of the Colonization of Chromolaena and Tobacco Plants by Bacteria safensis CS4 using Different Methods of Inoculation
R.O. Anyasi, H.I. Atagana and R. Sutherland
Background and Objectives: This study entails the effectiveness of colonization of bacterial endophytes following inoculation of the cells in plants. Methodology: Different methods of inoculation including seed immersion, root immersion and foliar spray were studied on Chromolaena odorata and Nicotiana tabacum for 10, 20 and 30 days. This was to ascertain the colonization ability of the endophytic strain amongst the two set of plants. The foliar parts of the plants were assessed post inoculation for the presence of the bacteria strain, followed by the growth parameters in the plant. Significant differences at p<0.05 of colonization were established by the different inoculation methods. Results: Foliar spray demonstrated the highest colonization in both Chromolaena and tobacco plants followed by root immersion. Leaf inoculation in tobacco plant demonstrated a positive colonization which is not significant. However, seed inoculation provided colonization in Chromolaena plant at 10, 20 and 30 days post inoculation at a frequency lower than that of tobacco. With root immersion in Chromolaena, there was colonization at 10 days post inoculation, no colonization at 20 days post inoculation, but colonization re-appeared at 30 days (PI). Growth index measured demonstrated a positive relationship between the inoculation of the endophyte and the growth parameters which included stem length and germination rate. Conclusion: This study, therefore, showed that the bacteria strain B. safensis CS4 can effectively be horizontally transferred into tobacco and Chromolaena plants using different methods. Foliar spraying demonstrated the optimal colonization of the strain in the plant leaves.
Research Article
Published on July 10, 2019
Preparation and Properties Nano-encapsulated Wheat Germ Oil and its Use in the Manufacture of Functional Labneh Cheese
Tarek Nour Soliman, Atif Farrag Farrag, Hamdy Abdel-Hady Zahran and Mohamed EL-Hossieny Abd El-Salam
Background and Objective: There is a growing interest to develop novel versions of traditional dairy products by upgrading their health properties. The use of wheat germ oil (WGO) known by its health-promoting effects, in the fortification of dairy products such as Labneh represents a challenge. This study was aimed to prepare nano-encapsulated WGO and to develop Labneh enriched with nano-encapsulated WGO. Materials and Methods: The WGO was encapsulated in casein micelles by pH changes and ultra-sonication. Transmission electron microscopy and laser light scattering characterized the size and shape of the prepared WGO capsules and their zeta potential was determined. The antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of encapsulated WGO were measured. Labneh was made from standardized (3% fat) milk and by replacement 50% of milk fat with free and encapsulated WGO, respectively. Labneh was analyzed for gross composition, textural parameters, colour and sensory properties during cold storage for 20 days. Results: High encapsulation efficiency (>95%) of different levels of WGO (0.3 to 1.2%) in casein micelles was obtained. The encapsulated WGO had a spherical shape and nano sizes. The particle sizes increased with the increase of the encapsulated level of WGO. The encapsulated WGO retained high DPPH scavenging activity and exhibited high oxidative stability. Labneh made with encapsulated WGO had composition and quality comparable to the control. Conclusion: Functional Labneh of acceptable quality and high antioxidant activity could be prepared by replacement of 50% of milk fat with encapsulated WGO.
Research Article
Published on July 09, 2019
Comparison Between Insecticidal Activity of Lantana camara Extract and its Synthesized Nanoparticles Against Anopheline mosquitoes
Nawal Abd El Hafiz Hassanain, Ahmed Zeinhom Shehata, Mostafa Mohamed Mokhtar, Raafat Mohamed Shaapan, Mohey Abd El Hafiz Hassanain and Samy Zaky
Background and Objective: Malaria is still a severe health problem especially in developing countries which occur and young children are the most affected. The present study was designed to compare the insecticidal potential of Lantana camara leaves extract alone and its synthesized nanoparticles against Anopheles multicolor. Materials and Methods: Copper nanoparticles CuNPs were synthesized by green bio-reduction method using aqueous extract of leaves of Lantana camara plant. The CuNPs formation was confirmed by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and Transitional Electron Microscopy (TEM). The application of L. camara extract and its synthesized CuNPs on different stages of A. multicolor were adopted. Results: The biosynthesized CuNPs were spherical with the average sizes of 11-17.8 nm. The highest insecticidal effect (100% of larval mortality) achieved at high dose (140 ppm) of L. camara leaves extract alone comparing with that occur at low dose (20 ppm) of CuNPs synthesized L. camara leaves. The LC50 and LC90 for the 4 instar larvae were 63.5 and 119.9 ppm for plant extract alone compared to 12.6 and 18.4 ppm for CuNPs preparation. Conclusion: So, this study proved that CuNPs preparation of L. camara leaves is highly efficient compared to the plant extract alone and more economic as less quantities were used. Also, awareness against invasion of Anopheles mosquito vectors with effective preventive measures to protect from malaria infection.
Research Article
Published on July 10, 2019
Association of Platelet Integrin αIIbβ3 Polymorphisms with Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease in Sudanese Patients
Lamyaa Ali Elsidege Ali and Fathalrahman Mahdi Hassan
Background and Objective: Glycoprotein IIIa and GPIIb constitutes are the fibrinogen receptor (integrin αIIbβ3). This glycoprotein has a fundamental role in atherothrombosis. This study aimed to detect the association of αIIbβ3 polymorphisms with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease in Sudanese patients and the association between the risk factors and platelet integrin αIIbβ3 polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: This is a case-control hospital-based study contain 50 atherosclerotic patients (>18 years) with coronary heart disease that admitted to Khartoum hospital and were compared to apparently 50 healthy Sudanese subjects at the same ages. About 5 mL of venous blood sample was collected from each patient and control. The laboratory analyses were done for HbA1c, lipid profile and for DNA genotyping. Results: LDL, HDL, HbA1c and body mass index have shown highly significant influence on patients. No significant differences were observed for triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. The risks of coronary heart disease were higher with A/B genotype in HPA3, but no association detected with coronary heart disease patients in HPA1 polymorphism. Conclusion: In conclusion, HPA3 polymorphism was associated with atherosclerotic in Sudanese patients, while HPA1 polymorphism has not.
Research Article
Published on July 10, 2019
Effects of Olive Leaf Extract on Metabolic Response, Liver and Kidney Functions and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Hypertensive Patients
Hamidreza Javadi, Hayedeh Yaghoobzadeh, Zohreh Esfahani, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh and Seyyed Mehdi Mirhashemi
Background and Objective: Hypertension is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure is gradually elevated. In this project, the effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) were evaluated on metabolic response, liver and kidney functions and also biomarkers of inflammation in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial, 60 hypertensive patients, aged 30-60 years old had participated. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either OLE or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of the intervention, metabolic parameters and biomarkers of liver, kidney and inflammation were measured in sera of the participants using available laboratory methods. Results: Compared with the placebo, changes in parameters associated with glucose metabolism were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The OLE tablets did not have significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, albumin, urea and creatinine (p>0.05), but significantly decreased interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha as inflammatory biomarkers (p<0.05) in OLE group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: The results concluded that inflammation as a major cause of hypertension was significantly decreased in patients using OLE tablets.
Research Article
Published on July 12, 2019
Field Studies on Amyloodiniosis in Red Sea Cultured Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer) and Hamour (Epinephelus polyphekadion)
Hussien Abd El-Fattah Mohamed Osman, Khairi Abd El-Fattah El-Battawy, Alaa El-Deen Zakaria Abu Brayka, Ahmed Ismael Noor El-Deen, Mona Saad Zaki, Nagwa Saad Rabie and Amany Mohmed Kenawy
Background and Objective: Amyloodinium ocellatum infects the gills and skin of both marine and brackish water fishes. The aim of the present study was to examine pathogenesis, prevalence, trials for treatment and histopathological alterations of Amyloodinosis in naturally infested Asian Seabass Barramundi Lates calcarifer and Hamour Epinephelus polyphekadion in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total number of 1447 Red Sea cultured Seabass (Lates calcarifer) broadstock and a total number of 53 Red Sea cultured Hamour, Epinephelus polyphekadion broadstock were collected and subjected for the study. Fishes showed symptoms of sudden death and respiratory distress besides Amyloodiniosis on gills and skin. All fishes were treated with various treatment protocols while gills of naturally infected fishes were examined histopathologically. Results: The clinical signs of infested fishes were flashing, surfacing, off food and respiratory distress. The intensity of infestation of Amyloodiniosis was more sever in Asian Seabass than Epinephelus polyphekadion while treatment of choice was copper sulphate (prolonged bath), freshwater bath and formalin consequently. Conclusion: Treatment of choice for Amyloodinium ocellatum infestation in Asian Seabass was copper sulphate (prolonged bath) followed by freshwater bath then formalin.
Research Article
Published on July 12, 2019
Cortisol and Blood Urea Nitrogen Profiles in Fertile and Repeat-breeder Holstein-friesian Crossbred Cows
Diah Tri Widayati, Adiarto , Budi Prasetyo Widyobroto and Yustina Yuni Suranindyah
Background and Objective: Repeat breeding, in which conception fails after repeated inseminations is a major problem in the dairy industry that leads to economic losses. To examine the role of stress under this condition, this study was conducted to evaluate cortisol and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in fertile and repeat-breeder Holstein-friesian crossbred cows in smallholder farms. Materials and Methods: Thirty cows were divided into two groups: Fertile and repeat-breeder cows, with 15 cows per group. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein at night, 8 h after feeding, once in the oestrus phase during two oestrus cycles and cortisol levels were analyzed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a commercial kit. The BUN was analyzed by the urease and glutamate dehydrogenase method. Results: Significant differences in cortisol and BUN levels were observed between fertile and repeat-breeder cows. Cortisol levels were higher in the repeat-breeder group (6.860±1.427 ng mL1) compared to those in the fertile group (3.145±1.103 ng mL1). Furthermore, BUN levels were also higher in repeat-breeder cows (31.45±4.70 mg dL1) than in fertile cows (27.30±2.69 mg dL1). Conclusion: Cortisol and BUN levels above the normal range may contribute to repeat breeding in Holstein-friesian crossbred cows.

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